IPMA Portuguese Institute of Sea and Atmosphere

Lisbon, Portugal

IPMA Portuguese Institute of Sea and Atmosphere

Lisbon, Portugal
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Raimundo J.,IPMA Portuguese Institute of Sea and Atmosphere | Raimundo J.,CIIMAR – Interdisciplinary Center of Marine and Environmental | Vale C.,CIIMAR – Interdisciplinary Center of Marine and Environmental | Martins I.,University of The Azores | And 4 more authors.
Marine Pollution Bulletin | Year: 2015

Concentrations of V, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Cd and Pb were determined in muscle, liver and gonads of two ecologically contrasting fishes, Helicolenus dactylopterus (benthic) and Pagellus bogaraveo (benthopelagic). Elevated concentrations of As, Se and Cd found in tissues of both species appear to mirror the contribution of volcanic activity to the natural inputs of elements to Azorean waters. Results showed different element accumulation between the two species. Whereas higher concentrations were found in the liver of P. bogaraveo, elevated values were observed in the muscle of H. dactylopterus. Differences in accumulation are most likely related to metabolic rates, diet specificities and habitat. Concentrations in gonads varied up to four orders of magnitude, being higher and more variable in P. bogaraveo than H. dactylopterus. Elevated values of Cd were detected in gonads of both species despite its non-essential role on metabolic functions, presumably related to elimination. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.

Almecija C.,CSIC - Institute of Marine Research | Cobelo-Garcia A.,CSIC - Institute of Marine Research | Santos-Echeandia J.,CSIC - Institute of Marine Research | Santos-Echeandia J.,Spanish Institute of Oceanography | And 2 more authors.
Marine Chemistry | Year: 2016

Platinum is one of the least abundant elements in the earth crust with an average concentration of 0.51ngg-1, but its use in several human activities (mainly automobile catalytic converters) is leading its enrichment in surface sediments. Whereas, previous studies have assessed the Pt behavior in soils from urban areas, natural systems are still poorly studied.Accordingly, this study is aimed to characterize the behavior of the Pt released to coastal environments in sediments, ascertain the role of vegetation on the biogeochemistry of this element and assess the transference of Pt into the biological compartments. Several sediment cores were sampled in salt marshes (in unvegetated and vegetated areas) of the Tagus Estuary under different traffic pressure. Platinum concentration was analyzed in solid sediment, interstitial water and roots, leaves and stems of Sarcocornia fruticosa, a typical plant in south European salt marshes. In addition, interpretative parameters (e.g. redox potential, dissolved oxygen, pH, total reduced sulfur species, salinity and dissolved Fe and Mn in interstitial waters) were determined to better understand the biogeochemical cycle of Pt in salt marsh sediments.Although surface enrichment of Pt exists in the sediments at Low Traffic Station (2.8ngg-1), the highest enrichment was found at High Traffic Station where concentration was, in some cases, up to 40ngg-1, linked to traffic emissions. However, dissolved Pt in interstitial waters (from 0.14 to 0.70ngL-1) did not show this superficial maximum. This dissimilarity points out the unreactivity of traffic-borne Pt and the dissolution/precipitation cycle of natural Pt linked to Mn and O2 cycle, depending on the redox conditions, highly controlled by the vegetation. Platinum concentration in roots (0.9±0.6ngg-1) is reflecting the Pt concentration in the interstitial waters in each moment, even though at the two peaks of dissolved Pt (up to 2.5ngL-1) found at deeper layers, reflecting a low bioaccumulation. However, results pointed that a different Pt species (with different bioavailability) may exist in both stations. Besides, Pt mean value in stems and leaves (0.04±0.05ngg-1) indicates a low translocation of Pt from the roots to aerial parts.Therefore, the role of vegetation is fundamental on the geochemical behavior of Pt in sediments, due to the control of the redox conditions by roots in the surrounding sediments (between the O2 release and the organic matter degradation) and leading to Pt species of varying bioavailability. © 2016.

Prego R.,CSIC - Institute of Marine Research | Caetano M.,IPMA Portuguese Institute of Sea and Atmosphere | Ospina-Alvarez N.,CSIC - Institute of Marine Research | Raimundo J.,IPMA Portuguese Institute of Sea and Atmosphere | Vale C.,IPMA Portuguese Institute of Sea and Atmosphere
Science of the Total Environment | Year: 2013

The enrichment of Cr and Ni in the coastal zones is usually associated with anthropogenic sources such as the tanning, galvanization, ceramic, and cement industries. However, geological complexes of specific lithologic composition located near shorelines may act as natural sources of metals to the continental shelf. Cape Ortegal (SW Europe) is an ultramafic complex that has Cr, Ni and Co enriched in rocks due to the minerals chromite, chromospinel, gersdorfite and pentlandite. Thus, the hypothesis that this geological complex contributes to metal enrichment in Ortigueira and Barqueiro Rias and the adjacent continental shelf was tested. Chromium, Ni, and Co were determined in water and in suspended particulate matter of ria tributaries, rainfall, surface sediments, mussels, and algae. High contents of Cr (max. 1670mg·kg-1) and Ni (max. 1360mg·kg-1) were found in the sediments surrounding Cape Ortegal and the Ortigueira Ria as a result of erosion of exposed cliffs. Dissolved Cr and Ni concentrations in fluvial waters were significantly higher in the rivers that crosses the Ortegal Complex, i.e. Lourido (0.47μgCr·L-1; 9.4μgNi·L-1) and Landoi (0.37μgCr·L-1; 4.3μgNi·L-1), in comparison with the nearby basin out of the complex influence (Sor River: <0.01μgCr·L-1; 0.57μgNi·L-1). The annual fluvial contributions of Cr and Ni to the Ortigueira Ria were higher than fluxes into the Barqueiro Ria. Moreover, the increase in Cr and Ni in the rainfall in summer demonstrated the importance of the atmosphere pathway for introducing these elements into the aquatic environment. As a consequence, the contents of these metals in soft tissues and shell of mussels and algae from the Ortigueira Ria were higher than the organisms from Barqueiro Ria. Thus, geological complexes, such as the Cape Ortegal, located in an uncontaminated area, can increase the land-sea exchange of trace metals. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

Almecija C.,CSIC - Institute of Marine Research | Almecija C.,Dartmouth College | Sharma M.,Dartmouth College | Cobelo-Garcia A.,CSIC - Institute of Marine Research | And 3 more authors.
Environmental Science and Technology | Year: 2015

Catalytic converters in automobiles have significantly increased the input of platinum group elements (PGE) to the environment, and their coupled geochemical behavior has been proposed. To check this hypothesis, Pt and Os concentrations and 187Os/188Os ratios were determined in sediment cores and interstitial waters from the Tagus Estuary (SW Europe) affected by different traffic pressure. Platinum concentration in surface sediments nearby the high traffic zone (up to 40 ng g-1) indicated severe contamination. Although lower than Pt, Os enrichment was also observed in surface sediments, with lower 187Os/188Os ratios than in deeper layers. Dissolved Pt and Os in interstitial waters, 0.1-0.7 pg g-1 and 0.03-0.10 pg g-1, respectively, were higher than in typical uncontaminated waters. Results indicate two sources of Pt and Os into the Tagus Estuary salt marshes: a regional input associated with industrial activities, fossil fuel combustions, and regional traffic and a local source linked to nearby traffic density emissions. Estimations of Os and Pt released by catalytic converters support this two-source model. Differences in geochemical reactivity and range of dispersion from their sources lead to a decoupled behavior of Os and Pt, questioning the use of Os isotopes as proxies of PGE sources to the environment. © 2015 American Chemical Society.

PubMed | CIIMAR – Interdisciplinary Center of Marine and Environmental and IPMA Portuguese Institute of Sea and Atmosphere
Type: | Journal: The Science of the total environment | Year: 2017

Octopus vulgaris is a sedentary organism that inhabits coastal waters being exposed to anthropogenic compounds. Lead concentration in coastal environments reflects many processes and activities namely weathering, industrial and domestic discharges, and atmospheric deposition. Since lead isotopic composition is little affected by kinetic processes occurring between source and sink, its signature has been used to identify different Pb sources. After a short-term heavy rainfall, hundreds of octopus appeared dead in two Portuguese coastal areas. Histopathology and Pb levels and its stable isotopes were determined in tissues, such as digestive gland, of stranded octopus and compared to alive specimens, sediments and runoff material from the same areas. Histology results showed severe damage in stranded octopus tissues suggesting that death was probably associated to multiple organ failure linked to hypertrophy and exudates input. In addition, Pb in stranded specimens reach concentrations up to one order of magnitude above the levels reported for alive octopus. Pb isotopic signatures in stranded organisms were closer to runoff material pointing to a similar origin of Pb. In summary, the results in this study showed that a short-term runoff event might change abruptly the salinity leading to the disruption of the osmoregulation function of octopus and consequently leading to its death. The analyses of stable isotopic Pb signature in octopus tissues corroborate these results and points to a change in the Pb source due to runoff after the storm water event. Pb stable isotopes in octopus proved to be an adequate tool to confirm the cause of death and linking it to the environment conditions.

Carreiro-Silva M.,University of The Azores | Cerqueira T.,University of The Azores | Godinho A.,University of The Azores | Caetano M.,IPMA Portuguese Institute of Sea and Atmosphere | And 2 more authors.
Coral Reefs | Year: 2014

Cold-water corals (CWCs) are thought to be particularly vulnerable to ocean acidification (OA) due to increased atmospheric pCO2, because they inhabit deep and cold waters where the aragonite saturation state is naturally low. Several recent studies have evaluated the impact of OA on organism-level physiological processes such as calcification and respiration. However, no studies to date have looked at the impact at the molecular level of gene expression. Here, we report results of a long-term, 8-month experiment to compare the physiological responses of the CWC Desmophyllum dianthus to OA at both the organismal and gene expression levels under two pCO2/pH treatments: ambient pCO2 (460 μatm, pHT = 8.01) and elevated pCO2 (997 μatm, pHT = 7.70). At the organismal level, no significant differences were detected in the calcification and respiration rates of D. dianthus. Conversely, significant differences were recorded in gene expression profiles, which showed an up-regulation of genes involved in cellular stress (HSP70) and immune defence (mannose-binding c-type lectin). Expression of alpha-carbonic anhydrase, a key enzyme involved in the synthesis of coral skeleton, was also significantly up-regulated in corals under elevated pCO2, indicating that D. dianthus was under physiological reconditioning to calcify under these conditions. Thus, gene expression profiles revealed physiological impacts that were not evident at the organismal level. Consequently, understanding the molecular mechanisms behind the physiological processes involved in a coral's response to elevated pCO2 is critical to assess the ability of CWCs to acclimate or adapt to future OA conditions. © 2014 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

Raimundo J.,IPMA Portuguese Institute of Sea and Atmosphere | Vale C.,IPMA Portuguese Institute of Sea and Atmosphere | Caetano M.,IPMA Portuguese Institute of Sea and Atmosphere | Anes B.,IPMA Portuguese Institute of Sea and Atmosphere | And 4 more authors.
Deep-Sea Research Part II: Topical Studies in Oceanography | Year: 2013

Seamounts are thought to support high biodiversity and special biological communities, including corals. Corals incorporate minor and trace elements and have been suggested as possible bioindicators of their availability in the environment. Forty specimens of five gorgonian species (Alcyonacea) and a black coral (Antipatharia) were collected in 12 sites in the Azores region. Concentrations of Ca, Mg, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Se, Cd and Pb were determined in skeleton and attached tissue of each individual from each species. Leiopathes sp. had higher Cr, Ni, Se and Pb concentrations than the gorgonians. Enhanced Cu and Cd values were registered in Leiopathes and Acanthogorgia hirsuta. Specimens of A. hirsuta also presented elevated concentrations of Zn and Co. Linear relationships between Cd and Cu, Zn and Se point to response mechanisms in corals, possibly related to the induction of proteins enlarging the capacity to incorporate further quantities of essential elements. Results obtained in this study suggest the existence of an additional source of Cd in waters off Azores Islands associated with natural hydrothermal activities. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

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