Movahedi M.,Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences |
Movahedi M.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences |
Haghighat S.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences |
Haghighat S.,Iranian Center for Breast Cancer |
And 5 more authors.
Iranian Red Crescent Medical Journal | Year: 2012
Background: Breast cancer is the most common cancer among women worldwide. Based on the latest Iranian national cancer department report, the total number of women registered with breast cancer was 6976 cases during 2007. Five year survival is one of the indicators used for evaluation of the quality for care to different types of malignancies including breast cancer. Objectives: The aim of this study was to estimate survival rate of breast cancer in 6147 Iranian patients at a national level in different geographic regions. Materials and Methods: 6147 cases of breast cancer, which had telephone number and were diagnosed between 2001-2006, were called to obtain information about their life status. Survival estimates were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method, and the survival probability was calculated for the overall cohort and in different categories of gender, age and pathologic type of tumor. Hazard ratios (HR) according to demographic and risk variables were calculated by Cox's proportional hazard model. Results: The overall 5-year survival rate was 71.0%. The mean survival time was different between men and women, which was statistically significant. The number of men involved with breast cancer was 172 (2.8%) of all cases. The 5-year survival rate for patients in age group 41-50 years was significantly higher than other age groups (P = 0.001). The likelihood of death was higher in patients with 61 years old or more years rather than those below forty years old (HR = 1.31; 95% CI: 1.12-1.55). Conclusions: The findings of this study might help Iranian health managers: 1) to be more conscious about geographical and regional determinants which will affect overall survival rate. 2) To carry preventive activities such as public education particularly in Iranian men. 3) To think about screening and early detection of breast cancer.
Moniri Javadhesari S.,Islamic Azad University at Bonab |
Gharechahi J.,Iran National Institute of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology |
Gharechahi J.,Iranian Center for Breast Cancer |
Hosseinpour Feizi M.A.,University of Tabriz |
And 2 more authors.
Genetic Testing and Molecular Biomarkers | Year: 2013
Survivin, which is a novel member of the inhibitor of apoptosis family proteins, is known to play an important role in the regulation of cell cycle and apoptosis. Differential expression of survivin in tumor tissues introduces it as a new candidate molecular marker for cancer. Here we investigated the expression of survivin and its splice variants in breast tumors, as well as normal adjacent tissues obtained from the same patients. Thirty five tumors and 17 normal adjacent tissues from women diagnosed with breast cancer were explored in this study. Differential expression of different survivin splice variants was detected and semiquantitatively analyzed using reverse transcription- polymerase chain reaction. Results showed that survivin and its splice variants were differentially expressed in tumor specimens compared with normal adjacent tissues. The expression of survivin-3B and survivin-3α was specifically detected in tumor tissues compared with normal adjacent ones (53% in tumor tissues compared to 5% in normal adjacent for survivin-3B and 65% in tumor tissues and 0.0% in normal adjacent tissues for survivin-3α). Statistical analysis showed that survivin and survivin-ΔEx3 were upregulated in benign (90%, p<0.034) and malignant (76%, p<0.042) tumors, respectively. On the other hand, our results showed that survivin-2α (100% of the cases) was the dominant expressed variant of survivin in breast cancer. The data presented here showed that survivin splice variants were differentially expressed in benign and malignant breast cancer tissues, suggesting their potential role in breast cancer development. Differential expression of survivin-2α and survivin-3α splice variants highlights their usefulness as new candidate markers for breast cancer diagnosis and prognosis. © Copyright 2013, Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. 2013.
Motamedi S.,Islamic Azad University at Tehran |
Majidzadeh K.,Iranian Center for Breast Cancer |
Mazaheri M.,Iranian Center for Breast Cancer |
Anbiaie R.,Iranian Center for Breast Cancer |
And 2 more authors.
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention | Year: 2012
Background: Breast cancer accounts about one million from total annual ten million new diagnosed cases of neoplasia worldwide and is the main cause of death due to cancer in women. Tamoxifen is the most popular selective estrogen receptor modulator used in anti estrogen treatments. Tamoxifen must be converted into its metabolite endoxifen for biologic effects; this conversion process is catalysed by highly polymorphic cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6). This study surveyed copy number variation of the CYP2D6 gene and its possible correlation with Tamoxifen resistance in breast cancer patients. Methods: This case control study was performed on samples taken from 79 patients with breast cancer who used tamoxifen in Yazd and Tehran Cities, Iran. Real time reactions were conducted for 10 healthy samples using the comparative Ct (Cycles threshold) method, each pair of genes being compared and samples with ratios around 1 were taken as control samples. Proliferation reactions were done by Real-Time PCR ABI Prism 7500. All registered data were transformed into SPSS 15 program and analyzed. Results: Efficiency of PCR for both CYP2D6 and ALB genes was 100%. From all 23 drug resistant patients 21.7% had one copy, 47.8% two copies and 30.4% had three copies. Also from all 56 drug sensitive patients, 26.8% had one copy, 51.8% two copies and 21.4% had three copies. The percentage of patients with one and two copies was similar between two groups but patients with three copies were more likely to belong to the drug resistant group more. Odd ratios for one and two copies were 0.759 and 0.853 respectively, indicating possible protective effects while that for three copies was 1.604. Conclusions: Based on our study there is no significant link between CYP2D6 gene copy numbers and tamoxifen resistance in women with breast cancer. But more studies considering other influencing factors appear warranted.
Harirchi I.,Cancer Institute |
Karbakhsh M.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences |
Montazeri A.,Iranian Institute for Health science Research IHSR |
Ebrahimi M.,Iranian Center for Breast Cancer |
And 5 more authors.
European Journal of Cancer Prevention | Year: 2010
The aim of this cross-sectional study was to show the characteristics of breast cancer across a period of 15 years according to pathological records in Tehran, Iran. In the year 1985, a 20-year study was designed and developed in five major hospitals in Tehran to study the burden and characteristics of breast cancer in Iran. This study is based on the data collected from 1986 through 2000. SPSS version 13 was used for statistical analysis. In this study, 1612 female breast cancer records were reviewed. The mean age of patients was 47.95±12.42 years with a median of 47 years. Over the study period, the proportion of tumors diagnosed at T2 increased with a decline in the proportion of T3 cases. Similarly, the percentage of stage II cases at diagnosis increased, whereas stage III decreased. We detected a decrease in tumor size and downstaging of female breast cancer in Tehran, Iran. This can be attributed to the overall improvement in the level of health in Iran and also educational activities that teach women how to perform breast self-exam and when and why to ask for breast examination. © 2010 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
Sajadian A.,Iranian Center for Breast Cancer |
Montazeri A.,Iranian Institute for Health science Research
Iranian Journal of Epidemiology | Year: 2011
Background & Objectives: The experience of patients with breast cancer may vary in different cultures. The aim of this qualitative study was to explore the experiences of women with breast cancer in Iran. Methods: Fifty one participants were recruited from a university-affiliated breast clinic in Tehran. In-depth interviews each lasting approximately one hour per participant were scheduled and conducted in a private room. The interviews intended to motivate the participants to reflect on their life experiences since the cancer diagnosis. The interviews were tape-recorded and were transcribed to elucidate the major themes encountered in the interviews. Results: The mean age of patients was 48.8 years (SD = 10.5), 44 were married, one was single, and six were widowed or divorced. Forty-eight participants underwent radical mastectomy and 13 patients received breast-conserving surgery. Thirty-five (69%) patients received chemotherapy. Overall eight major themes emerged from the analysis. These were: importance of God and spiritual beliefs, importance of family support especially husbands and children during the diagnosis and treatment, difficult times during receiving mammography results, experiencing an ambiguous condition while losing their breasts, fear of recurrence, concerns about children, and chemotherapy as the worst experience during the course of treatment. Conclusion: The study results suggest that chemotherapy is the worst experience for women with breast cancer. This needs to be considered by oncologists in planning medical care for cancer patients. In addition it seems that patients' spiritual beliefs might be considered as an extra resource to help patients to overcome their problems.
Nasrinossadat A.,Iranian Center for Breast Cancer |
Ladan F.,Iranian Center for Breast Cancer |
Fereshte E.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences |
Asieh O.,Iranian Center for Breast Cancer |
And 3 more authors.
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention | Year: 2011
Introduction: The widespread use of improved mammographic techniques has led to increased detection of nonpalpable breast masses. Preoperative localization is important for reducing false negative results and decreasing the size of tissue resection needed and the resulting breast deformity. We used ultrasound guided methylen blue injection in the mass for localization of breast masses that were clinically nonpalpable but detectable by ultrasound. Materials and methods: 57 masses from 51 patients were marked 20 to 180 minutes before surgery with 0.4-0.7 cc methylene blue and resection was done in operating room under local or general anesthesia. success of radiologist for localization and success of surgeon for complete resection and pathology results were reviwed and fallow up ultrasound was done 3-5 month after surgery for patients whom pathology report was non specific (such as FCC) to confirm complete resection. Results: 57 masses were excised successfully by the surgeon, localization was successful in all patients but injection in the mass was not feasible in 4 patients and dye was injected on the surface of the mass and led to successful excision .Only one mass was not found at surgery because dye washed out before surgery, and the mass was resected by use of intra operative ultrasound. 5.3% patients reported the procedure was painful and 28% reported tolerable pain during injection and 66.7 % of patients said that the injection was painless or with minimal discomfort. Allergic reaction was not seen in any patient and no interference was reported by the pathologist in slide preparation or diagnoses and IHC study. Conclusion: Marking with blue dye injection is a safe and low cost method for localization of non palpable breast lesions that are detectable by Ultrasound. In one patient failure to find the mass was because of location of the mass that was in axillary tail of breast and time of surgery that was 100 minutes after injection that led to absorption of blue dye before surgery and it is advised to do surgery as soon as possible after blue dye injection especially in peripheral and deeply located masses.
Najafi S.,Iranian Center for Breast Cancer |
Esmaeeli Djavid G.,Iranian Center for Breast Cancer |
Mehrdad N.,Iranian Center for Breast Cancer |
Rajaii E.,Iranian Center for Breast Cancer |
And 5 more authors.
Menopause | Year: 2011
Objective: The objective of our study was to show the impact of different chemotherapy regimens on the incidence of amenorrhea (chemotherapy-induced amenorrhea [CIA]) in premenopausal women of various ages with breast cancer. Methods: This is a follow-up study of 226 premenopausal women with breast cancer who had received one of three chemotherapy regimens: conventional (cyclophosphamide/methotrexate/5-fluorouracil), anthracycline based, and anthracycline-taxane based. They were evaluated for the incidence of CIA in the follow-up clinic of the Iranian Center for Breast Cancer. A statistical analysis using SPSS software was performed, and logistic regression and Cox regression model were used to determine the risk factors for CIA. Results: Of the 226 women with a median age of 40 years (range, 26-56 y) who participated in this study, 154 (68.1%) developed CIA. In 101 (65.6%) of these women, CIA was established. CIA was present in 52.5% of the women who had been treated with conventional regimens (cyclophosphamide/methotrexate/5-fluorouracil), 66.7% of the women who had been treated with anthracycline, and 78.7% of the women who had been treated with anthracycline-taxane. Therefore, the frequency of CIA was significantly higher in the taxane-based chemotherapy group than in the other groups (P = 0.015). Although a slightly higher incidence of CIA in women with hormone-insensitive tumors (estrogen receptor negative and progesterone receptor negative) versus hormone-sensitive tumors (estrogen receptor positive and progesterone receptor positive) who had been treated with combination regimens was observed, no statistically significant difference was found (P = 0.629). Of all of the risk factors that were evaluated in the study, anthracycline-taxane- based regimens (odds ratio, 4.059; 95% CI, 1.6-9.8) and age older than 40 years (odds ratio, 3.5; 95% CI, 1.9-6.6) were the most important factors in the development of CIA. Conclusions: The type of chemotherapy and the age of the woman at the onset of breast cancer are the most important risk factors in CIA. Taxane-based regimens induced more CIA than did other regimens. © 2011 by The North American Menopause Society.
Salimi M.,Tarbiat Modares University |
Mozdarani H.,Tarbiat Modares University |
Majidzadeh-A K.,Iranian Center for Breast Cancer
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention | Year: 2012
Considerable attention has been given to the accuracy of HER-2 testing and the correlation between the results of different testing methods. This interest reflects the growing importance of HER-2 status in the management of patients with breast cancer. In this study the detection of HER-2 gene and centromere 17 status was evaluated using dual-colour primed in situ labelling (PRINS) in comparison with fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). These two methods were evaluated on a series of 27 formalin fixed paraffin embedded breast carcinoma tumours, previously tested for protein overexpression by HercepTest (grouped into Hercep 1+/0, 2+ and 3+). HER-2 gene amplification (ratio≥2.2) by PRINS was found in 3:3, 6:21 and 0:3 in IHC 3+, 2+ and 1+/0 cases, respectively. Comparing FISH and IHC (immunohistochemistry), showed the same results as for PRINS and IHC. Chromosome 17 aneusomy was found in 10 of 21 IHC 2+ cases (47.6%), of which 1 (10%) showed hypodisomy (chromosome 17 copy number per cell≤1.75), 7 (70%) showed low polysomy (chromosome 17 copy number per cell=2.26-3.75) and 2 (20%) showed high polysomy (chromosome 17 copy number per cell ≥3.76). The overall concordance of detection of HER-2 gene amplification by FISH and PRINS was 100% (27:27). Furthermore, both the level of HER-2 amplification and copy number of CEN17 analysis results correlated well between the two methods. In conclusion, PRINS is a reliable, reproducible technique and in our opinion can be used as an additional test to determine HER-2 status in breast tumours.
Majidzadeh-A K.,Iranian Center for Breast Cancer |
Esmaeili R.,Iranian Center for Breast Cancer |
Abdoli N.,Iranian Center for Breast Cancer
BMC Research Notes | Year: 2011
Background: Biomedical researchers have long looked for ways to diagnose and treat cancer patients at the early stages through biomarkers. Although conventional techniques are routinely applied in the detection of biomarkers, attitudes towards using Real-Time PCR techniques in detection of many biomarkers are increasing. Normalization of quantitative Real-Time PCR is necessary to validate non-biological alteration occurring during the steps of RNA quantification. Selection of variably expressed housekeeping genes (HKs) will affect the validity of the data. The aim of the present study was to identify uniformly expressed housekeeping genes in order to use in the breast cancer gene expression studies. Urokinase Plasminogen Activator was used as a gene of interest. Findings. The expression of six HKs (TFRC, GUSB, GAPDH, ACTB, HPRT1 and RPLP0) was investigated using geNorm and NormFinder softwares in forty breast tumor, four normal and eight adjacent tissues. RPLP0 and GAPDH revealed maximum M value, while TFRC demonstrated lowest M value. Conclusions: In the present study the most and the least stable genes were TFRC and RPLP0 respectively. TFRC and ACTB were verified as the best combination of two genes for breast cancer quantification. The result of this study shows that in each gene expression analysis HKs selection should be done based on experiment conditions. © 2011 Majidzadeh-A et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.
PubMed | Iranian Center for Breast Cancer
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Cell and tissue banking | Year: 2013
The information gained from the Human Genome Project has facilitated molecular as well as cellular studies not only to find the origins of Breast Cancer (BC), but also to create novel, and effective treatments. In order to provide an infrastructure for local and international research in this area, Iranian Center for Breast Cancer (ICBC) has established a Bio-Bank (BB) for BC. This article describes the aim, structure, and activities in general, and the challenging issues confronting the bank as a model for the establishment of Bio-Banks in developing countries in particular. The methods employed by the Bank could be explained in the following categories: Blood and Tissue sampling, Preparation and Banking of collected Samples, Clinical and Histopathology data collection, Collaboration Protocol, Challenging issues, and the programs to confront the problems. During the five-year activity of the bank, 110 families were enrolled for genetic counseling, from whom 600 biologic samples were obtained, including 387 blood samples and 213 tissue samples. Of 387 blood samples, 317 (82%) were found to belong to the BC patients and the remaining 70 (18%) belonged to their available relatives. The number of samples increased over the study period partly as a result of the programs designed to confront the problems. During the study period, there were some finished research studies using the samples of BB, and many other studies which are still ongoing. ICBC-BB is a model of biologic sample banking which provides a significant number of biological samples for local and international collaborative research projects regarding molecular and cellular aspects of BC. In establishing the ICBC-BB we have experienced problems and challenges, some general and some local. Some were expected and others not, but we have identified solutions.