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Mirghaed A.T.,University of Tehran | Ghelichpour M.,University of Tehran | Hoseini S.M.,Iranian Fisheries Science Research Institute | Amini K.,Iranian Fisheries Science Research Institute
Fish Physiology and Biochemistry | Year: 2017

The present study aimed to determine hemolysis interference in measurement of plasma biochemical parameters in fish specimens. For this purpose, blood samples were harvested from 24 Huso huso juveniles. After centrifugation, each plasma sample was divided into seven portions to make seven levels of hemolysis. Hemolysis was induced by addition of different percentages of the corresponding whole blood [0 (non-hemolyzed control group), 1, 3, 5, 10, 15, and 20% of whole blood]. Albumin, total protein, calcium, phosphorus, glucose, sodium, potassium, chloride, alkaline phosphatase (ALP), aspartate transaminase (AST), and alanine transaminase (ALT) were measured in different samples. Results showed that plasma albumin, ALP, potassium, and AST significantly increased (more than 200% at the highest hemolysis level) in the hemolyzed samples. Also, plasma total protein and phosphorus showed significant elevation in the hemolyzed samples (more than 70% at the highest hemolysis level). Plasma glucose, calcium, chloride, and ALT showed narrow but significant increase in hemolyzed samples (11.8–35.2% at the highest hemolysis level). Plasma sodium showed no significant changes in the hemolyzed samples. In conclusion, the present results show that hemolysis markedly affects plasma parameters levels, which interferes with plasma results interpretation. Therefore, analysis of hemolyzed samples should be avoided or the results should be interpreted with caution. This study encourages further investigations to develop methods for omitting the effects of hemolysis by sample blanking and/or presenting correction coefficients for measurement of plasma parameters in samples with different levels of hemolysis. © 2017 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht

Naderi M.,Khorramshahr Marine Science and Technology University | Keyvanshokooh S.,Khorramshahr Marine Science and Technology University | Salati A.P.,Khorramshahr Marine Science and Technology University | Ghaedi A.,Iranian Fisheries Science Research Institute
Aquaculture | Year: 2017

A 60 day feeding experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary vitamin E (vit E), selenium nanoparticles (nanoSe), and their combination on humoral immune status and serum parameters of rainbow trout under high density condition. A total of 1275 rainbow trout with an average weight of 42.6 ± 2.3 g were acclimatized, distributed into 15 tanks and divided into five experimental groups according to stocking density and diet: Normal control (20 kg m− 3; basal diet), Dense control (80 kg m− 3; basal diet), Vit E (80 kg m− 3; 500 mg kg− 1 vit E-supplemented diet), NanoSe (80 kg m− 3; 1 mg kg− 1 nanoSe-supplemented diet), and Combination (80 kg m− 3; 500 mg kg− 1 vit E and 1 mg kg− 1 nanoSe-supplemented diet). Each group consisted of three tanks. High stocking density reduced weigh gain, specific growth rate, feed intake, feed conversion ratio, serum agglutination antibody titer, total antioxidant capacity, and globulin level, but increased lysozyme, albumin, and cholesterol levels when basal diet was fed. However, vit E supplementation to diets significantly improved growth performance and health status of rainbow trout. While the combination of nanoSe with vit E promoted the performance of the fish, supplementation with nanoSe had no significant effects on performance in rainbow trout under high density conditions, suggesting that the beneficial effects observed in the performance of the Combination group may be due to vitamin E alone. © 2017 Elsevier B.V.

Naderi M.,Khorramshahr Marine Science and Technology University | Keyvanshokooh S.,Khorramshahr Marine Science and Technology University | Salati A.P.,Khorramshahr Marine Science and Technology University | Ghaedi A.,Iranian Fisheries Science Research Institute
Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology - Part D: Genomics and Proteomics | Year: 2017

The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of dietary vitamin E (vit E) and selenium nanoparticles (nanoSe) on liver proteome profile of rainbow trout under high density condition. To correlate the proteome modifications with physiological aspects, growth, serum metabolites (cortisol, glucose, lactate, ALT, AST, and ALP), and liver antioxidant-related parameters (SOD, GPx, CAT, and MDA) were also examined. A total of 1275 fish (average weight of 42.6 ± 2.3 g) were stocked into 12 tanks at a density of 80 kg m− 3. The fish were divided into four groups according to diet: control (basal diet), vit E (500 mg kg − 1 vit E-supplemented diet), nanoSe (1 mg kg− 1 nanoSe-supplemented diet), and combination (500 mg kg− 1 vit E and 1 mg kg− 1 nanoSe-supplemented diet). After 60 days, the best performance and health status of fish were observed in vit E and combination groups. Supplementation with nanoSe had no significant effects on growth performance. In addition, we compared liver proteome profiles of fish fed with a basal diet (control) and diets supplemented with vit E or nanoSe. Among the identified proteins, GRP78, ATPsyn-d, and HSP70 had an increased abundance in the vit E group, while HPPD and GAPDH showed a decreased abundance. In response to nanoSe supplementation, the expression of MDH, FAA, FBPA, TPI, GRHPR, GNMT, FDH, and Enol was increased. The proteomic data indicate that vit E or nanoSe supplementation can alter the expression of proteins involved in metabolic status of rainbow trout reared under high rearing density. © 2017 Elsevier Inc.

Hajizadeh A.,Iranian Fisheries Science Research Institute | Shinn A.,University of Stirling
Iranian Journal of Fisheries Sciences | Year: 2016

This study investigates the effects of dietary lipid sources on the growth and reproductive performance of Nile tilapia over three consecutive spawnings. Fish were reared using three experimental diets, with the goal of replacing dietary fish oil with palm oil. Three experimental diets and a commercial trout diet was used as the control. The effect of dietary lipid on the growth performance, spawning interval, fecundity, relative fecundity (number of eggs per unit weight), egg size, egg fertilization and hatching rate in addition to an assessment of larval quality was investigated. Growth was significantly (p<0.05) influenced by the source of dietary lipid used. The source of the dietary lipid, however, had no significant effect on the diameter of the eggs, as well as their volume or dry weight. Despite this, relative fecundity was found to be significantly different between fish fed experimental diets and those fed the control diet; there was no difference between those fed the PO and mixed PO:CO diets (p>0.05). Similar results were observed for the egg to body weight ratio (EW: BW) and the inter-spawning interval (ISI) for the fish fed control diet (diet 4). The total fecundity (number of eggs produced per fish) obtained from the fish fed the mixed oil diet (PO:CO) was significantly higher (p<0.05) than from those fed the palm oil and control diets. This study suggests that palm oil can replace fish oil in diets fed to O. niloticus with no subsequent negative effects on the eggs and larval quality.

Jafarpour M.,Islamic Azad University at Urmia | Fard A.N.,Iranian Fisheries Science Research Institute
AACL Bioflux | Year: 2016

The lemon balm (Melissa officinalis) has long been considered as traditional medicine which is used as an analgesic and anti-microbial plant. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of aqueous extract of M. officinalis on liver enzyme alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), urea and total protein and to study its pathology effect on Oncorhynchus mykiss liver. For this study, fishes with an mean weight of 85±5 g in 3 groups were examined which includes: control (without extract); test group 1 (450 mg per kg of body weight aqueous extract of M. officinalis); and test group 2 (1,350 mg per kg of body weight aqueous extract of M. officinalis), each with a 2 repetition treatments daily for 30 days, feeding with extracts and concentrates were in extruded form. Growing conditions (water temperature 14°C, the amount of oxygen dissolved in water of 9 mg/mL) was similar for all groups. The results of blood at the end of the 30 day showed a significant reduction of ALT and AST in blood serum in test groups 1 and 2 against control (p>0.05). Comparison of the total protein in blood serum test for all groups indicated significant differences (p>0.05). During comparative pathology examination of the liver, the waste is observed in the test group, compared to the control group. © 2016, BIOFLUX SRL. All rights reserved.

Sh D.,Iranian Fisheries Science Research Institute
Iranian Journal of Fisheries Sciences | Year: 2016

The effects of n-3 highly unsaturated fatty acids (n-3 HUFA) were studied on Beluga (Huso huso) fish larvae by feeding fish larvae with live food enriched with 4 different oils (ICES 30/4, tuna eye oil, flaxseed oil and linseed oil) containing different levels of n-3 HUFA including 27.19, 20.33, 12.71 and 0.39 mg g-1 dry weight of oil, respectively. Fish larvae weighing 30.00±2.00 mg were randomly divided into 12 groups of 150 fish each and triplicates fed the 4 experimental diets for 3 weeks. There were no differences in survival rates, but significant differences were found in growth rates and fatty acid composition of the fish larvae after 30 days. Fish fed low levels of dietary n-3 HUFA (0.39 mg g-1 DW) showed poor n-3 HUFA contents but these fatty acids improved with the elevation of the n-3 HUFA levels in the diet up to 20 mg g-1 DW. Fish fed the flaxseed oil showed the highest level of crude lipid 15.00±3.01). Results showed that tuna eye oil and ICES30/4-enriched live food (4.83 ±1.29 and 4.61 ±0.99 mg g-1 DW, respectively) showed the highest n-3 HUFA content for sturgeon fish larvae.

Taheri Mirghaed A.,University of Tehran | Ghelichpour M.,University of Tehran | Hoseini S.M.,Iranian Fisheries Science Research Institute
Aquaculture | Year: 2016

The aim of this study was to investigate anesthetic efficacy of myrcene and linalool on Cyprinus carpio in comparison with eugenol. The fish were exposed to 150, 200, 400, 600, 800, 1000 and 1200 ppm myrcene, 200, 400, 600, 800, 1000, 1200, 1400 and 1600 ppm linalool, and 25, 35, 50, 75, 100, 150 and 200 ppm eugenol and induction time were recorded based on fish behaviors. Exposure of the fish to 150-1000 ppm myrcene led to 594-42.7 s induction time with no significant difference between 1000 and 1200 ppm. Recovery at 150-800 ppm myrcene occurred within 149-272 s with no significant difference among 800-1200 ppm. Exposure to 200-1400 ppm linalool resulted in 812-79 s induction time, with no significant difference between 1400 and 1600 ppm. There was no significant difference in recovery time at different linalool concentrations (150-165 s). Induction time in both anesthetics were significantly dependent on anesthetic concentrations (R2 = 0.94-0.96). Recovery time in the myrcene-exposed fish was dependent on anesthetic concentrations (R2 = 0.77). Using regression models, calculated myrcene concentrations to induce stage 4 anesthesia within 60 and 180 s were 819 and 350 ppm. Required linalool concentration to induce stage 4 anesthesia within 180 s was calculated to be 753 ppm. Myrcene at 50 ppm and linalool at 50 and 100 ppm are able to keep the fish at stage 2 anesthesia for 2 h. This study showed for the first time that linalool and myrcene are potential anesthetic in carp, although not as efficacious as eugenol. Statement of relevance: Anesthetics are used in many aquaculture-related activities. Herbal materials have been considered as alternatives for chemical anesthetics in fish due to their potential health benefits. Myrcene is not studied as anesthetic in fish. Limited data are available on linalool anesthetic efficacy in fish. Therefore, we conducted this study to investigate their potential anesthetic efficacy in carp. © 2016 Elsevier B.V.

Pourang N.,Iranian Fisheries Science Research Institute | Eslami F.,Iranian Fisheries Science Research Institute | Nasrollahzadeh Saravi H.,Iranian Fisheries Science Research Institute | Fazli H.,Iranian Fisheries Science Research Institute
Biological Invasions | Year: 2016

The invasive ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi was first recorded in the Caspian Sea in 1995 in the southern part of the sea (Iranian waters). This study assesses the magnitude of the M. leidyi bioinvasion impacts on the region’s ecosystem using the biopollution level (BPL) index. For this purpose, biomass and distribution range of the invasive ctenophore were analyzed for the period 1996–2010. In addition, the impacts of the IAS on native species, communities, habitats and ecosystem functioning were assessed. The BPL for the period of our study remained relatively stable at the level 4 (massive). The BPLs caused by M. Leidyi in the southern Caspian Sea were compared with those of the Black and Baltic Seas. The method used in this study seems to be applicable for evaluating spatial and temporal variations of the invasive impacts of gelatinous zooplankton in other marine regions. © 2016 Springer International Publishing Switzerland

Afsharnasab M.,Iranian Fisheries Science Research Institute | Kakoolaki S.,Iranian Fisheries Science Research Institute | Mohammadidost M.,South Iranian Aquaculture Center
Fish and Shellfish Immunology | Year: 2016

This paper investigates the efficacy of Gracilaria corticata, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and gamma irradiation WSSV as immunostimulants to white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei. Seven hundred and twenty healthy shrimp SPF L. vannamei subadult with average weight of 10 ± 1.02 g were collected and divided into 8 groups. The first group (T1) was fed with commercial pellet, the second group (T2) fed with S. cerevisiae (2 g/kg), the third group (T3) fed with G. corticata powder mixed with shrimp feed (2 g/kg) and, finally, the fourth group (T4) was fed with commercial pellet and injected intramuscularly gamma irradiant WSSV (1 μl/gbw) for 10 days. The shrimps were then injected with WSSV and maintained for 25 days. The positive control group for each treatment was maintained in the same manner but without injection with WSSV. Moreover, survival rate and immune parameters such as total hemocyte count (THC), total protein plasma (TPP), superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, peroxidase (POD) activity and phenoloxidase activity (PO) were determined. Results indicated that the survival rates for groups T4, T3 T2 and T1 were 57.05 ± 3.52%, 22.5 ± 0.5%, 15 ± 1.05% and 00.0 ± 0%, respectively. Ultimately, at the end of the study the shrimp group T4 showed higher hematological data: THC, TPP, SOD, POD and PO. The study concluded that gamma irradiant WSSV is effective immunostimulants in shrimp L. vannamei and the immunity has better performances than those of the G. corticata and S. cerevisiae. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd

Hosseini S.A.,Iranian Fisheries Science Research Institute | Kaymaram F.,Iranian Fisheries Science Research Institute
Journal of Applied Ichthyology | Year: 2016

In this paper, the examination of some reproductive features and stomach contents of yellowfin tuna, Thunnus albacares, were determined by samples taken from Iranian drifting gillnets in the Oman Sea in the years 2007 to 2009. The male to female ratio in overall size was 1: 0.93, which was not significantly different from the expected value 1: 1. Fish lengths ranged from 37 to 152 cm, averaging 78.5 cm for females and 79.2 cm for males. At a larger size (>117 cm) males were proportionally predominant. Length at first maturity, Lm 50%, was observed when females reached 77.2 cm. Data from maturity stages indicated a single spawning period, peaking in May-June, corresponding with a drop in the Gonadosomatic Index (GSI). Fishes were the main prey group, comprising 47.6% of total numbers among the three food item categories in the tuna stomachs. Among the 12 families identified in the stomachs, the Portunidae swimming crab crustacean was the most important prey organism (18.7% of total numbers). A wide range of prey species found in yellowfin tuna stomachs reflects an opportunistic feeding behaviour restricted by local prey availability. Considering the scarcity of available data, the results of the present paper will provide a reference for better knowledge of the biological features of T. albacares in the Oman Sea. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

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