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Shakerardekani A.,Iran Pistachio Research Institute | Karim R.,University Putra Malaysia | Ghazali H.M.,University Putra Malaysia | Chin N.L.,University Putra Malaysia
JAOCS, Journal of the American Oil Chemists' Society | Year: 2015

In this study, pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) spread was prepared using pistachio paste, icing sugar, and red palm oil. Pistachio paste, pistachio spread without emulsifier, and pistachio spread with 1.5 % monoglycerides (Dimodan HP-M, Danisco, Malaysia) were investigated to determine their oxidative stability by subjecting them to accelerated autoxidation conditions (60 °C). Pistachio paste and pistachio spread exhibit a great susceptibility to lipid oxidation due to their high-fat content. However, it was found that the high oleic and palmitic contents of the oil increase its stability. In all the pistachio products examined, Totox values were higher than 10 (the maximum permitted level) after 25 days of storage. In none of the products was (E,E)-2,4-decadienal detected on day 0. After 25 days of storage, however, the peak area percentages rose to 0.13, 0.19, and 0.18 in pistachio paste, pistachio spread without emulsifier, and pistachio spread with emulsifier, respectively. Based on color investigations, the a value (i.e., less greenish) was increased in all the pistachio samples at the end of the storage period. Based on the results obtained from sensory evaluations as well as GC-MS, free fatty acid (FFA), and color measurements, it may be concluded that the shelf life of pistachio products is 20 days at 60 °C. © 2015 AOCS.

Shakerardekani A.,University Putra Malaysia | Shakerardekani A.,Iran Pistachio Research Institute | Karim R.,University Putra Malaysia
Journal of Food Science and Technology | Year: 2013

Pistachio nut (Pistacia vera L.) is one of the popular tree nuts in the world. Proper selection of packaging materials is necessary to prevent absorption of moisture and aflatoxin formation which will influence the overall product quality and safety. This research is undertaken to study the effect of different type of flexible packaging films on the moisture and aflatoxin contents of whole pistachio nuts during storage at ambient temperature (22-28 C) and relative humidity of 85-100%. Five types of plastic films tested were low density polyethylene (LDPE) which serves as the control, food-grade polyvinyl chloride (PVC), nylon (LDPE/PA), polyamide/polypropylene (PA/PP) and polyethylene terephthalate (PET). The moisture content and aflatoxin content of pistachio nuts were measured using oven drying method and HPLC, respectively. Sample were analysed at 0, 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 months during the storage period. Results showed that there was an increase in moisture content with the increase in storage time of pistachio nuts. The increase in moisture content was associated with the aflatoxin level of pistachio nuts during storage time. All the packaging materials except LDPE delayed the moisture absorption and aflatoxin formation of the product. The most suitable packaging materials for maintaining the quality and safety of pistachio nuts is PET films followed by nylon, PA/PP and PVC. The shelf-life of pistachio can be extended from 2 months (Control) to 5 months when PET is used as the packaging material. © 2012 Association of Food Scientists & Technologists (India).

Adibfar S.,Islamic Azad University at Karaj | Mostafavi M.,Islamic Azad University at Karaj | Hoseinifard S.J.,Iran Pistachio Research Institute
Thai Journal of Agricultural Science | Year: 2012

Pistachio Endocarp Lesion (PEL), an economic physiological disorder of pistachio fruits, has been reported in Iran, Australia and California. PEL would cause considerable but unpredictable damage in all Iran pistachio growing areas. There is not yet a known method available to even predict or control of the disorder. In the current work, the possibility of controlling PEL development after its natural incidence in developing clusters, using different concentrations and application- timings of CaCl2 sprays were evaluated. Also, the influences of sprays on leaf macro and micro nutrient elements of trees were compared. In 2011, monitoring PEL in orchard condition revealed that the highest damage rate was occurred in the mid of May and decreased during the last week of July. Foliar CaCl2 sprays were highly efficient in controlling PEL in late April so that it decreased PEL from 20% damage in control to less than 2% using one spray of 4 kg CaCl2 1000 L-1 ha-1. Similar results obtained using two sprays of 2 kg ha-1 treatment. Between macro-nutrients including phosphorus, potassium, calcium and magnesium; orchard trees showed phosphorus deficiency with levels less than the critical level (0.14%) while others were higher than their critical levels. However Iron, zinc, manganese and copper were sufficient in all treatments. PEL monitoring-based CaCl2 application has no effect on changing calcium content of leaves while it was efficient in controlling PEL disorder during the development stage of pistachio clusters.

Javanshah A.,Iran Pistachio Research Institute
African Journal of Agricultural Research | Year: 2010

Climate changes have already affected species distribution shifts in many parts of the world. The data, on which this research is based on, were collected and studied in Kerman province. The meteorology data were on four months (December, January, February and March) from 1991 until 2008 and the phenology data were on six pistachio cultivars that were ranked in three groups: early flowering, mid flowering and late flowering collected during the summers in the following years: 1997, from 2001 until 2005 and 2007. The evaluated factors included leaf area, normal and abnormal leaves. The results showed the mean temperature in March has significantly increased during the monitored period and that fluctuations between the years have increased since 1999, in December, January and February. The abnormality of the leaves in early and late flowering cultivars had the negative correlation with the mean temperature measured in December during the monitored period of time and that the mid flowering cultivars had the positive correlation with the mean temperature measured in February during that same period of time. The changes of leaf area on Ahamadaghaei cultivar were less than in other cultivars but Kallehghoochi and Akbari had the highest range which can probably be used as a good marker for determining effects of temperature changes in winter on the production level. ©2010 Academic Journals.

Shakerardekani A.,Iran Pistachio Research Institute | Shahedi M.,Isfahan University of Technology
Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology | Year: 2015

Pistachio nut (Pistacia vera L.) is one of the most delicious and nutritious nuts in the world. In order to increase the added value of the pistachio nuts, it is necessary to develop new products to meet consumer needs. This is the first paper on pistachio halva. The product was developed using pistachio paste (as main ingredient), mixture of sugarglucose, egg white and citric acid. The effect of soapwort root extract (from saponaria officinalis) and Glycyrrhizin (from Glycyrrhiza glabra) as whitening and emulsifying agent in three levels (0.00, 0.10, and 0.15%) on the oil separation, consumer acceptance, and texture of pistachio halva was investigated. Sensory evaluation was carried out after 4 months storage at 20±2°C. There was a significant difference (P< 0.05) between samples with and without soapwort and glycyrrhizin. The oil separation (R= 0.595, P=0.001), from halva were moderately correlated to the hardness. The sensory texture of halva was negatively correlated to the hardness (R= -0.694, P= 0.000) and oil separation (R= -0.730, P= 0.000). The sensory color (R= 0.652, P= 0.000) of halva was moderately correlated to the a-value. It is recommended that mixture of 0.10% soapwort root extract and 0.10% commercial Glycyrrhizin be used for the pistachio halva production. Using combination of soapwort root extract and Glycyrrhizin in the formulation of pistachio halva prevents oil separation from the product and increases its consumer acceptance. Development of pistachio halva would potentially increase the food uses of nuts and introduce consumers with a healthier non-animal snack food. © 2015, Tarbiat Modares University. All rights reserved.

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