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Saint-Martin-Vésubie, France

Feruglio C.,Normal School of Pisa | Feruglio C.,Iram Institute Of Radioastronomie Millimetrique | Feruglio C.,National institute for astrophysics | Fiore F.,National institute for astrophysics | And 11 more authors.
Astronomy and Astrophysics

Mrk 231 is a nearby ultra-luminous IR galaxy exhibiting a kpc-scale, multi-phase AGN-driven outflow. This galaxy represents the best target to investigate in detail the morphology and energetics of powerful outflows, as well as their still poorly-understood expansion mechanism and impact on the host galaxy. In this work, we present the best sensitivity and angular resolution maps of the molecular disk and outflow of Mrk 231, as traced by CO(2-1) and (3-2) observations obtained with the IRAM/PdBI. In addition, we analyze archival deep Chandra and NuSTAR X-ray observations. We use this unprecedented combination of multi-wavelength data sets to constrain the physical properties of both the molecular disk and outflow, the presence of a highly-ionized ultra-fast nuclear wind, and their connection. The molecular CO(2-1) outflow has a size of ∼1 kpc, and extends in all directions around the nucleus, being more prominent along the south-west to north-east direction, suggesting a wide-angle biconical geometry. The maximum projected velocity of the outflow is nearly constant out to ∼1 kpc, thus implying that the density of the outflowing material must decrease from the nucleus outwards as ∼r-2. This suggests that either a large part of the gas leaves the flow during its expansion or that the bulk of the outflow has not yet reached out to ∼1 kpc, thus implying a limit on its age of ∼1 Myr. Mapping the mass and energy rates of the molecular outflow yields \hbox{$\rm \dot {\it M}$} OF = [500-1000] M yr-1 and A kin,OF = [7-10] × 1043 erg s-1. The total kinetic energy of the outflow is Ekin,OF is of the same order of the total energy of the molecular disk, Edisk. Remarkably, our analysis of the X-ray data reveals a nuclear ultra-fast outflow (UFO) with velocity -20 000 km s-1, \hbox{$\rm \dot {\it M}$}UFO = [0.3-2.1] M yr-1, and momentum load \hbox{$\rm \dot {\it P}$}UFO/ \hbox{$\dot {\it P}$}rad = [0.2-1.6]. We find A kin,UFO ∼ A kin,OF as predicted for outflows undergoing an energy conserving expansion. This suggests that most of the UFO kinetic energy is transferred to mechanical energy of the kpc-scale outflow, strongly supporting that the energy released during accretion of matter onto super-massive black holes is the ultimate driver of giant massive outflows. The momentum flux \hbox{$\rm \dot {\it P}$}OF derived for the large scale outflows in Mrk 231 enables us to estimate a momentum boost \hbox{$\rm \dot {\it P}$}OF/ \hbox{$\dot {\it P}$} UFO [30-60]. The ratios A kin,UFO/Lbol,AGN = [1-5] % and A kin,OF/Lbol,AGN = [1-3] % agree with the requirements of the most popular models of AGN feedback. © ESO, 2015. Source

Daddi E.,University Paris Diderot | Dannerbauer H.,University of Vienna | Liu D.,University Paris Diderot | Liu D.,Chinese Academy of Sciences | And 18 more authors.
Astronomy and Astrophysics

We investigate the CO excitation of normal (near-IR selected BzK) star-forming (SF) disk galaxies at z = 1.5 using IRAM Plateau de Bure observations of the CO[2-1], CO[3-2], and CO[5-4] transitions for four galaxies, including VLA observations of CO[1-0] for three of them, with the aim of constraining the average state of H2 gas. By exploiting previous knowledge of the velocity range, spatial extent, and size of the CO emission, we measure reliable line fluxes with a signal-to-noise ratio >4-7 for individual transitions. While the average CO spectral line energy distribution (SLED) has a subthermal excitation similar to the Milky Way (MW) up to CO[3-2], we show that the average CO[5-4] emission is four times stronger than assuming MW excitation. This demonstrates that there is an additional component of more excited, denser, and possibly warmer molecular gas. The ratio of CO[5-4] to lower-J CO emission is lower than in local (ultra-)luminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs) and high-redshift starbursting submillimeter galaxies, however, and appears to be closely correlated with the average intensity of the radiation field and with the star formation surface density, but not with the star formation efficiency. The luminosity of the CO[5-4] transition is found to be linearly correlated with the bolometric infrared luminosity over four orders of magnitudes. For this transition, z = 1.5 BzK galaxies follow the same linear trend as local spirals and (U)LIRGs and high-redshift star-bursting submillimeter galaxies. The CO[5-4] luminosity is thus empirically related to the dense gas and might be a more convenient way to probe it than standard high-density tracers that are much fainter than CO. We see excitation variations among our sample galaxies that can be linked to their evolutionary state and clumpiness in optical rest-frame images. In one galaxy we see spatially resolved excitation variations, where the more highly excited part of the galaxy corresponds to the location of massive SF clumps. This provides support to models that suggest that giant clumps are the main source of the high-excitation CO emission in high-redshift disk-like galaxies. © ESO, 2015. Source

Strazzullo V.,CEA Saclay Nuclear Research Center | Strazzullo V.,Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich | Daddi E.,CEA Saclay Nuclear Research Center | Gobat R.,CEA Saclay Nuclear Research Center | And 18 more authors.
Astronomy and Astrophysics

Even 10 billion years ago, the cores of the first galaxy clusters are often found to host a characteristic population of massive galaxies with already suppressed star formation. Here we search for distant cluster candidates at z ~ 2 using massive passive galaxies as tracers. With a sample of ~40 spectroscopically confirmed passive galaxies at 1.3 < z < 2.1, we tuned photometric redshifts of several thousand passive sources in the 2 sq. deg COSMOS field. This allowed us to map their density in redshift slices, probing the large-scale structure in the COSMOS field as traced by passive sources. We report here on the three strongest passive galaxy overdensities that we identify in the range 1.5 < z < 2.5. While the actual nature of these concentrations still needs to be confirmed, we discuss their identification procedure and the arguments supporting them as candidate galaxy clusters (probably in the mid-1013 M⊙ range). Although this search approach is probably biased toward more evolved structures, it has the potential of selecting still rare, cluster-like environments close to their epoch of first appearance, enabling new investigations of the evolution of galaxies in the context of structure growth. © ESO, 2015. Source

Feruglio C.,Iram Institute Of Radioastronomie Millimetrique | Feruglio C.,National institute for astrophysics | Bongiorno A.,National institute for astrophysics | Fiore F.,National institute for astrophysics | And 12 more authors.
Astronomy and Astrophysics

Context. Understanding the relationship between the formation and evolution of galaxies and their central super-massive black holes (SMBH) is one of the main topics in extragalactic astrophysics. Links and feedback may reciprocally affect both black hole and galaxy growth. Aims. Observations of the CO line at the main epoch of galaxy and SMBH assembly (z = 2-4) are crucial to investigating the gas mass, star formation, and accretion onto SMBHs, and the effect of AGN feedback. Potential correlations between AGN and host galaxy properties can be highlighted by observing extreme objects. Methods. We targeted CO(3-2) in ULAS J1539+0557, a hyper-luminous quasar (Lbol > 1048 erg/s) at z = 2.658, selected through its unusual red colour in the UKIDSS Large Area Survey (ULAS). Results. We find a molecular gas mass of 4.1 ± 0.8 × 1010 M⊙, by adopting a conversion factor α = 0.8 M⊙ K-1 km s -1 pc2, and a gas fraction of ~0.4-0.1, depending mostly on the assumed source inclination. We also find a robust lower limit to the star-formation rate (SFR = 250-1600 M⊙/yr) and star-formation efficiency (SFE = 25-350 L⊙/(K kms-1pc2) by comparing the observed optical-near-infrared spectral energy distribution with AGN and galaxy templates. The black hole gas consumption timescale, M(H2)/acc, is ~160 Myr, similar to or higher than the gas consumption timescale. Conclusions. The gas content and the star formation efficiency are similar to those of other high-luminosity, highly obscured quasars, and at the lower end of the star-formation efficiency of unobscured quasars, in line with predictions from AGN-galaxy co-evolutionary scenarios. Further measurements of the (sub)mm continuum in this and similar sources are mandatory to obtain a robust observational picture of the AGN evolutionary sequence. © 2014 ESO. Source

Aumont J.,Institut Universitaire de France | Aumont J.,Roche Holding AG | Conversi L.,European Space Astronomy Center | Thum C.,Iram Institute Of Radioastronomie Millimetrique | And 10 more authors.
Astronomy and Astrophysics

Context. CMB experiments aiming at a precise measurement of the CMB polarization, such as the Planck satellite, need a strong polarized absolute calibrator on the sky to accurately set the detectors polarization angle and the cross-polarization leakage. As the most intense polarized source in the microwave sky at angular scales of few arcminutes, the Crab nebula will be used for this purpose. Aims. Our goal was to measure the Crab nebula polarization characteristics at 90 GHz with unprecedented precision. Methods. The observations were carried out with the IRAM 30 m telescope employing the correlation polarimeter XPOL and using two orthogonally polarized receivers. Results. We processed the Stokes I, Q, and U maps from our observations in order to compute the polarization angle and linear polarization fraction. The first is almost constant in the region of maximum emission in polarization with a mean value of αSky = 152.1±0.3° in equatorial coordinates, and the second is found to reach a maximum of Π = 30% for the most polarized pixels. We find that a CMB experiment having a 5 arcmin circular beam will see a mean polarization angle of αSky = 149.9±0.2° and a mean polarization fraction of Π = 8.8±0.2%. © 2010 ESO. Source

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