Iran Pistachio Research Institute

Rafsanjān, Iran

Iran Pistachio Research Institute

Rafsanjān, Iran
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Shakerardekani A.,Iran Pistachio Research Institute | Shahedi M.,Isfahan University of Technology
Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology | Year: 2015

Pistachio nut (Pistacia vera L.) is one of the most delicious and nutritious nuts in the world. In order to increase the added value of the pistachio nuts, it is necessary to develop new products to meet consumer needs. This is the first paper on pistachio halva. The product was developed using pistachio paste (as main ingredient), mixture of sugarglucose, egg white and citric acid. The effect of soapwort root extract (from saponaria officinalis) and Glycyrrhizin (from Glycyrrhiza glabra) as whitening and emulsifying agent in three levels (0.00, 0.10, and 0.15%) on the oil separation, consumer acceptance, and texture of pistachio halva was investigated. Sensory evaluation was carried out after 4 months storage at 20±2°C. There was a significant difference (P< 0.05) between samples with and without soapwort and glycyrrhizin. The oil separation (R= 0.595, P=0.001), from halva were moderately correlated to the hardness. The sensory texture of halva was negatively correlated to the hardness (R= -0.694, P= 0.000) and oil separation (R= -0.730, P= 0.000). The sensory color (R= 0.652, P= 0.000) of halva was moderately correlated to the a-value. It is recommended that mixture of 0.10% soapwort root extract and 0.10% commercial Glycyrrhizin be used for the pistachio halva production. Using combination of soapwort root extract and Glycyrrhizin in the formulation of pistachio halva prevents oil separation from the product and increases its consumer acceptance. Development of pistachio halva would potentially increase the food uses of nuts and introduce consumers with a healthier non-animal snack food. © 2015, Tarbiat Modares University. All rights reserved.

Hashemi Rad H.,Iran Pistachio Research Institute | Radjabi Gh.,Plant Protection Research Institute
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2011

The pistachio green stink bugs Brachynema signatum, Acrosternum heegeri and Chroanta ornatula are the most important pentatomid bugs in the pistachio growing areas. In order to multiply host bugs and use their eggs to rear the eggs of parasitoid wasps (T. agriope & Psix sp.), it is necessary to have suitable laboratory hosts. At first, adults of green stink bugs are collected from nature. After obtaining the eggs, nymphs were reared on the Zygophyllum fabago, Peganum harmala, Helianthus annuus and Cynanchum aqutun fruits under laboratory conditions (28±1°C, 65±5% RH and 16h L: 8h D). Then, developmental nymph period, rate of fatality of nymphs and adults, egg laying period and sum of eggs, were determined. The results showed that, the lowest nymph period and fatality percent of nymphs in A. heegeri, B. signatum and C. ornatulai are observed on C. aqutun fruits with 32.14%, 44.13% and 48.8% and 22.8, 25.4 and 27.2 day, respectively. The highest weight and size difference between the wild and first generation reared female belong to C. ornatula on P. harmala fruits with 0.018 g and 1.2 mm. The least weight and size difference related to B. signatum on C. aqutun fruits with 0.008 g and 0.5 mm. The lowest fatality of nymphs belong to A. heegeri on P. harmala and S. kali fruits with 6.65% and highest belonging to C. ornatula on the Z. fabago fruits with 9.98%. The highest oviposition period and egg laying belong to B. signatum on the C. aqutun fruits with 325 eggs and 32 days. Totally, the results indicated that B. signatum is the most suitable as a laboratory host and C. aqutun fruits are the suitable host plant for mass production of nymph stages and adults of the bugs.

Shakerardekani A.,Technical University of Madrid | Shakerardekani A.,Iran Pistachio Research Institute | Karim R.,Technical University of Madrid | Vaseli N.,Iran Pistachio Research Institute
Journal of Food Processing and Preservation | Year: 2013

In an attempt to develop a new beverage from pistachio nuts, the effect of different methods of making paste, which involved grinding soaked kernels (method 1) and milling roasted kernels (method 2), as well as the blending time (20 or 30min) and pH (6.5, 7.5 or 8.5) of the slurry on the pistachio milk compositions (protein, fat, total dry matter and total soluble solid), was evaluated. The taste and flavor of the pistachio milk were improved by the addition of sugar, vanillin and salt. The overall acceptability of the products was evaluated by 25 untrained panelists using hedonic test. The best processing conditions were milling the roasted kernels and blending the pistachio paste with water at pH8.5 for 30min. The most preferred flavor of pistachio milk is made by the addition of 5.0% sugar, 0.02% vanilla and 0.0% salt. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS: This study describes a process for preparing pistachio milk from small-sized and unsplit pistachio nuts that cannot be used for direct human consumption. This product can be served as a substitute for animal milk. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Adibfar S.,Islamic Azad University at Karaj | Mostafavi M.,Islamic Azad University at Karaj | Hoseinifard S.J.,Iran Pistachio Research Institute
Thai Journal of Agricultural Science | Year: 2012

Pistachio Endocarp Lesion (PEL), an economic physiological disorder of pistachio fruits, has been reported in Iran, Australia and California. PEL would cause considerable but unpredictable damage in all Iran pistachio growing areas. There is not yet a known method available to even predict or control of the disorder. In the current work, the possibility of controlling PEL development after its natural incidence in developing clusters, using different concentrations and application- timings of CaCl2 sprays were evaluated. Also, the influences of sprays on leaf macro and micro nutrient elements of trees were compared. In 2011, monitoring PEL in orchard condition revealed that the highest damage rate was occurred in the mid of May and decreased during the last week of July. Foliar CaCl2 sprays were highly efficient in controlling PEL in late April so that it decreased PEL from 20% damage in control to less than 2% using one spray of 4 kg CaCl2 1000 L-1 ha-1. Similar results obtained using two sprays of 2 kg ha-1 treatment. Between macro-nutrients including phosphorus, potassium, calcium and magnesium; orchard trees showed phosphorus deficiency with levels less than the critical level (0.14%) while others were higher than their critical levels. However Iron, zinc, manganese and copper were sufficient in all treatments. PEL monitoring-based CaCl2 application has no effect on changing calcium content of leaves while it was efficient in controlling PEL disorder during the development stage of pistachio clusters.

Shakerardekani A.,Iran Pistachio Research Institute | Karim R.,University Putra Malaysia | Ghazali H.M.,University Putra Malaysia | Chin N.L.,University Putra Malaysia
JAOCS, Journal of the American Oil Chemists' Society | Year: 2015

In this study, pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) spread was prepared using pistachio paste, icing sugar, and red palm oil. Pistachio paste, pistachio spread without emulsifier, and pistachio spread with 1.5 % monoglycerides (Dimodan HP-M, Danisco, Malaysia) were investigated to determine their oxidative stability by subjecting them to accelerated autoxidation conditions (60 °C). Pistachio paste and pistachio spread exhibit a great susceptibility to lipid oxidation due to their high-fat content. However, it was found that the high oleic and palmitic contents of the oil increase its stability. In all the pistachio products examined, Totox values were higher than 10 (the maximum permitted level) after 25 days of storage. In none of the products was (E,E)-2,4-decadienal detected on day 0. After 25 days of storage, however, the peak area percentages rose to 0.13, 0.19, and 0.18 in pistachio paste, pistachio spread without emulsifier, and pistachio spread with emulsifier, respectively. Based on color investigations, the a value (i.e., less greenish) was increased in all the pistachio samples at the end of the storage period. Based on the results obtained from sensory evaluations as well as GC-MS, free fatty acid (FFA), and color measurements, it may be concluded that the shelf life of pistachio products is 20 days at 60 °C. © 2015 AOCS.

Shakerardekani A.,University Putra Malaysia | Shakerardekani A.,Iran Pistachio Research Institute | Karim R.,University Putra Malaysia | Mirdamadiha F.,Iran Pistachio Research Institute
Journal of Food, Agriculture and Environment | Year: 2012

Quality of dried sorted pistachio nuts could have an important role in the aflatoxin B 1 content of final pistachio lot. In order to determine this effect in different pistachio cultivars, samples of Fandoghi, Ahmad Aghaei and Kale-Ghoochi lots were divided to 7 categories based on the physical appearance of dried pistachios which were yellowish-brown stain, dark-greyish stain, large, medium, tiny, damaged and non-split. The aflatoxin content was measured by the TLC-Scanner method and results showed that the average aflatoxin content of the yellowish-brown stained nuts of the Fandoghi, Ahmad Aghaei, and Kale-Ghoochi cultivars were 136.2, 632.4 and 120.3 ng g -1, respectively, while in the dark-greyish stained nuts contained 28.7, 292.8, 7.3 ng g -1, respectively. The amount of aflatoxin in the Fandoghi, Ahmad Aghaei and Kale-Ghoochi lots can be significantly (P≤0.05) reduced to 94.6%, 97.2% and 98.8%, respectively, if all the stained nuts were removed from the lot during sorting. The highest aflatoxin B 1 content was detected in the stained nuts of all the cultivars studied. This study showed that segregation or removal of all the stained nuts from the unstained portion during the sorting process could contribute to the reduction of aflatoxin content in the final dried pistachio lot.

Shakerardekani A.,University Putra Malaysia | Shakerardekani A.,Iran Pistachio Research Institute | Karim R.,University Putra Malaysia
Journal of Food Science and Technology | Year: 2013

Pistachio nut (Pistacia vera L.) is one of the popular tree nuts in the world. Proper selection of packaging materials is necessary to prevent absorption of moisture and aflatoxin formation which will influence the overall product quality and safety. This research is undertaken to study the effect of different type of flexible packaging films on the moisture and aflatoxin contents of whole pistachio nuts during storage at ambient temperature (22-28 C) and relative humidity of 85-100%. Five types of plastic films tested were low density polyethylene (LDPE) which serves as the control, food-grade polyvinyl chloride (PVC), nylon (LDPE/PA), polyamide/polypropylene (PA/PP) and polyethylene terephthalate (PET). The moisture content and aflatoxin content of pistachio nuts were measured using oven drying method and HPLC, respectively. Sample were analysed at 0, 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 months during the storage period. Results showed that there was an increase in moisture content with the increase in storage time of pistachio nuts. The increase in moisture content was associated with the aflatoxin level of pistachio nuts during storage time. All the packaging materials except LDPE delayed the moisture absorption and aflatoxin formation of the product. The most suitable packaging materials for maintaining the quality and safety of pistachio nuts is PET films followed by nylon, PA/PP and PVC. The shelf-life of pistachio can be extended from 2 months (Control) to 5 months when PET is used as the packaging material. © 2012 Association of Food Scientists & Technologists (India).

Javanshah A.,Iran Pistachio Research Institute
African Journal of Agricultural Research | Year: 2010

Climate changes have already affected species distribution shifts in many parts of the world. The data, on which this research is based on, were collected and studied in Kerman province. The meteorology data were on four months (December, January, February and March) from 1991 until 2008 and the phenology data were on six pistachio cultivars that were ranked in three groups: early flowering, mid flowering and late flowering collected during the summers in the following years: 1997, from 2001 until 2005 and 2007. The evaluated factors included leaf area, normal and abnormal leaves. The results showed the mean temperature in March has significantly increased during the monitored period and that fluctuations between the years have increased since 1999, in December, January and February. The abnormality of the leaves in early and late flowering cultivars had the negative correlation with the mean temperature measured in December during the monitored period of time and that the mid flowering cultivars had the positive correlation with the mean temperature measured in February during that same period of time. The changes of leaf area on Ahamadaghaei cultivar were less than in other cultivars but Kallehghoochi and Akbari had the highest range which can probably be used as a good marker for determining effects of temperature changes in winter on the production level. ©2010 Academic Journals.

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