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Mahmoudi M.,Pasteur Institute of Iran | Mahmoudi M.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | Laurent S.,University of Mons | Shokrgozar M.A.,Pasteur Institute of Iran | And 2 more authors.
ACS Nano | Year: 2011

In the last few decades, nanoparticles (NPs) have been recognized as promising candidates for starting a new revolution in science and technology due to their unusual properties, attracting the attention of physicists, chemists, biologists, and engineers. The aim of this study is to evaluate the toxicities (at both cellular and molecular levels) of three forms of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) of various surface chemistries (COOH, plain, and NH2) through the comparison with gene expression patterns of three cell types (i.e., human heart, brain, and kidney). For this purpose, both an MTT assay and a DNA microarray analysis were applied in three human cell lines-HCM (heart), BE-2-C (brain), and 293T (kidney)-under the exposure to SPIONs-COOH, SPIONs-NH2, and bare SPIONs. The specific gene alteration and hierarchical clustering revealed that SPIONs-COOH altered genes associated with cell proliferative responses due to their reactive oxygen species (ROS) properties. It was also found that the cell type can have quite a significant role in the definition of suitable pathways for detoxification of NPs, which has deep implications for the safe and high yield design of NPs for biomedical applications and will require serious consideration in the future. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

Faghihi S.,Iran National Institute of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology | Li D.,Ecole Polytechnique de Montreal | Szpunar J.A.,University of Saskatchewan
Nanotechnology | Year: 2010

Aseptic loosening induced by wear particles from artificial bearing materials is one of the main causes of malfunctioning in total hip replacements. With the increase in young and active patients, complications in revision surgeries and immense health care costs, there is considerable interest in wear-resistant materials that can endure longer in the harsh and corrosive body environment. Here, the tribological behaviour of nanostructured titanium substrates processed by high-pressure torsion (HPT) is investigated and compared with the coarse-grained samples. The high resolution transmission electron microscopy reveals that a nanostructured sample has a grain size of 5-10 nm compared to that of ∼10 μm and ∼50 μm for untreated and annealed substrates, respectively. Dry and wet wear tests were performed using a linear reciprocating ball-on-flat tribometer. Nanostructured samples show the best dry wear resistance and the lowest wear rate in the electrolyte. There was significantly lower plastic deformation and no change in preferred orientation of nanostructured samples attributable to the wear process. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) shows lower corrosion resistance for nanostructured samples. However, under the action of both wear and corrosion the nanostructured samples show superior performance and that makes them an attractive candidate for applications in which wear and corrosion act simultaneously. (Some figures in this article are in colour only in the electronic version) © 2010 IOP Publishing Ltd.

Tabasi O.,Amirkabir University of Technology | Falamaki C.,Amirkabir University of Technology | Khalaj Z.,Iran National Institute of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology
Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces | Year: 2012

The present work concerns a preliminary step in the production of anticancer drug loaded porous silicon (PSi) for targeted-drug-delivery applications. A successful procedure for the covalent attachment of folic acid, polyethylene glycol (PEG) and doxorubicin to hydrophilic mesoporous silicon layers is presented. A systematic approach has been followed to obtain the optimal composition of the N,N'-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide (DCC)/N-hydroxysuccimide (NHS) in dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) solution for the surface activation process of the undecylenic acid (UD) grafted molecules to take place with minimal undesired byproduct formation. The effect of reactant concentration and kind of solvent (aqueous or DMSO) on the attachment of folic acid to the activated PSi layer has been investigated. The covalent attachment of the doxorubicin molecules to the PSi layer functionalized with folic acid and PEG is discussed. The drug release kinetics as a function of pH has been studied. The functionalized PSi particles show a high cytotoxicity compared to the equivalent amount of free drug. Cell toxicity tests show clearly that the incorporation of folate molecules increases substantially the toxicity of the loaded PSi particles. Accordingly this new functionalized PSi may be considered a proper candidate for targeted drug delivery. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

Akhavan O.,Sharif University of Technology | Ghaderi E.,Nanobiotechnology Research Laboratory | Hashemi E.,Iran National Institute of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology | Rahighi R.,Sharif University of Technology
Nanoscale | Year: 2014

Graphene oxide nanoplatelets (GONPs) with extremely sharp edges (lateral dimensions ∼20-200 nm and thicknesses <2 nm) were applied in extraction of the overexpressed guanine synthesized in the cytoplasm of leukemia cells. The blood serums containing the extracted guanine were used in differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) with reduced graphene oxide nanowall (rGONW) electrodes to develop fast and ultra-sensitive electrochemical detection of leukemia cells at leukemia fractions (LFs) of ∼10-11 (as the lower detection limit). The stability of the DPV signals obtained by oxidation of the extracted guanine on the rGONWs was studied after 20 cycles. Without the guanine extraction, the DPV peaks relating to guanine oxidation of normal and abnormal cells overlapped at LFs <10-9, and consequently, the performance of rGONWs alone was limited at this level. As a benchmark, the DPV using glassy carbon electrodes was able to detect only LFs ∼ 10-2. The ultra-sensitivity obtained by this combination method (guanine extraction by GONPs and then guanine oxidation by rGONWs) is five orders of magnitude better than the sensitivity of the best current technologies (e.g., specific mutations by polymerase chain reaction) which not only are expensive, but also require a few days for diagnosis. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry.

Akhavan O.,Sharif University of Technology | Ghaderi E.,Nanobiotechnology Research Laboratory | Hashemi E.,Iran National Institute of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology | Akbari E.,Sharif University of Technology
Carbon | Year: 2015

In vivo dose-dependent effects of nanoscale graphene oxide (NGO) sheets on reproduction capability of Balb/C mice were investigated. Biodistribution study of the NGO sheets (intravenously injected into male mice at dose of ∼2000 μg/mL or 4 mg/kg of body weight) showed a high graphene uptake in testis. Hence, in vivo effects of the NGO sheets on important characteristics of spermatozoa (including their viability, morphology, kinetics, DNA damage and chromosomal aberration) were evaluated. Significant in vivo effects was found at the injected concentrations ≥200 μg/mL after (e.g., ∼45% reduction in sperm viability and motility at 2000 μg/mL). Observation of remarkable DNA fragmentations and chromosomal aberrations of the spermatozoa after ∼8 weeks from the first weekly injection were assigned to the involvement of the NGO in spermatogenesis of the mice. The uptake of the NGO in the testis could also increase the generation of reactive oxygen species in semen of the mice. Moreover, semen of the NGO-treated mice (containing the damaged spermatozoa) might disturb the hormone secretion and pregnant functionality of female mice (∼44, 35 and 59% reduction in fertility, gestation ability and multi-production capability) and also viability of the next generation (∼15% reduction in postnatal viability of delivered pups). © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.

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