Hurstbridge, Australia
Hurstbridge, Australia

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Bernard M.B.,University of Melbourne | Cole P.,IPM Technologies Pty. Ltd. | Kobelt A.,Primary Industries Research Victoria | Horne P.A.,IPM Technologies Pty. Ltd. | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Economic Entomology | Year: 2010

Laboratory bioassays on detached soybean, Glycine max (L.) Merr., leaves were used to test 23 fungicides, five insecticides, two acaricides, one herbicide, and two adjuvants on a key Australian predatory mite species Euseius victoriensis (Womersley) in "worst-case scenario" direct overspray assays. Zero- to 48-h-old juveniles, their initial food, and water supply were sprayed to runoff with a Potter tower; spinosad and wettable sulfur residues also were tested. Tests were standardized to deliver a pesticide dose comparable with commercial application of highest label rates at 1,000 liter/ha. Cumulative mortality was assessed 48 h, 4 d, and 7 d after spraying. Fecundity was assessed for 7 d from start of oviposition. No significant mortality or fecundity effects were detected for the following compounds at single-use application at 1,000 liter/ha: azoxystrobin, Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) subsp. kurstaki, captan, chlorothalonil, copper hydroxide, fenarimol, glyphosate, hexaconazole, indoxacarb, metalaxyl/copper hydroxide, myclobutanil, nonyl phenol ethylene oxide, phosphorous acid, potassium bicarbonate, pyraclostrobin, quinoxyfen, spiroxamine, synthetic latex, tebufenozide, triadimenol, and trifloxystrobin. Iprodione and penconazole had some detrimental effect on fecundity. Canola oil as acaricide (2 liter/100 liter) and wettable sulfur (200 g/100 liter) had some detrimental effect on survival and fecundity and cyprodinil/fludioxonil on survivor. The following compounds were highly toxic (high 48-h mortality): benomyl, carbendazim, emamectin benzoate, mancozeb, spinosad (direct overspray and residue), wettable sulfur (≥400 g/100 liter), and pyrimethanil; pyrimethanil had no significant effect on fecundity of surviving females. Indoxacarb safety to E. victoriensis contrasts with its toxicity to key parasitoids and chrysopid predators. Potential impact of findings is discussed. © 2010 Entomological Society of America.


Harper S.,Peracto Pty Ltd | Horne P.A.,IPM Technologies Pty Ltd
Australian Journal of Entomology | Year: 2012

The relative impact of feeding effects of thrips (Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande)) and wind damage on French beans Phaseolus vulgaris L. was tested in a glasshouse simulation trial. Wind caused significantly more 'bean-curl' and scarring to the pod than that caused by thrips. Bean growers in Tasmania, where much damage to bean pods has been attributed to thrips, should consider the use of wind breaks to prevent this damage and reconsider the use of insecticide regimes currently used to control thrips. © 2012 Australian Entomological Society.


Cole P.G.,IPM Technologies Pty Ltd | Cutler A.R.,IPM Technologies Pty Ltd | Kobelt A.J.,Australian Department of Primary Industries and Fisheries | Horne P.A.,IPM Technologies Pty Ltd
Australian Journal of Entomology | Year: 2010

The impacts of six selective insecticides on three predatory insect species, Tasman's lacewing (Micromus tasmaniae), the transverse ladybird (Coccinella transversalis) and the damsel bug (Nabis kinbergii), were tested by acute and long-term bioassay. Acute bioassays measured mortality 72 h after exposure to wet sprays and dry residues, and long-term bioassays measured mortality and sublethal effects over a generation. The acute bioassays were not consistently reliable indicators of the harmfulness of insecticides that did not induce high short-term mortality. Pymetrozine caused very low mortality (≤20%) to the larvae of C. transversalis in acute tests, but the long-term test showed that 97.6% of individuals were killed before maturity. Similarly, pirimicarb adversely affected reproduction of C. transversalis even though there was only a minor effect on short-term mortality. Imidacloprid caused low mortality (≤20%) of M. tasmaniae in acute tests, but reproductive capacity was reduced by about two-thirds in long-term tests. Therefore, in some cases, acute bioassays were poor indicators of overall effects of insecticides on populations. Our results support previous studies by other authors that long-term mortality and sublethal effects of selective insecticides on predatory species need to be determined to facilitate their effective use alongside biological control in integrated pest management programs. © 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2010 Australian Entomological Society.


Brugger K.E.,DuPont Company | Cole P.G.,IPM Technologies Pty Ltd | Newman I.C.,The New Zealand Institute for Plant and Food Research Ltd | Parker N.,Australian Department of Primary Industries and Fisheries | And 4 more authors.
Pest Management Science | Year: 2010

BACKGROUND: Chlorantraniliprole is a novel anthranilic diamide insecticide registered for use in vegetables, fruits, grains and turf against a variety of insect pests. The objective of this article is to summarize results of acute toxicity testing of chlorantraniliprole on seven species of parasitic wasps with wide geographic distribution and relevance to different crops and integrated pestmanagement (IPM) programmes. RESULTS: Tier-1, worst-case laboratory studies evaluated wasp survival and reproduction following different exposure concentrations and scenarios to chlorantraniliprole (i.e. fresh-dried spray deposits on glass plates, direct contact, ingestion, egg card, dipped leaf residue bioassays, sprayed mummies). No statistically significant effects on adult survival, percentage parasitism or emergence were observed following exposures to chlorantraniliprole compared with controls. CONCLUSION: Chlorantraniliprole was harmless to the parasitoid wasp species tested according to IOBC classification criteria (<30% effects) andmay be a useful tool in IPM programmes. © 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.


Horrocks A.,The New Zealand Institute for Plant and Food Research Ltd | Davidson M.M.,The New Zealand Institute for Plant and Food Research Ltd | Teulon D.A.J.,The New Zealand Institute for Plant and Food Research Ltd | Horne P.A.,IPM Technologies Pty Ltd
New Zealand Plant Protection | Year: 2010

Six crops of autumn-sown wheat managed under integrated pest management (IPM) were compared to six adjacent crops grown under the participating farmers' current pest management practices in demonstration trials in Canterbury during the 2008-09 and 2009-10 seasons. Farmer training with a focus on monitoring and beneficial predator identification was carried out. The presence and abundance of key pests and diseases (slugs, aphids, yellow dwarf virus (YDV)) and beneficial predators was determined. Carabid beetles and other beneficial insects capable of contributing to pest control were present in the arable cropping systems. There was an increasing trend in the number of beneficial organisms, a reduction in pests and a 50% reduction in the number of insecticides applied in the IPM-managed crops. There were negligible YDV and crop yield differences between the two approaches. IPM adoption at these farms was very high after these participatory trials.

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