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Cheraghian B.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | Nedjat S.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | Mansournia M.A.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | Majdzadeh R.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | And 6 more authors.
Medical Journal of the Islamic Republic of Iran | Year: 2015

Background: Myocardial Infarction (MI) is a main cause of death and disability worldwide, which involves a number of genetic, physiopathologic and socio-economic determinants. The aim of this study was to assess the patterns of association between education, wealth and some other risk factors with non-fatal MI in Tehran population. Methods: Data derived from a second round of large cross-sectional study, Urban HEART-2, conducted in Tehran in 2011. Out of 118542 participants, all 249 self-reported incident cases of nonfatal MI were selected as the case group. A number of 996, matched on age and sex, were selected as controls. Principle component analysis (PCA) was used to calculate wealth index and logistic regression model to assess relations between the study variables. Results: Mean (SD) age of participants was 60.25 (12.26) years. A total of 870 (69.9%) of the study subjects were men. Education, wealth status, family violence, hypertension and diabetes were observed as independent predictors of non-fatal MI. Overall, as the level of education increased, the odds of non-fatal MI decreased (p<0.001). We observed an almost J-shaped association between wealth status and non-fatal MI. No significant associations were found between marital status, BMI and current smoking with non-fatal MI (p<0.05). Conclusion: We found different patterns of association between education and wealth with nonfatal MI among Tehran adults. Lower risk of non-fatal MI is linked to high educated groups whereas economically moderate group has the lowest risk of non-fatal MI occurrence.

Harirchi I.,Cancer Institute | Karbakhsh M.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | Montazeri A.,Iranian Institute for Health science Research IHSR | Ebrahimi M.,Iranian Center for Breast Cancer | And 5 more authors.
European Journal of Cancer Prevention | Year: 2010

The aim of this cross-sectional study was to show the characteristics of breast cancer across a period of 15 years according to pathological records in Tehran, Iran. In the year 1985, a 20-year study was designed and developed in five major hospitals in Tehran to study the burden and characteristics of breast cancer in Iran. This study is based on the data collected from 1986 through 2000. SPSS version 13 was used for statistical analysis. In this study, 1612 female breast cancer records were reviewed. The mean age of patients was 47.95±12.42 years with a median of 47 years. Over the study period, the proportion of tumors diagnosed at T2 increased with a decline in the proportion of T3 cases. Similarly, the percentage of stage II cases at diagnosis increased, whereas stage III decreased. We detected a decrease in tumor size and downstaging of female breast cancer in Tehran, Iran. This can be attributed to the overall improvement in the level of health in Iran and also educational activities that teach women how to perform breast self-exam and when and why to ask for breast examination. © 2010 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Harirchi I.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | Azary S.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | Azary S.,Iranian Institute for Health science Research IHSR | Montazeri A.,Iranian Institute for Health science Research IHSR | And 6 more authors.
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention | Year: 2012

Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women worldwide and the leading cause of death from cancer among women. Evidence suggests that early diagnosis and screening interventions might help to improve outcomes. This population-based study was conducted to determine breast cancer awareness and screening behavior among Iranian women and to examine its association with women's literacy. The study was carried out in two provinces, with 1,477,045 population, located in central and eastern part of Iran. Overall, 770 women were studied. Of these, 482 (62.7%) were literate and 287 (37.3%) were not. The results obtained from the data analysis indicated that there was a significant difference between literate and illiterate women. Further analysis of the data using logistic regression showed that literacy was an important contributing factor for breast cancer prevention behavior. The findings suggest that in order to improve women's health and breast cancer outcomes providing equal educational opportunities for women seems necessary.

Vahdaninia M.,Iranian Institute for Health science Research IHSR | Omidvari S.,Iranian Institute for Health science Research IHSR | Montazeri A.,Iranian Institute for Health science Research IHSR
Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology | Year: 2010

Introduction Psychological adjustment following cancer occurrence remains a key issue among the survivors. This study aimed to investigate psychological distress in patients with breast cancer following completion of breast cancer treatments and to determine its associated factors. Materials and methods This was a prospective study of anxiety and depression in breast cancer patients. Anxiety and depression were measured using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale at three points in time: baseline (prediagnosis), 3 months after initial treatment and 1 year after completion of treatment (in all 18 months follow-up). At baseline, the questionnaires were administered to all the suspected patients while both patients and the interviewer were blind to the final diagnosis. Socio-demographic and clinical data included age, education, marital status, disease stage and initial treatment. Repeated measure analysis was performed to compare anxiety and depression over the study period. Logistic regression analysis was performed to determine variables that predict anxiety and depression. Results Altogether 167 patients were diagnosed with breast cancer. The mean age of breast cancer patients was 47.2 (SD = 13.5) years, and the vast majority underwent mastectomy (82.6%). At 18 months follow-up, data for 99 patients were available. The results showed that anxiety and depression improved over the time (P <0.001) although at 18-month follow-up, 38.4% and 22.2% of the patients presented with severe anxiety and depression, respectively. 'Fatigue' was found to be a risk factor for developing anxiety and depression at 3 months follow-up [odds ratio (OR) = 1.04, 95% Confidence interval (CI) = 1.01-1.07 and OR = 1.04, 95% CI = 1.02-1.07 respectively]. At 18 months follow-up, anxiety was predicted by 'pain' (OR = 1.02, 95% CI = 1.00-1.05), whereas depression was predicted by both 'fatigue' (OR = 1.06, 95% CI = 1.02-1.09) and 'pain' (OR = 1.05, 95% CI = 1.01-1.08). Conclusion Although the findings indicated that the levels of anxiety and depression decreased over time, a significant number of women had elevated anxiety and depression at the 18 months follow-up. This suggests that all women should be routinely screened for psychological distress and that quality cancer care include processes to treat that 30% of women who have elevated psychological distress. In addition, if breast cancer patients indicated that they are suffering from fatigue or pain, these women who are at particular risk should be especially screened. © Springer-Verlag 2009.

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