Iran Power System Engineering Research Center

Sari, Iran

Iran Power System Engineering Research Center

Sari, Iran

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Seifi H.,Iran Power System Engineering Research Center | Seifi H.,University of Tehran | Sepasian M.S.,University of Tehran
Power Systems | Year: 2011

In previous chapters, we looked at the expansion planning of generations and substations. Although in both GEP and SEP (Chaps. 6 and 7), the network conditions were, somehow, accounted for, the modeling was very approximate and needs much further investigations. The so called Network Expansion Planning (NEP) process tries to find the optimum routes between the generation buses (determined in GEP phase) and the load centers (determined from load forecasting) via substations (determined in SEP phase), in such a way that • Loads are completely supplied during both - Normal conditions - Once some types of contingencies occur on some system elements1 • Least costs are incurred. © Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2011.


Seifi H.,Iran Power System Engineering Research Center | Seifi H.,University of Tehran | Sepasian M.S.,University of Tehran
Power Systems | Year: 2011

In practice, the studies should be performed well in advance, as constructing a substation requires enough time. Therefore, the base year is normally not the current year, but, it is the year in which the data are known and already decided upon. For instance, current year may be 2010, base year may be 2013 and study period may be 2014-2020. © Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2011.


Seifi H.,Iran Power System Engineering Research Center | Seifi H.,University of Tehran | Sepasian M.S.,University of Tehran
Power Systems | Year: 2011

We have so far covered various power system planning issues, namely, load forecasting, GEP, SEP, NEP and RPP. We assumed, implicitly, that all decisions are made by a single entity. Moreover, we assumed that the information used lacks any uncertainty. None of the above is strictly true. In terms of the former, due to power system de-regulating, GEP, from one side, is unbundled from the others (SEP, NEP and RPP). Some new market participants act as major players for investing on new generation facilities. These generation companies try to make the most profit from their investments. They should, somehow predict the rivals behaviors. They should, have their own input information (such as the system load forecasting) for proper decision makings. From this viewpoint, GEP is a completely different story in comparison with the traditional environment. We will see, however, that a modified traditional GEP may also be used in the de-regulated environment; now, from other entities viewpoints. If GEP is decided by some entities based on their own judgements, how can a different or some different entities proceed towards the other steps (SEP, NEP and RPP) if they cannot make sure what the GEP players do in actual life. Still, there are more uncertainties involved for their various decision makings. So, briefly speaking, uncertainties play major roles in power system planning issues of the new environment. © Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2011.


Seifi H.,Iran Power System Engineering Research Center | Seifi H.,University of Tehran | Sepasian M.S.,University of Tehran
Power Systems | Year: 2011

As detailed in Chap. 5, GEP is, in fact, the process of determining the generation requirements for a system so that the loads can be satisfied in an efficient (typically the most economical) manner while various technical or non-technical constraints are met. The approach presented in Chap. 5 was based on single bus representation of the system. In other words, we basically ignored the transmission system and found out the total generation requirements based on an optimization model. © Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2011.


Seifi H.,Iran Power System Engineering Research Center | Seifi H.,University of Tehran | Sepasian M.S.,University of Tehran
Power Systems | Year: 2011

Various aspects of power system planning were covered in Chaps. 4-10. Planning in the presence of uncertainties was addressed in Chap. 11. We discussed there some basic concepts appearing in power system planning literature. In this chapter, we are going to cite some references; addressing research trends in power system planning. © Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2011.


Seifi H.,Iran Power System Engineering Research Center | Seifi H.,University of Tehran | Sepasian M.S.,University of Tehran
Power Systems | Year: 2011

With electric power consumption growth, desired new transmission system elements are needed to overcome the possible lack of adequacy problems so that with the least costs, various operational constraints are met. In the so-called Substation Expansion Planning (SEP), the problem is to determine the required expansion capacities of the existing substations as well as the locations and the sizes of new substations together with the required availability times, so that the loads can be adequately supplied. © Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2011.


Seifi H.,Iran Power System Engineering Research Center | Seifi H.,University of Tehran | Sepasian M.S.,University of Tehran
Power Systems | Year: 2011

Similar to any other social science, economics has appeared in power system field, too. Like any other man-made industry, electric power industry is confronted with revenues and costs; resulting in economic principles to be continuously observed. The emerged electric power markets have resulted in full involvements of this industry in economic based theories, applications and principles. © Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2011.


Seifi H.,Iran Power System Engineering Research Center | Seifi H.,University of Tehran | Sepasian M.S.,University of Tehran
Power Systems | Year: 2011

Over the years, voltage performance of a power system has received attention from both analysis and improvement points of view. Although voltage magnitudes are, normally, of main concern, during the last, perhaps, two decades, voltage stability is also received attention in literature. In this section, we try to briefly, differentiate between these two aspects of voltage performance of a system. Following that, we review some of the indices which may be used for each case. © Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2011.


Seifi H.,Iran Power System Engineering Research Center | Seifi H.,University of Tehran | Sepasian M.S.,University of Tehran
Power Systems | Year: 2011

Suppose one of our choices is to use a 400 kV line with 1/5 per unit reactance and 1/16 per unit resistance (per km) of the respective values of an available 230 kV line. In terms of the susceptance, it is assumed that B of the 400 kV line is 2.5 times that of the 230 kV line. Moreover assume that its thermal capacity is three times higher than that of the 230 kV line. © Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2011.


Seifi H.,Iran Power System Engineering Research Center | Seifi H.,University of Tehran | Sepasian M.S.,University of Tehran
Power Systems | Year: 2011

In this chapter we are going to talk about load forecasting, as one of the basic and perhaps the most important module of power system planning issues. Although some other words, such as, demand and consumption are also used instead of load, we use load as the most common term. The actual term is electric load; however, electric is omitted here and assumed to be obvious. It is well understood that both the energy (MWh, kWh) and the power (MW, kW) are the two basic parameters of a load. By load, we mean the power. However, if energy is required in our analyses, we will use the energy demand or simply the energy, to refer to it. Obviously if the load shape is known, the energy can be calculated from its integral. © Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2011.

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