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Matin A.A.,University of Tabriz | Biparva P.,Sari University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources | Gheshlaghi M.,Iranian Academic Center for Education
Journal of Chromatography A | Year: 2014

A novel solid-phase microextraction fiber was prepared based on multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) loaded on hollow fiber membrane pores. Stainless steel wire was used as unbreakable support. The major advantages of the proposed fiber are its (a) high reproducibility due to the uniform structure of the hollow fiber membranes, (b) high extraction capacity related to the porous structure of the hollow fiber and outstanding adsorptive characteristics of MWCNTs. The proposed fiber was applied for the microextraction of five representative polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from aqueous media (river and hubble-bubble water) and smoked rice samples followed by gas chromatographic determination. Analytical merits of the method, including high correlation coefficients [(0.9963-0.9992) and (0.9982-0.9999)] and low detection limits [(9.0-13.0ngL-1) and (40.0-150.0ngkg-1)] for water and rice samples, respectively, made the proposed method suitable for the ultra-trace determination of PAHs. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.All rights reserved.


Pourianfar H.R.,Swinburne University of Technology | Pourianfar H.R.,Iranian Academic Center for Education | Poh C.L.,Swinburne University of Technology | Poh C.L.,Sunway University | And 2 more authors.
Virus Research | Year: 2012

Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is the causative agent of hand foot and mouth disease (HFMD) and can also cause fatal neurological complications for which currently there is no vaccine or approved antiviral drug. Despite suggestions that heparan sulfate (HS)-like compounds are effective antivirals against various viruses, no research has been undertaken to examine their effects upon EV71. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the in vitro anti-EV71 effect of HS mimetics (heparin, heparan sulfate, and pentosan polysulfate). The results revealed that all of the compounds exhibited significant antiviral actions (p< 0.05) against EV71 at concentrations less than 250 μg/mL, compared to virus control and positive control, ribavirin. Among the compounds, heparin exhibited the most potent antiviral activity, as 7.81 μg/mL of it prevented the infection by more than 90% (p< 0.05). Assays to reveal the mode of action revealed that all of the compounds were capable of exerting antiviral activity through hindrance of viral attachment to the cells. In addition, some of the compounds could inhibit viral replication when added to cells 1. h before infection, but none significantly reduced viral penetration. Overall, this research revealed that HS mimetic compounds could inhibit EV71 infection, and that HS may be involved in EV71-host cell interactions, as the virus binding to the host cells was significantly hindered by the HS-like compounds but not by ribavirin. Thus, further investigations to discover the molecular mechanisms underlying the anti-EV71 action of HS-like compounds are warranted. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.


Kirk K.,Swinburne University of Technology | Poh C.L.,Sunway University | Fecondo J.,Swinburne University of Technology | Pourianfar H.,Iranian Academic Center for Education | And 2 more authors.
Vaccine | Year: 2012

Currently, infections of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) due to Human Enterovirus 71 (EV71) cannot be prevented or treated, as there are no suitable vaccines or antiviral drugs. This study aimed to identify potential vaccine candidates for EV71 using in silico analysis of its viral capsid proteins. A combined in silico approach utilizing computational hidden Markov model (HMM), propensity scale algorithm, and artificial learning, identified three 15-mer structurally conserved B-cell epitope candidates lying within the EV71 capsid proteins. Peptide vaccine candidates incorporating a target B-cell epitope and a promiscuous T-cell epitope from the related polio virus were synthesized using solid-phase Fmoc chemistry. Inbred BALB/C mice which were inoculated with two 10 μg doses of the synthetic peptide, generated anti-peptide antibodies. Purified IgG isolated from pooled sera of the inoculated mice neutralized EV71 infections in vitro. Furthermore, these neutralizing antibodies were cross-reactive against other members of the Picornaviridae family, demonstrating greater than 50% virus neutralization. This indicates that the current approach is promising for the development of synthetic peptide-based vaccine candidates against Picornaviridae. Development of effective vaccines is of paramount importance in managing the disease in the Asia Pacific regions where this virus is endemic and has significant social, economic and public health ramifications. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.


Gholizadeh S.,Urmia University | Moghadas R.,Iranian Academic Center for Education
Advances in Structural Engineering | Year: 2014

The main aim of this work is to present a methodology for performance-based optimum seismic design of moment resisting steel frame structures. In the present study, an improved quantum particle swarm optimization (IQPSO) metaheuristic algorithm is proposed to implement performance-based optimum design (PBOD) process. During the optimization process, QPSO and IQPSO algorithms minimize the structural weight subject to performance constraints on inter-story drift ratios based on FEMA-356 provisions at the immediate occupancy (IO), life safety (LS) and collapse prevention (CP) performance levels. Nonlinear pushover analysis is conducted to compute the necessary structural responses during the PBOD process. Two numerical examples are presented to illustrate the efficiency of the presented methodology. The numerical results demonstrate the superiority of the proposed IQPSO to the classical QPSO algorithm.


Farhadi K.,Urmia University | Maleki R.,Iranian Academic Center for Education
Journal of the Chinese Chemical Society | Year: 2011

A simple and sensitive method based on dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) in conjunction with high performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection (HPLC-DAD) has been developed for the quantitative analysis of patulin in apple juice and concentrate samples. The effect of extraction and disperser solvent (nature and volume), pH of sample solution, extraction time and extraction temperature was investigated. Under the optimal conditions the linear dynamic range of patulin was from 8.0 to 40.0 μg L -1 with a correlation coefficient of 0.9993 and a detection limit of 4.0 μg L -1. The relative standard deviation (RSD) was less than 5.9% (n = 5) and the recovery values were in the range of 94-97%. Finally the proposed method was successfully applied for the analysis of patulin in apple juice and concentrate samples.


Yolmeh M.,Ferdowsi University of Mashhad | Najafzadeh M.,Iranian Academic Center for Education
International Journal of Food Science and Technology | Year: 2014

Using of ultrasound in food processing is a novel and interesting technique, which is often complementary to classical methods. This study reports on the ultrasound blanching (USB) of green bean. Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to study the effect of process variables on the USB. Three independent variables including temperature (50-90 °C), time (45-225 s) and duty cycle (0.2-0.8 s) were examined. The optimal USB conditions were obtained with a temperature of 90 °C, USB time of 58.27 s and duty cycle of 0.79 s. At these conditions, the residual peroxidase activity (RPA) determined as 9.64% and the vitamin C loss as 8.92%. The experimental values under optimal condition were in good consistent with the predicted values. According to the results, the USB process is more efficient process and as well as less damage to the product compared to the conventional blanching method. © 2014 Institute of Food Science and Technology.


Pourianfar H.R.,Iranian Academic Center for Education | Pourianfar H.R.,Swinburne University of Technology | Grollo L.,Swinburne University of Technology
Journal of Microbiology, Immunology and Infection | Year: 2015

Enterovirus 71 (EV71) infection remains a public health problem at a global level, particularly in the Asia-Pacific region. The infection normally manifests as hand-foot-mouth disease; however, it is capable of developing into potentially fatal neurological complications. There is currently no approved vaccine or antiviral substance available for the prevention or treatment of EV71 infection. This paper, thus, reviews efforts to develop or discover synthetic as well as naturally occurring compounds directed against EV71 infection. The recent achievements in cellular receptors of EV71 are also highlighted, and their contribution to the development of antiviral drugs against EV71 is discussed in this article. © 2013.


Eshaghi A.,Iran University of Science and Technology | Graeli A.,Iranian Academic Center for Education
Optik | Year: 2014

In this research, indium tin oxide (ITO) thin films of various thickness (200, 250, 300, 350, 400 nm) were deposited on polycarbonate polymer substrates using a magnetron sputtering technique. The structure, morphology, surface composition, optical and electrical properties of the thin films were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FE-SEM), X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), UV-VIS-NIR spectrophotometer and four point probe method, respectively. The results indicated that grain size increased as the thickness increased. The transmittance and sheet resistance of the ITO thin films showed that ITO thin films with 200 nm thickness had the highest transmission whereas ITO thin film with 400 nm had the best conductivity.


Sotoude D.,University of Applied Science and Technology of Iran | Sotoude F.,Iranian Academic Center for Education
Frontiers in Artificial Intelligence and Applications | Year: 2016

Clustering is an important data mining problem. Many clustering algorithms have been proposed, most of them deal with clustering of numerical data. In this paper, we propose a new approach of clustering numerical data named RCND (Random Based Clustering for Numerical Data). We suggest to cluster data regardless of their distribution. © 2016 The authors and IOS Press. All rights reserved.


Patent
Iranian Academic Center For Education | Date: 2010-04-24

The embodiments herein relate to a photocatalytic reactor system and photo-degrading method for eliminating organic and high molecular oil contaminant (or pollutants) from industrial wastewater. A more economical and stable titanium dioxide (TiO_(2)) having a diameter of 2110 nm is used as the photocatalyst. Method and system of present invention is highly efficient, compatibles with the environment and does not require secondary or additional treatments. In one embodiment, an optimal and very low catalyst concentration (100 ppm) is used for high degradation of the pollutant which is irradiated for utmost 120 min using UV light. This has an industrially interest as this method is considered as an alternative or synergetic process for biological degradation, having high residence times, required to provide significant COD removal. The analysis of the contained materials showed that the efficiency of the applied degradation system is high for all the identified present organic pollutants.

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