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Sheikh Ashkevari A.,Iran Citrus Research Institute | Hoseinzadeh S.H.,Islamic Azad University at Tehran | Miransari M.,Shahed University
Journal of Plant Nutrition | Year: 2012

With respect to the important effects of nitrogen (N) on plant growth and fruit production, a five-year experiment was performed to evaluate the effects of different sources of N fertilization including chemical and organic on the quantity and quality of citrus fruit. Using five-year old trees, different types of fertilization including ammonium sulfate, urea coated with sulfur, ammonium nitrate and manure were tested using seven treatments in five replicates from 2002 to 2007. Different plant quantitative and qualitative parameters were determined. The most effective strategy on fruit yield production was the use of urea coated with sulfur and manure with 92.46 kg ha-1 fruit yield followed by ammonium sulfate and manure (87.06 kg ha-1) and ammonium sulfate (86.43 kg ha-1). The combination of mineral and organic fertilization may be the most suitable fertilization strategy for citrus production. © 2012 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.


Ashkevari A.S.,Iran Citrus Research Institute | Hoseinzadeh S.H.,Islamic Azad University at Tehran | Miransari M.,Tarbiat Modares University | Miransari M.,AbtinBerkeh Ltd Co.
Journal of Plant Nutrition | Year: 2013

Plants require nutrients including nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and potassium (K) for their growth and production. Although there have been previously extensive research work regarding the effects of NPK on plant growth, data related to the effects of long term application of NPK on the quality and quantity of citrus under rainfed and irrigated conditions are little. Accordingly, such effects were evaluated in this research work using different chemical fertilization factorially combined and on the basis of a completely randomized block design. Using ammonium sulfate (100, 150 and 200 g tree - 1), triple super phosphate (0, 25, 50, and 75 g tree-1) and potassium sulfate (0, 50, 100, 150 g tree - 1) the quantity and quality of citrus fruit, variety Thomson were determined in a 10-year experiment in two different research stations in Ramsar, Iran. NPK fertilization significantly affected the quality and quantity of citrus fruits, indicating the significance of NPK fertilization for citrus production. © 2013 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.


Zabihi H.,University of Technology Malaysia | Ahmad A.,University of Technology Malaysia | Vogeler I.,Agresearch Ltd. | Said M.N.,University of Technology Malaysia | And 3 more authors.
Computers and Electronics in Agriculture | Year: 2015

Land use planning and ecological land evaluation are considered the most important tools and factors of sustainable development. Two aspects are of importance, firstly the potential suitability of the land for a specific use and the secondly management practices that integrate various factors such as agro-ecological aptitude, environmental impact, hydro-climate conditions and socio-economic constraints. The aim of this paper is to identify the variety of interactions, dependencies and feedback between higher and lower level factors, and the impact of these interacting factors on sustainable citrus production. This new framework incorporates three-discipline criteria: socio-economic status, topography and hydro-climate. In this proposed multi-criteria model, the Analytic Network Process (ANP) enabled us to consider interdependency among the 14 different criteria. Based on experts' opinion weights were assigned to each of these 14 different criteria and using the ANP and GIS-MCDM, potential areas based on the most important, or limiting factors were determined. The results of this land suitability procedure (LSP) indicate a number of critical factors, which would help managers to achieve optimum crop yield and decrease the loss of citrus production. According to experts' opinion, higher weights were assigned to minimum temperature and altitude than to all other criteria. The results also demonstrate that climate conditions, and topography play a major role in potential citrus expansion. Suitable regions (free risk areas) for citrus production were identified based on major environmental factors and an optimum suitability map was obtained by overlaying 14 GIS layers. This map will be of value for future citrus planning decisions; and could lead to reduction in citrus investment and expansion into high-risk areas. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.


Golmohammadi M.,Instituto Valenciano Of Investigaciones Agrarias Ivia | Golmohammadi M.,Iran Citrus Research Institute | Llop P.,Instituto Valenciano Of Investigaciones Agrarias Ivia | Scuderi G.,University of Catania | And 3 more authors.
Plant Pathology | Year: 2012

The purpose of this study was to assess the stability of mRNA and rRNA for evaluation of viability for Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri (Xcc). Total RNA from Xcc suspensions subjected to different stress treatments (high temperature or chemical treatment with sodium orthophenylphenate at different concentrations) was extracted at different time periods post-treatment (0, 3, 24 and 48h) and analysed by quantitative real-time reverse transcription PCR (Q-RT-PCR). Primers were designed from selected fragments of rRNA and mRNA from genes involved in bacterial fitness, virulence or general metabolic mechanisms (gumD, rpfB, avrBs2 and gyrB). After stress treatment, only a 445-bp fragment from the gumD mRNA was detected in live Xcc cells specifically, whereas other RNA fragments, as well as DNA targets, were detected in both viable and nonviable cells. Statistical analyses demonstrated that the amount of some transcripts from genes involved in xanthan synthesis, pathogenicity factor regulation and DNA processing was significantly reduced after lethal treatments. The amplification of the 445-bp product from gumD mRNA was demonstrated to be useful for the detection of viable Xcc; the product was detected specifically from viable bacteria on leaf and citrus fruit surfaces and in citrus canker lesions. Instability of long RNA fragments can be used as a practical tool for the study of survival of citrus canker bacteria or for diagnostic purposes when the presence of viable bacteria needs to be confirmed. © 2011 The Authors. Plant Pathology © 2011 BSPP.


Golein B.,Iran Citrus Research Institute | Nazeryan M.,Islamic Azad University at Tonekabon | Babakhani B.,Islamic Azad University
African Journal of Biotechnology | Year: 2012

Understanding phylogenetic relationships and genetic diversity in citrus are important in clarifying genetic relationships, characterizing germplasm and the registration of new cultivars. In this study, the genetic diversity of 28 accessions of citrus including male sterile, sterile, low fertile and fertile cultivars were investigated using eight pairs of simple sequence repeat markers (SSR) markers, which in total, 54 polymorphic alleles with an average of 4.2 alleles per primer were detected. The lowest number of alleles was observed in TAA27, CTT01, CCSM18 and ATC09 loci with only three alleles and the highest number of alleles was observed in TAA15 locus with eight alleles. Polymorphic information content (PIC) values changed from 0.34 (AG14) to 0.90 (CCSM18). Genetic similarities among accessions were calculated according to Jaccard similarity index and used to construct a dendrogram based on the unweighted pair group method using arithmetic averages (UPGMA) which put the 28 samples into four major groups (A, B, C and D). The cultivars of male sterile satsuma mandarin were clustered into group A; those of orange, grapefruit and Page (a complex hybrid) into group B; mandarin cultivars into group C; and lemon Lisbon into group D. Genetic analysis of sterile and low fertile citrus, provide useful information for further breeding programs, collection, preservation and utilization. © 2012 Academic Journals.


Golein B.,Iran Citrus Research Institute | Bigonah M.,Jiroft Agricultural Research Center | Azadvar M.,Jiroft Agricultural Research Center | Golmohammadi M.,Iran Citrus Research Institute
Scientia Horticulturae | Year: 2012

Phylogenic relationships and genetic diversity in citrus are considered to be important in clarifying their genetic relationships, germplasm characterization and the registration of new varieties. The 'Bakraee' (Citrus sp.) is an unknown natural biotype which is being used widely as rootstock as well as edible fruit in some regions of Iran. In the present research work, phylogenic relationships among 'Bakraee' and some commercially important citrus varieties were investigated through SSR and PCR-RFLP molecular markers. Two UPGMA dendrograms were generated using SSR and PCR-RFLP data. SSR data showed 0.87 and 0.65 genetic similarities between 'Bakraee' and rough lemon (Citrus jambhiri Lush.) and sweet lime (Citrus limettioides Tan.), respectively. PCR-RFLP analysis demonstrated that all of the amplified fragments in 'Bakraee' are also present in rough lemon. Our study confirmed a close relationship between 'Bakraee' and rough lemon and support the possibility of rough lemon as maternal parent in the hybrid origin of 'Bakraee'. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.


Murcia N.,Instituto Valenciano Of Investigaciones Agrarias | Bani Hashemian S.M.,Instituto Valenciano Of Investigaciones Agrarias | Bani Hashemian S.M.,Iran Citrus Research Institute | Serra P.,Instituto Valenciano Of Investigaciones Agrarias | And 3 more authors.
Plant Disease | Year: 2015

Citrus are natural hosts of several viroid species. Citrus exocortis viroid (CEVd) and Hop stunt viroid (HSVd) are the causal agents of two well-known diseases of citrus, exocortis and cachexia. Other viroids have been found to induce specific symptoms and different degrees of stunting in trees grafted on trifoliate orange and trifoliate orange hybrids. A field assay was initiated in 1989 to establish the effect of CEVd, HSVd, Citrus bent leaf viroid (CBLVd), Citrus dwarfing viroid (CDVd), and Citrus bark cracking viroid (CBCVd) on Washington navel sweet orange trees grafted on Carrizo citrange rootstock. Here we report the effect of viroid infection on symptom expression, tree size, fruit production and quality evaluated from 2004 to 2007. Vegetative growth was affected by viroid infection with height and canopy volume being reduced. No bark scaling symptoms were observed in CEVd-infected trees albeit they presented lesions and blisters in the roots. Bark cracking symptoms were consistently observed in CBCVdinfected trees that were smaller with enhanced productivity and fruit size. No major effects were found as a result of infection with CBLVd, HSVd, or CDVd. The quality of the fruits was not affected by viroid infection, except for the low diameter of the fruits harvested from HSVd-infected trees. An interesting effect was identified in terms of tree productivity increase (yield/canopy volume) as a result of infection with CEVd, CDVd, and especially CBCVd. © 2015 The American Phytopathological Society.


Shiri M.A.,Guilan University | Ghasemnezhad M.,Guilan University | Fattahi Moghaddam J.,Iran Citrus Research Institute | Ebrahimi R.,Guilan University
Agriculturae Conspectus Scientificus | Year: 2014

In order to receive reliable results in the effect of preharvest calcium chloride (CaCl2) application on fruit growth and sensory characteristics of kiwifruit (Actinidia deliciosa cultivar ‘Hayward’) at the harvest time, a field experiment was carried out in two commercial orchards at different locations. The vines were sprayed with CaCl2 (1.5%), one, two, or three times in 35, 85 and 125 days aft er full bloom. The results showed that CaCl2 treatment significantly reduced fruit size, fresh weight and total dry matter content. Moreover, fruit growth relative attributes such as relative growth index, daily relative growth rate, daily transpiration rate, total carbon received by fruit and yield threshold pressure significantly decreased by thrice application. Aft er thrice application of CaCl2, fruits showed better sensory quality. Overall, one time preharvest CaCl2 application had no-significant effect on the most fruits characteristics, while thrice application of CaCl2 could delay fruit ripening process. © 2014 Agriculturae Conspectus Scientificus. All rights reserved.


Golein B.,Iran Citrus Research Institute | Fifaei R.,Iran Citrus Research Institute | Ghasemi M.,Iran Citrus Research Institute
African Journal of Biotechnology | Year: 2011

Interspecific sexual hybridizations were conducted between Yashar [(Citrus changsha) × (C. paradisi × C. reticulata)] as maternal parent and five different genotypes as parental including Page [(C. clementina) × (C. paradisi × C. reticulata)], Changsha (C. changsha), Ponkan (C. reticulata), Marrs (C. sinensis) and Hamlin (C. sinensis) in an effort to generate hybrid populations for scion breeding. A total of 227 plantlets were generated and screened to distinguish zygotic from nucellar seedlings. Parents and progenies were exposed to inter simple sequence repeats (ISSR) using different primers. Among 227 tested individuals, 67 hybrid and 160 nucellar seedlings were recognized. The results indicate that ISSR analyses are very efficient and reliable for identification of hybrids in polyembryonic citrus cultivars. © 2011 Academic Journals.


Bani-Hashemian S.M.,Instituto Valenciano Of Investigaciones Agrarias Ivia | Bani-Hashemian S.M.,Iran Citrus Research Institute | Pensabene-Bellavia G.,Instituto Valenciano Of Investigaciones Agrarias Ivia | Pensabene-Bellavia G.,Jose Morera S.L | And 3 more authors.
Journal of General Virology | Year: 2015

Viroid systemic spread involves cell-to-cell movement from initially infected cells via plasmodesmata, long-distance movement within the phloem and again cell-to-cell movement to invade distal tissues including the mesophyll. Citrus exocortis viroid (CEVd), hop stunt viroid, citrus bent leaf viroid, citrus dwarfing viroid, citrus bark cracking viroid and citrus viroid V remained phloem restricted when singly infecting Citrus karna, Citrus aurantium and Poncirus trifoliata, but not Etrog citron, where they were additionally detected in mesophyll protoplasts. However, when CEVd-infected C. karna was side-grafted with Etrog citron- with the resulting plants being composed of a C. karna stock and an Etrog citron branch- the viroid was detected in mesophyll protoplasts of the former, thus indicating that the ability of Etrog citron to support viroid invasion of non-vascular tissues was transferred to the stock. Further results suggest that a translocatable factor from Etrog citron mediates this viroid trafficking. © 2015 The Authors.

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