Iranian Institute of Plant Protection

Āmol, Iran

Iranian Institute of Plant Protection

Āmol, Iran
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Jimenez-Mejias P.,Pablo De Olavide University | Martin-Bravo S.,Pablo De Olavide University | Amini-Rad M.,Iranian Institute of Plant Protection | Luceno M.,Pablo De Olavide University
Plant Biosystems | Year: 2014

The morphology of the Eurasian Carex acuta L. has remained poorly characterized, which has allowed its traditional usage as a taxonomic hotchpotch, in which other similar taxa have been included. In this study, we clarify the taxonomic status of C. acuta and assess the delimitation of two similar species found in the southern part of the C. acuta range: Carex panormitana Guss. and Carex kurdica Kük. ex Hand.-Mazz. To this purpose, we performed a detailed morphological study of 101 vouchers from 19 herbaria, including the type material of the three studied taxa and additional related species. Some distinct populations previously regarded as C. acuta were ascribed to C. panormitana or C. kurdica. Detailed morphological descriptions are provided for C. acuta, C. kurdica and C. panormitana. The ranges of the three taxa are revised in the Central-Eastern Mediterranean and the Middle East, and new records of C. panormitana in North Africa and of C. kurdica in Eastern Europe and Mediterranean Anatolia are presented. An epitype is proposed for C. kurdica to complement the identity of the lectotype, as this is immature. © 2014 © 2013 Societá Botanica Italiana.


Mirhaghparast S.K.,Guilan University | Zibaee A.,Guilan University | Hoda H.,Iranian Institute of Plant Protection | Fazeli-Dinan M.,Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences
Archives of Biological Sciences | Year: 2015

In the current study, two phenoloxidases (POs) from the larvae of Chilo suppressalis Walker were extracted and purified by column chromatography using Sepharyl G-100 and DEAE-Cellulose fast flow column. Two proteins possessing PO activity, named as POI and POII, were extracted by purification, 5.08- and 5.62-fold, respectively, with 8.94% and 7.31% recoveries, respectively. Also, the specific activities of POI and POII were 0.478 and 0.529 U/mg protein, respectively. Finally, the molecular weights of POI and POII were calculated as 94.6 and 95.7 kDa, respectively. Kinetic parameters of the purified phenoloxidases by Lineweaver-Burk analysis were Vmax of 2.27 and 1.11 U/mg protein and Km of 15.51 and 17.31 mM for POI and POII, respectively. Mg2+ and Cu2+ significantly increased thePO activities. Ca2+ decreased the activity of POI and showed no statistical effects on POII activity. EDTA and DTC significantly inhibited the activities of the purified enzymes, while triethylenetetramine hexaacetic acid (TTHA) and RGTA showed no significant effects on enzymatic activities.


Mirhaghparast S.K.,Guilan University | Zibaee A.,Guilan University | Sendi J.J.,Guilan University | Hoda H.,Iranian Institute of Plant Protection | Fazeli-Dinan M.,Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences
Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology | Year: 2015

Efficient control of Chilo suppressalis Walker is always controversial due to highly economic damage, resistance to insecticides and environmental pollutions. So, combination of safe pest controls e.g. biocontrol agents and insect growth regulators seems to be promising via integrated pest management program. Bioassay of hexaflumuron on 4th larval instars revealed concentrations of 44.34, 179.74 and 474.94μg/ml as LC10-50 values. Numbers of total hemocytes, plasmatocytes and granulocytes as well as phenoloxidase activity increased in the different time intervals following treatment by hexaflumuron. Combined effects of hexaflumuron and Beauveria bassiana Vuillemin also increased hemocyte numbers and phenoloxidase activity at different time intervals using all concentrations. Activities of general esterases assayed by α- and β-naphtyl acetate and glutathione S-transferase using CDNB and DCNB increased 1-12h post-treatment. Activities of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, γ-glutamyl transferase and aldolase increased in the larvae treated by hexaflumuron. However enhanced activity of lactate dehydrogenase was only obtained by treating 180 and 470μg/ml concentrations of hexaflumuron. Activities of ACP and ALP were found to be higher than control for all time intervals even 1-12h post-treatment. The amounts of HDL and LDL increased in the highest concentrations of hexaflumuron after 12-24h of post-treatment. Amount of triglyceride was higher than that of control after 1 and 3h but it was lower in other time intervals. Amounts of glycogen and protein were lower than those of control for all time intervals except for 6 and 12h of post-treatment in case of protein. Results of the current study revealed negative effects of hexaflumuron on intermediary metabolism of Chilo suppressalis but it increased the number of hemocytes and activity of phenoloxidase which are responsible for spore removal from hemolymph. It can be concluded that hexaflumuron is able to decrease survival and biological performance of C. suppressalis via intervening in intermediary metabolism but the given results showed incompatibility of the IGR with possible microbial control. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.


Mirhaghparast S.K.,Guilan University | Zibaee A.,Guilan University | Hoda H.,Iranian Institute of Plant Protection | Sendi J.J.,Guilan University
Journal of Plant Protection Research | Year: 2015

The effects of pyriproxyfen were determined on the cellular immunity and phenoloxidase activity in the 4th instar larvae of Chilo suppressalis Walker. The bioassay results revealed the effective concentrations of: 10L: 18C, 30L: 72C and 50L: 190C μg·ml-1. The sole effect of 18 and 72 μg·ml-1 concentrations at intervals of 1-3 h caused a higher number of total hemocytes in the treated larvae than the control, but the reverse results were observed after 6-24 h. The number of plasmatocytes was lower than that of the control for intervals of 3-24 h but the number of granulocytes was higher than the control after 1-3 h although no significant differences were observed at the other times. In the treated larvae, the activities of phenoloxidase were higher and lower than those of the control after 1-3 h and 6-24 h, respectively. The combined effects of pyriproxyfen and the entomopathogenic fungus, Beauveria bassiana isolate B3 caused higher numbers of total hemocytes, plasmatocytes, and granulocytes in the treated larvae by use of the three concentrations of pyriproxyfen, at intervals of 6 and 12 h. Although the numbers of nodules in the larvae treated with concentrations of 18 μg·ml-1 were higher than those of other treatments, the overall numbers were lower than those of the control. Finally, the activity of phenoloxidase in the treated larvae was higher than that of the control, at intervals of 6 and 12 h post-treatment. Findings of the current study indicate an intervening role of pyriproxyfen in the cellular immunity of C. suppressalis to entomopathogenic objects. © Seyyedeh Kimia Mirhaghparast et al. 2015.


Shojaei T.R.,University Putra Malaysia | Salleh M.A.M.,University Putra Malaysia | Sijam K.,University Putra Malaysia | Rahim R.A.,University Putra Malaysia | And 3 more authors.
Microchimica Acta | Year: 2016

Cadmium-telluride quantum dots (QDs) were conjugated to an antibody (Ab) against Citrus tristeza virus (CTV), while the coat protein (CP) of the CTV was immobilized on the surface of carbon nanoparticles (CNPs). Following immunobinding of the QD-Ab and the CP-loaded CNPs, the fluorescence of the CdTe QDs was quenched by the CNPs. This effect was exploited to design a detection assay for the CTV which was found more sensitive and specific than the existing enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The limit of detection was measured at about 220 ng⋅ mL‾1 of CTV. The Stern-Volmer plot of the CNPs-QD quencher pair showed a positive deviation from linearity which was ascribed to the presence of both static and dynamic quenching. [Figure not available: see fulltext.] © 2016 Springer-Verlag Wien


Zibaee A.,Guilan University | Alborzi Z.,Guilan University | Hoda H.,Iranian Institute of Plant Protection
Archives of Phytopathology and Plant Protection | Year: 2014

Digestion in insects is a multi-step process to afford nutritional requirements of biological activities. The process starts with nervous stimuli and continues with biochemical activities of digestive enzymes as well as several pumps to digest and absorb the obtained molecules. Carbohydrases, lipases and proteases are the three main digestive enzymes involved in digestion process. Lipases seem to be very important not only for digestive role but also for esteratic activity so that some experts consider lipases as the Class 3 of general esterases. Digestive lipases divided into different groups based on their biological roles namely triacylglycerol lipases, phospholipases and two types of phosphatases. Briefly, triacylglycerol lipases (TAG-lipases) are the hydrolysing enzymes that affect the outer esteric links of triacylglycerols in ingested food. Phospholipases including PLA2 and PLA1 remove phosphatide fatty acids attached to the Position 2 and Position 1. Finally, Alkaline and acid phosphatases are the enzymes that hydrolyse phosphomonoesters under alkaline or acid conditions, respectively. In this review, presence and physiological role of digestive TAG-lipases are explained and their possible importance will be discussed in insect. © 2014 © 2014 Taylor & Francis.


Heydari R.,University of Tehran | Maafi Z.T.,Iranian Institute of Plant Protection | Pourjam E.,Tarbiat Modares University
Nematology | Year: 2012

The soybean cyst nematode, Heterodera glycines, is of major economic importance and widely distributed throughout the world. The effect of H. glycines HG Type 0 on seed yield of susceptible and resistant soybean cultivars was assessed with and without nematicide application in two naturally infested fields in Iran. Soybean cvs BP (susceptible) and DPX (resistant) were arranged in a randomised complete block design and fenamiphos 10G was used in-furrow as a treatment. The population levels of eggs and secondstagejuveniles of H. glycines were determined in soil samples collected at planting and harvesting time. Although no above-ground symptoms of nematode infection were visible, meanyield was 48% greater for the resistant cultivar compared with the susceptible cultivar. The yield of cv. BP increased by 16% in plots treated with fenamiphos compared with untreated plots. The resistant cultivar suppressed the reproduction rate of H. glycines. Seed composition, including protein and oil, did not show significant differences between resistant and susceptible cultivars. This is the first demonstration of the yieldloss caused by the soybean cyst nematode in Iran. Copyright © Koninklijke Brill NV, Leiden, 2012.


Mirhaghparast S.K.,Guilan University | Zibaee A.,Guilan University | Hoda H.,Iranian Institute of Plant Protection
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences India Section B - Biological Sciences | Year: 2016

Effects of Pyriproxyfen were determined on intermediary metabolism in the fifth larval instars of Chilo suppressalis via assessments of various enzymatic and non-enzymatic compounds. Bioassay of larvae revealed LC10–50 values of 18, 72 and 190 µg/ml of pyriproxyfen. Results on alanine aminotransferase revealed lower activities in treated larvae versus control for all time intervals while activity of aspartate aminotransferase showed higher activities in treated larvae by 18 and 72 µg/ml of pyriproxyfen. Activities of γ-Glutamyl transferase and aldolase in treated larvae were significantly higher than those of control larvae. Treating of larvae by different concentrations of pyriproxyfen significantly increased lactate dehydrogenase activity for all time intervals although activity of the enzyme after 1 h was not significantly different among control and treated larvae. Activities of acid and alkaline phosphatases in treated larvae were higher than those of control. Amount of high and low density lipoproteins in treated larvae was higher than those of control except for time interval of 3 h of HDL in which control larvae revealed higher amount than 72 and 190 µg/ml treated larvae. Increased activity of the enzyme was noticed in treated larvae versus control in case of general esterases. Similar results were observed in case of glutathione S-transferase. Amount of triacylglyceride, glycogen and protein in control larvae was higher than those of treated larvae for all time intervals indicating their depletion due to energetic costs of pyriproxyfen treatment. These results clearly indicated negative effects of pyriproxyfen on intermediary metabolism of larvae that might lead to desirable mortality in pest population. © 2014, The National Academy of Sciences, India.


Zaker M.,Shahrood Agricultural Research Center | Mosallanejad H.,Iranian Institute of Plant Protection
Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences | Year: 2010

Pure methanol (m) and methanol water (mw) extracts of 5 plants namely: peppermint, eucalyptus, lavandula, Russian knapweed and datura were screened for their antifungal ability against Alternaria alternata, the causal agent of Alternaria leaf spot of potato at 5, 10 and 15% concentrations in vitro. Fungicide mancozeb 0.2% was also used for better comparison. Poisoned food technique and spore germination assay method were used to evaluate the antifungal efficacy of plant extracts. Present findings showed that methanol extracts of eucalyptus, peppermint and lavandula had impressive antifungal effects in inhibiting the mycelial growth as well as spore germination of the pathogen. It was also found that methanol extracts were quite more effective than methanol water extracts in this regard. Methanol extracts of peppermint (15%), lavandula (15%), peppermint (10%) and eucalyptus (15%) demonstrated promising ability in inhibiting the mycelial growth of A. alternata by 0.13, 0.40,0.43 and 0.50 cm, mycelial growth respectively, while majority of methanol water extracts had either less or no effects in this connection. Spore germination of A. alternata was prominently reduced by methanol extracts, while those of methanol water extracts had very less effects in this regard. Mancozeb (0.2%), methanol extracts of eucalyptus (15%) and peppermint (10%) by 2, 6 and 7% spore germination were best, while methanol water extracts of datura 10, 15 and 5%, lavandula 15 and 10% and also Russian knapweed 5% represented no effect and by 91, 89, 87, 87, 85 and 85% spore germination were at par with control. Findings from this study confirmed that plant extracts can be used as less hazardous natural fungicides in controlling plant pathogenic fungi, thus reducing the dependence on the synthetic fungicides. Methanol extracts of peppermint, eucalyptus and lavandula might be promising materials for natural formulations in controlling Alternaria leaf spot of potato in the field. © 2010 Asian Network for Scientific Information.


PubMed | Iranian Institute of Plant Protection, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences and Guilan University
Type: | Journal: Pesticide biochemistry and physiology | Year: 2015

Efficient control of Chilo suppressalis Walker is always controversial due to highly economic damage, resistance to insecticides and environmental pollutions. So, combination of safe pest controls e.g. biocontrol agents and insect growth regulators seems to be promising via integrated pest management program. Bioassay of hexaflumuron on 4th larval instars revealed concentrations of 44.34, 179.74 and 474.94g/ml as LC10-50 values. Numbers of total hemocytes, plasmatocytes and granulocytes as well as phenoloxidase activity increased in the different time intervals following treatment by hexaflumuron. Combined effects of hexaflumuron and Beauveria bassiana Vuillemin also increased hemocyte numbers and phenoloxidase activity at different time intervals using all concentrations. Activities of general esterases assayed by - and -naphtyl acetate and glutathione S-transferase using CDNB and DCNB increased 1-12h post-treatment. Activities of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, -glutamyl transferase and aldolase increased in the larvae treated by hexaflumuron. However enhanced activity of lactate dehydrogenase was only obtained by treating 180 and 470g/ml concentrations of hexaflumuron. Activities of ACP and ALP were found to be higher than control for all time intervals even 1-12h post-treatment. The amounts of HDL and LDL increased in the highest concentrations of hexaflumuron after 12-24h of post-treatment. Amount of triglyceride was higher than that of control after 1 and 3h but it was lower in other time intervals. Amounts of glycogen and protein were lower than those of control for all time intervals except for 6 and 12h of post-treatment in case of protein. Results of the current study revealed negative effects of hexaflumuron on intermediary metabolism of Chilo suppressalis but it increased the number of hemocytes and activity of phenoloxidase which are responsible for spore removal from hemolymph. It can be concluded that hexaflumuron is able to decrease survival and biological performance of C. suppressalis via intervening in intermediary metabolism but the given results showed incompatibility of the IGR with possible microbial control.

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