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Sh D.,Iranian Fisheries Science Research Institute
Iranian Journal of Fisheries Sciences | Year: 2016

The effects of n-3 highly unsaturated fatty acids (n-3 HUFA) were studied on Beluga (Huso huso) fish larvae by feeding fish larvae with live food enriched with 4 different oils (ICES 30/4, tuna eye oil, flaxseed oil and linseed oil) containing different levels of n-3 HUFA including 27.19, 20.33, 12.71 and 0.39 mg g-1 dry weight of oil, respectively. Fish larvae weighing 30.00±2.00 mg were randomly divided into 12 groups of 150 fish each and triplicates fed the 4 experimental diets for 3 weeks. There were no differences in survival rates, but significant differences were found in growth rates and fatty acid composition of the fish larvae after 30 days. Fish fed low levels of dietary n-3 HUFA (0.39 mg g-1 DW) showed poor n-3 HUFA contents but these fatty acids improved with the elevation of the n-3 HUFA levels in the diet up to 20 mg g-1 DW. Fish fed the flaxseed oil showed the highest level of crude lipid 15.00±3.01). Results showed that tuna eye oil and ICES30/4-enriched live food (4.83 ±1.29 and 4.61 ±0.99 mg g-1 DW, respectively) showed the highest n-3 HUFA content for sturgeon fish larvae.

Hoseini S.M.,Iranian Fisheries Science Research Institute | Mirghaed A.T.,University of Tehran | Mazandarani M.,Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources | Zoheiri F.,Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources
Aquaculture | Year: 2016

The effects of exogenous tryptophan on serum cortisol, glucose, lysozyme, alternative complement pathway (ACH50), TSH, T4 and T3 responses before and after an acute stress were investigated in Persian sturgeon, Acipenser persicus. The fish were divided into two groups: control and tryptophan groups. The control group was fed with basal diet (0.28% endogenous tryptophan), whereas the tryptophan group was fed with the basal diet supplemented with 0.5% exogenous tryptophan. Blood samples were taken after 0, 120, 240 and 360 h feeding with corresponding diets. Then the fish were subjected to an acute stress (0.5 h confinement) and further blood samples were taken after 0, 0.5, 3, 24 and 72 h post-stress. Results showed that exogenous tryptophan increased cortisol and decreased glucose after 240 and 360 h feeding. The tryptophan group had significantly higher serum cortisol 3 and 24 h post- stress, compared to the control group. There was no significant difference in post-stress serum glucose between the groups. Exogenous tryptophan had no significant effects on basal serum lysozyme and ACH50 activities, but it inhibited stress-induced decrease in these immune indicators. Tryptophan decreased serum thyroid hormones' levels at 240 and 360 h feeding, and 24 and 72 h post-stress compared to the control. In conclusion, circulating cortisol level and period of cortisol response to stress increase following 360 h feeding with tryptophan-supplemented diet. Tryptophan supplementation inhibits post-stress immunosuppression. Also, tryptophan decreases serum thyroid hormones' level both prior to and following an acute stress. This study encourages further researches on the effects of tryptophan on stress, thyroid and immune responses in sturgeons. Statement of relevance: Data on the effects of dietary tryptophan on stress and immune response is controversial in different studies and there is no data on the effects of tryptophan on sturgeons. The present data provides new data on the effects of tryptophan on sturgeons and extends knowledge on the effects of tryptophan on stress and immune response in fish.Hoseini. © 2016 Elsevier B.V.

Taheri Mirghaed A.,University of Tehran | Ghelichpour M.,University of Tehran | Hoseini S.M.,Iranian Fisheries Science Research Institute
Aquaculture | Year: 2016

The aim of this study was to investigate anesthetic efficacy of myrcene and linalool on Cyprinus carpio in comparison with eugenol. The fish were exposed to 150, 200, 400, 600, 800, 1000 and 1200 ppm myrcene, 200, 400, 600, 800, 1000, 1200, 1400 and 1600 ppm linalool, and 25, 35, 50, 75, 100, 150 and 200 ppm eugenol and induction time were recorded based on fish behaviors. Exposure of the fish to 150-1000 ppm myrcene led to 594-42.7 s induction time with no significant difference between 1000 and 1200 ppm. Recovery at 150-800 ppm myrcene occurred within 149-272 s with no significant difference among 800-1200 ppm. Exposure to 200-1400 ppm linalool resulted in 812-79 s induction time, with no significant difference between 1400 and 1600 ppm. There was no significant difference in recovery time at different linalool concentrations (150-165 s). Induction time in both anesthetics were significantly dependent on anesthetic concentrations (R2 = 0.94-0.96). Recovery time in the myrcene-exposed fish was dependent on anesthetic concentrations (R2 = 0.77). Using regression models, calculated myrcene concentrations to induce stage 4 anesthesia within 60 and 180 s were 819 and 350 ppm. Required linalool concentration to induce stage 4 anesthesia within 180 s was calculated to be 753 ppm. Myrcene at 50 ppm and linalool at 50 and 100 ppm are able to keep the fish at stage 2 anesthesia for 2 h. This study showed for the first time that linalool and myrcene are potential anesthetic in carp, although not as efficacious as eugenol. Statement of relevance: Anesthetics are used in many aquaculture-related activities. Herbal materials have been considered as alternatives for chemical anesthetics in fish due to their potential health benefits. Myrcene is not studied as anesthetic in fish. Limited data are available on linalool anesthetic efficacy in fish. Therefore, we conducted this study to investigate their potential anesthetic efficacy in carp. © 2016 Elsevier B.V.

Bagheri Ziari S.,Islamic Azad University at Tehran | Naji T.,Islamic Azad University at Tehran | Hosseinzadeh Sahafi H.,Iranian Fisheries Science Research Institute
Animal Reproduction Science | Year: 2015

Origanum vulgare is a plant of the mint family that contains phytoestrogens. This study compared the effects of O. vulgare, LHRH-A2, and 17β-estradiol on the ultrastructure of gonadotroph cells and ovarian oogenesis in immature Trichogaster trichopterus. Fish (5.1 ± 0.032 cm and 2.1 ± 0.043 g, n = 150) were randomly divided into four treatment groups (three hormonal treatments and control) and treated intramuscularly at four levels with 17β-estradiol or O. vulgare at 10, 20, 30 and 50 mg/kg body weight and with LHRH-A2 at 0.001, 0.002, 0.003, and 0.005 mg/kg body weight. There were three control treatments: saline, ethanol and placebo. Fish were kept in 15 tanks, with 10 fish per tank, injected a total of seven doses over 13 days. Gonadosomatic index (GSI) and oocyte diameter were lower (P ≤ 0.05) in the control than in the three hormonal treatments. The highest GSI and oocyte diameter responses were observed in fish treated with 17β-estradiol (2.76 ± 0.23%, 149.8 ± 15.43 mm) followed by O. vulgare (1.86 ± 0.18%, 104.3 ± 11.5 mm) and LHRH-A2 (1.52 ± 0.12%, 91.75 ± 9.02 mm) (P ≤ 0.05). Moreover, there was a significant effect of dose level within all the hormonal treatments (P ≤ 0.05). The effect of treatment on the length and weight was likely GSI. Ovarian tissue results showed faster oogenesis of oocytes in fish treated with O. vulgare, after 17β-estradiol. Ultrastructure of gonadotroph cells demonstrated less stimulation by O. vulgare than by 17β-estradiol and LHRH-A2. This study suggests that compared with the two hormonal treatments, O. vulgare dose-dependently affects ovarian oogenesis and gonadotroph cells. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.

Jafarpour M.,Islamic Azad University at Urmia | Fard A.N.,Iranian Fisheries Science Research Institute
AACL Bioflux | Year: 2016

The lemon balm (Melissa officinalis) has long been considered as traditional medicine which is used as an analgesic and anti-microbial plant. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of aqueous extract of M. officinalis on liver enzyme alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), urea and total protein and to study its pathology effect on Oncorhynchus mykiss liver. For this study, fishes with an mean weight of 85±5 g in 3 groups were examined which includes: control (without extract); test group 1 (450 mg per kg of body weight aqueous extract of M. officinalis); and test group 2 (1,350 mg per kg of body weight aqueous extract of M. officinalis), each with a 2 repetition treatments daily for 30 days, feeding with extracts and concentrates were in extruded form. Growing conditions (water temperature 14°C, the amount of oxygen dissolved in water of 9 mg/mL) was similar for all groups. The results of blood at the end of the 30 day showed a significant reduction of ALT and AST in blood serum in test groups 1 and 2 against control (p>0.05). Comparison of the total protein in blood serum test for all groups indicated significant differences (p>0.05). During comparative pathology examination of the liver, the waste is observed in the test group, compared to the control group. © 2016, BIOFLUX SRL. All rights reserved.

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