The Iqra University is a private research university primarily located in residential area of Karachi, Sindh, Pakistan. The university has additional campuses in Islamabad, Quetta and Peshawar as well.Founded as Asian Management Institute in 1998 by a group of Karachi-based industrialists, the university was renamed as "Iqra University" after granted university status in 2002 by HEC. The university offers undergraduate, post-graduate, and doctoral studies programmes in engineering, film studies, management science, administration, and related social and natural science disciplines.It is one of the notable private institution of higher learning and currently ranked in among top-ten institution for "business category" by the HEC in 2012. In addition, the university is noted as being the largest employer of doctorate holders as faculty. Also, the university has a largest research publication output than any other higher learning institution of the country. Wikipedia.
Khuda I.E.,Iqra University
Engineering Journal | Year: 2017
Microwave ultra-wide band UWB imaging system is a contemporary biomedical imaging technology for early detection of breast cancers. This imaging system requires the development of breast phantoms for experimental data analysis. In order to obtain realistic results, it is very important that these phantoms mimic the characteristics of real biological breast tissue as close as possible. For this purpose, scientists and engineers make use of the dielectric properties of human breast. This paper takes a survey of mathematical formulations used to determine biological dielectric properties and then takes a review of current breast phantoms being used in UWB imaging systems with reference to the analytical dielectric measurements. At present, breast phantoms are made, both, manually in laboratory utilizing different chemicals and also by using computational electromagnetic algorithms to introduce better heterogeneity in them. They can then easily be tested by doing computer simulations. In this review paper, emphasis is made on the phantoms which are made in laboratory for doing hardware experimentations. © 2017, Chulalongkorn University 1. All rights reserved.
Khuda I.E.,Iqra University
Engineering Journal | Year: 2017
In this paper, we have proposed an analytical body (breast-tissue) propagation model in terms of scattering parameters towards the design goal of a suitable ultra-wide band, (UWB) transceiver for early breast tumor detection. The scattering parameters are reflection (and transmission coefficients (Τ). We considered a heterogeneous breast model consisting of skin, adipose and glandular tissues as body (breast) channel and planar wave to propagate through it for UWB frequency range. A tumor layer was also considered as an inner layer to investigate tumorous tissue effects. Effective dielectric properties and scattering parameters (through reflected/ scattered or forward transmitted signals) for the whole breast were determined. Due to dispersive nature of heterogeneous breast, Γ and T vary with frequency; showing their decisive nature for a particular center frequency of the UWB transceiver systems. In case of 2.0 GHZ and 4.5 GHz center frequency UWB system, the back propagated (reflected/ scattered) signals showed approximately 45.45% and 63.3% respectively higher amplitude than forward propagated signals for the breast channel with tumor, indicating high value of dispersion present in human breast tissues. © 2017, Chulalongkorn University 1. All rights reserved.
Wu Y.-C.,University of Hong Kong |
Chaudhari Q.,Iqra University |
Serpedin E.,Texas A&M University
IEEE Signal Processing Magazine | Year: 2011
Clock synchronization is a critical component in the operation of wireless sensor networks (WSNs), as it provides a common time frame to different nodes. It supports functions such as fusing voice and video data from different sensor nodes, time-based channel sharing, and coordinated sleep wake-up node scheduling mechanisms. Early studies on clock synchronization for WSNs mainly focused on protocol design. However, the clock synchronization problem is inherently related to parameter estimation, and, recently, studies on clock synchronization began to emerge by adopting a statistical signal processing framework. In this article, a survey on the latest advances in the field of clock synchronization of WSNs is provided by following a signal processing viewpoint. This article illustrates that many of the proposed clock synchronization protocols can be interpreted and their performance assessed using common statistical signal processing methods. It is also shown that advanced signal processing techniques enable the derivation of optimal clock synchronization algorithms under challenging scenarios. © 2010 IEEE.
Chaudhari Q.M.,Iqra University |
Serpedin E.,Texas A&M University |
Qaraqe K.,Texas A&M University
IEEE Transactions on Information Theory | Year: 2010
For many applications, distributed networks require the local clocks of the constituent nodes to run close to an agreed upon notion of time. Most of the widely used clock synchronization algorithms in such systems employ the sender-receiver protocol based on a two-way timing message exchange paradigm. Maximum likelihood estimator (MLE) of the clock offset based on the timing message exchanges between two clocks was derived in D. R. Jeske, On maximum likelihood estimation of clock offset[IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 53, pp. 53-54, Jan. 2005], when the fixed delays are symmetric and the variable delays in each direction assume an exponential distribution with an unknown mean. Herein, the best linear unbiased estimate using order statistics (BLUE-OS) of the clock offset between two nodes is derived assuming both symmetric and asymmetric exponential network delays, respectively. The Rao-Blackwell-Lehmann- Scheffé theorem is then exploited to obtain the minimum variance unbiased estimate (MVUE) for the clock offset which it is shown to coincide with the BLUE-OS. In addition, it is found that the MVUE of the clock offset in the presence of symmetric network delays also coincides with the MLE. Finally, in the presence of asymmetric network delays, although the MLE is biased, it is shown to achieve lesser mean-square error (MSE) than the MVUE in the region around the point where the bidirectional network link delays are symmetric and hence its merit as the most versatile estimator is fairly justified. © 2010 IEEE.
Alam M.A.,Iqra University
Journal of Air Transport Management | Year: 2016
Technological progress in aviation sector is a source of increasing productivity, yet it is also a cause of stress. This study aimed to elucidate the linkage between techno-stress and crew productivity and examine the interaction effect of role-overload and equity-sensitivity in this relationship. The study explored three factors of techno-stress i.e. techno-complexity, techno-uncertainty and techno-overload, and found that their negative relationship with crew productivity got stronger when the crew was more role-overloaded and when the crew was more equity-sensitive. Respondents (N = 203) randomly chosen from aviation sector in Pakistan participated in the study. Together, the findings suggested role-equity analogous to fulcrum that can leverage crew productivity in aviation industry. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.
Chaudhari Q.M.,Iqra University
IEEE Transactions on Communications | Year: 2012
Previous studies on clock synchronization problem have resulted in diverse techniques ranging from computationally expensive to simple statistical methods. The common conclusion from this investigation has been the classic complexityperformance tradeoff. This research presents a synchronization scheme that is computationally simpler and robust to the underlying network delay density function. © 2012 IEEE.
Alam M.A.,Iqra University
Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics) | Year: 2016
This study linked aircrew risk-taking behavior to aviation loss, and in this relationship it examined the moderating role of phase-of-flight. First, it developed a measurement model in view of prior accident causation theories and findings of 715 general aviation accidents in Pakistan over a period spanning 2000-2014. Later, it espoused this model for hypotheses testing using original data from 224 randomly chosen accidents and assessed the model through structural path analysis. Results indicated a positive relationship between aircrew risk-taking behavior and aviation loss, and significant moderating role of phase-of-flight. © Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016.
Lodhi A.,Iqra University
ICSTE 2010 - 2010 2nd International Conference on Software Technology and Engineering, Proceedings | Year: 2010
As the field of Usability Engineering gains more importance day by day, the phenomenon of testing the Usability of software and hardware products is becoming popular too. But, in presence of so many usability testing techniques, selecting an assessment parameter for performing usability testing is considered to be a great challenge for testers. The aim of this research is to suggest usability heuristics as an assessment parameter to Usability testing. To achieve the aim and objectives of this research, renowned Usability expert Jakob Nielsen's 10 Usability Heuristics have been chosen for assessing usability of some public sectors universities websites. In the second step, by using these Heuristics as an assessment parameter, Usability Survey and Heuristic Evaluation techniques are applied on these websites. It has been found that Heuristics are key attributes of software products and considered good measuring parameters to assess usability. Meanwhile this research is also a contribution towards rating the Usability of some academic websites. And hence, in this research, Usability Heuristics have been chosen as an assessment parameter for performing Usability Testing. © 2010 IEEE.
Karim A.,Iqra University
Indian Journal of Physics | Year: 2012
Major trends in photodetectors design are the achievement of higher efficiencies and larger bandwidths. In this paper, the performance of zero-bias and biased pin waveguide photodetector is compared with respect to internal and external quantum efficiencies. Internal quantum efficiencies as high as 98 % are achieved. © 2012 IACS.
Jabeen H.,Iqra University |
Baig A.R.,National University of Computer and Emerging Sciences
Applied Soft Computing Journal | Year: 2012
The important problem of data classification spans numerous real life applications. The classification problem has been tackled by using Genetic Programming in many successful ways. Most approaches focus on classification of only one type of data. However, most of the real-world data contain a mixture of categorical and continuous attributes. In this paper, we present an approach to classify mixed attribute data using Two Layered Genetic Programming (L2GP). The presented approach does not transform data into any other type and combines the properties of arithmetic expressions (using numerical data) and logical expressions (using categorical data). The outer layer contains logical functions and some nodes. These nodes contain the inner layer and are either logical or arithmetic expressions. Logical expressions give their Boolean output to the outer tree. The arithmetic expressions give a real value as their output. Positive real value is considered true and a negative value is considered false. These outputs of inner layers are used to evaluate the outer layer which determines the classification decision. The proposed classification technique has been applied on various heterogeneous data classification problems and found successful. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.