Iranian Pistachio Research Institute

Rafsanjān, Iran

Iranian Pistachio Research Institute

Rafsanjān, Iran
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Esmaeili M.,Iranian Pistachio Research Institute | Yolmeh M.,Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources | Shakerardakani A.,Iranian Pistachio Research Institute | Golivari H.,Damghan University
Biocatalysis and Agricultural Biotechnology | Year: 2015

In the present study, the producing condition of lipase and protease from Bacillus subtilis PTCC 1720 was optimized by response surface methodology (RSM). A central composite design (CCD) was used to evaluate the interactive effect of the enzyme production conditions on the lipase activity (LA), protease activity (PA) and biomass of B. subtilis PTCC 1720. Independent variables including temperature, sucrose, peptone, and corn oil concentration were studied. According to the results, the optimal enzyme production condition was achieved with temperature of 43.4. °C, sucrose of 20. g/L, peptone of 20. g/L, and corn oil of 4. mL/L. In this conditions the LA, PA, and biomass were predicted 3.16. U/mL, 1744.6. U/mL, and 3.03. g/L, respectively. The experimental and predicted values of the LA, PA, and biomass show a good agreement with one another, with a high degree of accuracy of the models. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.

Arabnezhad H.,Isfahan University of Technology | Bahar M.,Isfahan University of Technology | Pour A.T.,Iranian Pistachio Research Institute
Scientia Horticulturae | Year: 2011

To evaluate the genetic relationships among wild and cultivated Pistacia species grown in Iran and the analysis of genetic variation among Iranian pistachio genotypes, two DNA libraries enriched for dinucleotide (AG) n and trinucleotide (ATG) n microsatellite motifs were developed from Pistacia khinjuk genome. Following screening of clones by colony PCR technique, 44 clones were sequenced and 27 pairs of primers designed from flanking regions of the repeats. The examination of primer pairs, designed from P. khinjuk sequences, showed successful cross-species amplification within the genus Pistacia. A dendrogram constructed on the basis of the Minimum Evolution clustering algorithm revealed that Pistacia vera has closer relationships with P. khinjuk, than with Pistacia integerrima, Pistacia palaestina, Pistacia atlantica and Pistacia mutica. The dendrogram further distinguished the wild Sarakhs pistachio from the rest of P. vera genotypes suggesting that the domesticated genotypes of P. vera are evolved from P. vera var. Sarakhs and then this wild genotype likely develops to other local pistachios. Hence, it seems that the wild Sarakhs pistachio plays an important role in evolutionary trend of the edible pistachios in Iran. The results indicated that microsatellites developed in P. khinjuk are distributed in the genome of indigenous pistachio species including P. vera genotypes and therefore they will be useful in characterization of Iranian pistachio genotypes. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

Shakerardekani A.,Iranian Pistachio Research Institute | Karim R.,University Putra Malaysia | Ghazali H.M.,University Putra Malaysia | Chin N.L.,University Putra Malaysia
Journal of Food Science | Year: 2013

Pistachio nut (Pistacia vera L.) is one of the most delicious and nutritious nuts in the world. Pistachio spreads were developed using pistachio paste as the main component, icing sugar, soy protein isolate (SPI), and red palm oil (RPO), at different ratios. The highest mean scores of all the sensory attributes were depicted by spreads that were made without addition of SPI. It was found that the work of shear was 0 to 11.0 kg s for an acceptable spread. Sensory spreadability, overall texture, spreadability, and overall acceptability were negatively correlated (R > 0.83) with the work of shear of spreads. The findings indicated that the presence of RPO had a direct effect on the viscoelastic behavior of the pistachio spreads. The a values, which are related to the green color of the pistachio product ranged from 1.7 to 3.9 for spread without addition of RPO, and 4.0 to 5.3 in the presence of RPO. © 2013 Institute of Food Technologists®.

Khatamidoost Z.,Guilan University | Jamali S.,Guilan University | Moradi M.,Iranian Pistachio Research Institute | Saberi Riseh R.,Vali r University of Rafsanjan
Biocontrol Science and Technology | Year: 2015

The role of some Iranian strains of Pseudomonas spp. as biocontrol agents against Meloidogyne incognita and their ability to colonise pistachio roots was investigated. The results of in vitro experiments indicated that all tested bacteria produced significant suppression of M. incognita and showed that all strains were able to kill M. incognita juveniles with strain VUPf428 achieving about 99% mortality at 72 h. The results of in vivo treatments indicated that the best strains that could build high populations in soil infested with nematodes were VUPf5, VUPf52 and VUPf205. These isolates also caused highest reduction in galling and nematode multiplication in a greenhouse test although all strains native to Iran could colonise pistachio roots in pots. Some strains could produce secondary metabolites such as siderophores, proteases and volatile metabolites at high population levels. © 2014, Taylor & Francis.

Hashemi Rad H.,Iranian Pistachio Research Institute
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2011

The pistachio green stink bugs are the most important pests in the pistachio growing areas. The egg parasitoids are considerable biocontrol agents. Five species of egg parasitoid of the Scelionid family were collected from pistachio pentatomid bug eggs. Trissolcus agriope and Psix sp. are the dominant species in the pistachio orchards in Kerman province. In order to detect the percentage of parasitism by T. agriope and Psix sp. on the eggs of Brachynema signatum, Acrosternum heegeri, Croantha ornatula and Graphosoma lineatum, parasitic eggs were collected from nature. Then, for detection of daily parasitism, 100 eggs of different host bugs for 24 hours, were offered to one of each egg parasitoid species. In order to detect the host preference, 50 eggs of each wasp species for 24 hours, were offered to one of the each parasitoid. For detection of the male copulation capability, first male emergences of each egg parasitoids wasp were exposed to 30 female and then this female released on the one newly egg mass. In order to detect the most suitable age of bug eggs for parasitism, 50 eggs with different ages were offered to one of each parasitoid species. For detection of sex ratio, individual and 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30 egg mass of each bugs were offered to one pair of each parasitoid species. The experiments were carried out under controlled conditions (28 ± 1°C, 65 ± 5% and 16 h L: 8 h D). The results show that, highest egg parasitism by the Psix sp. and T. agriope belonging to C. ornatula and B. signatum egg mass with 216.51 and 209.11 egg with 18 day longevity, respectively. The results of host preference experiments indicate that, percentage parasitism each of egg parasitoids on the B. signatum, A. heegeri and C. ornatula no significant differences, but on the C. ornatula have significant differences. Highest percentage of parasitism in the all of bugs occurred in 24 h old eggs and after 36 hours the percentage of parasitism decreases extremely. Highest copulation of T. agriope and Psix sp. obtained on the C. ornatula eggs with 25.5 and 27.25 female respectively. Sex ratio increases with number of eggs in egg mass. Data obtained show that T. agriope population on the B. signatum eggs with higher growth and reproduction rates and lower growth time were a more efficient host than the other bugs.

Shakerardekani A.,Iranian Pistachio Research Institute | Karim R.,University Putra Malaysia | Ghazali H.M.,University Putra Malaysia | Chin N.L.,University Putra Malaysia
JAOCS, Journal of the American Oil Chemists' Society | Year: 2013

Pistachio nut (Pistacia vera L.) is one of the most delicious and nutritious nuts in the world. In this study, monoglycerides (0.0-1.5 %) as lipophilic emulsifiers were used to prevent oil separation in pistachio spread A (containing 50.0 % pistachio paste, 30.0 % icing sugar and 20.0 % red palm oil) and B (containing 58.3 % pistachio paste, 25.0 % icing sugar and 16.7 % red palm oil). Changes in rheological behavior of pistachio spreads were investigated. The highest work of shear (which indicates spreadability) was observed in Formulations A and B containing 1.5 % monoglycerides. Addition of emulsifier significantly (P < 0.05) influenced the consistency index (K), thixotropic area (A), yield stress (τ 0) and coefficient correlation (R) of pistachio spreads. All the pistachio spreads that contained emulsifier exhibited a higher storage modulus (G′) than the loss modulus (G″). © 2013 AOCS.

Moazenpour Kermani M.,Iranian Pistachio Research Institute | Hokmabadi H.,Iranian Pistachio Research Institute
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2012

In Rafsanjan (Iran) area (including Rafsanjan, East and West suburbs, Koshkueieh, Anar, Noogh, and Kabootarkhan) by review of local map of desired mentioned location, and the existing result of water sample analysis of the area plus preliminary on-farm observations, some orchards which have had our preferred relative conditions were selected randomly. Along with these activities, feasible place for excavation of the soil profile was marked out. In another step, the writing of the soil profile description was done by teamwork of soil scientists for the depth of 0-40, 40-80 and 80-120 cm in soil profile. Soil samples were taken from above depths. The electrical conductivity (EC e) of soil extract, other routine analyzed factors and needed items for the above samples were measured in the lab. Some other data in relation to the orchard which were selected and samples gathered too. These items were general questions about the orchard management parameters. The obtained data together with general information about the orchards were processed in Excel media. In this software, desired charts and figures were analyzed by linear regression method. This curve display and its process were also done by the use of SPSS, SAS, and other needed ones. As a whole the results reveal that: - Salinity threshold (here defined as the average soil salinity of 40-120 cm of soil profile layer after which yield decreases) for pistachio is 8.65 for ECe and 4.2 (about 4) dS m-1 for irrigation water (EC iw). The above mention yield was related to almond-shape pistachio cultivars such as 'Akbari' or 'Ahmadaghaei'. - The obtained results also showed that the reasonable orchard management, especially amount of irrigation water, is able to change the yield amount considerably in saline conditions. We should keep in mind that obtained results are general relationships and their precise amounts are greatly dependent on specific conditions of regional orchards.

Shakerardekani A.,Iranian Pistachio Research Institute | Karim R.,University Putra Malaysia | Ghazali H.M.,University Putra Malaysia | Chin N.L.,University Putra Malaysia
International Journal of Molecular Sciences | Year: 2013

Tree nuts are rich in macro and micronutrients, phytochemicals, tocopherols and phenolic compounds. The development of nut spreads would potentially increase the food uses of nuts and introduce consumers with a healthier, non-animal breakfast snack food. Nut spreads are spreadable products made from nuts that are ground into paste. Roasting and milling (particle size reduction) are two important stages for the production of nut spreads that affected the textural, rheological characteristic and overall quality of the nut spread. Textural, color, and flavor properties of nut spreads play a major role in consumer appeal, buying decisions and eventual consumption. Stability of nut spreads is influenced by its particle size. Proper combination of ingredients (nut paste, sweetener, vegetable oil and protein sources) is also required to ensure a stable nut spread product is produced. Most of the nut spreads behaved like a non-Newtonian pseudo-plastic fluid under yield stress which help the producers how to start pumping and stirring of the nut spreads. Similar to other high oil content products, nut spreads are susceptible to autoxidation. Their oxidation can be controlled by application of antioxidants, using processing techniques that minimize tocopherol and other natural antioxidant losses. © 2013 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

Alipour H.,Iranian Pistachio Research Institute | Ghafari Movafagh F.,Iranian Pistachio Research Institute
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2012

Aflatoxins are highly toxic and carcinogenic secondary fungal metabolites and have been detected in various food commodities including pistachio nuts. It seems that application of inappropriate managing methods in orchards, such as incorrect fertilizer application may cause aggravation of yield to Aspergillus flavus contamination. With the aim to determine the best poultry manure application in orchard, this research was designed in randomized complete block with three replicates. The treatments were application of poultry manure to fertilizer channel, to soil surface and control. The results indicated application of poultry manure to fertilizer channel caused reduction in percentage of blank fruits, increase of split nuts and increase in nut size. In specimens obtained from applications of poultry manure to fertilizer channel treatment, no aflatoxin was detected, but in some specimens of control treatment and whole specimens applications of poultry manure to soil surface treatment, aflatoxins B1 and B2 were observed.

Alaei H.,Vali e Asr University of Rafsanjan | Mohammadi A.H.,Iranian Pistachio Research Institute | Dehghani A.,Agricultural and Natural Resources Research Center of Iran
Phytopathologia Mediterranea | Year: 2012

Eleven samples of the most important pistachio rust (caused by Pileolaria terebinthi (DC.) Cast.,), which causes disease on Beneh (Pistacia atlantica Desf. subsp. mutica (Fisch. & Mey.) Rech. F) and Kasoor (Pistacia khinjuk Stocks.), were collected from herbarium specimens and pistachio fields at the Pistachio Research Institute in Rafsanjan, Iran. The complete sequences of ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacers ITS1 and ITS2 (rDNA ITS) from the samples were determined and analysed. In general, very little rDNA ITS sequence variation was observed between rDNA ITS sequences of P. terebinthi samples. The length of the PCR fragments was 621 bp (for ITS1F-ITS4) and 1177 bp (for ITS1F-rust1), and consisted of 67 bp at the 3' end of 18S rDNA, 93 bp of ITS1 region, 154 bp of 5.8S rDNA, 246 bp of the ITS2 region, 57 bp (for ITS1F-ITS4) and 613 bp (for ITS1F-rust1) at the 5' end of the 28S rDNA. Restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) of the rDNA-ITS region were used to identify Pileolaria terebinthi. Three strong bands of 105, 134 and 381 bp and five bands of 105, 134, 200, 301 and 437 bp are observed for the fragment of "ITS1F-ITS4" and "ITS1F-rust1", respectively. A PCR-RFLP diagnostic technique provided effective identification of the species by a unique pattern with the specific restriction enzyme XapI (ApoI). © Firenze University Press.

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