Villaviciosa, Spain
Villaviciosa, Spain

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Turroni F.,University of Parma | Turroni F.,Alimentary Pharmabiotic Center | Peano C.,National Research Council Italy | Pass D.A.,University of Cardiff | And 14 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2012

Background: The human gastrointestinal tract (GIT) represents one of the most densely populated microbial ecosystems studied to date. Although this microbial consortium has been recognized to have a crucial impact on human health, its precise composition is still subject to intense investigation. Among the GIT microbiota, bifidobacteria represent an important commensal group, being among the first microbial colonizers of the gut. However, the prevalence and diversity of members of the genus Bifidobacterium in the infant intestinal microbiota has not yet been fully characterized, while some inconsistencies exist in literature regarding the abundance of this genus. Methods/Principal Findings: In the current report, we assessed the complexity of the infant intestinal bifidobacterial population by analysis of pyrosequencing data of PCR amplicons derived from two hypervariable regions of the 16 S rRNA gene. Eleven faecal samples were collected from healthy infants of different geographical origins (Italy, Spain or Ireland), feeding type (breast milk or formula) and mode of delivery (vaginal or caesarean delivery), while in four cases, faecal samples of corresponding mothers were also analyzed. Conclusions: In contrast to several previously published culture-independent studies, our analysis revealed a predominance of bifidobacteria in the infant gut as well as a profile of co-occurrence of bifidobacterial species in the infant's intestine. © 2012 Turroni et al.


Spano G.,University of Foggia | Russo P.,University of Foggia | Lonvaud-Funel A.,University of Bordeaux Segalen | Lucas P.,University of Bordeaux Segalen | And 17 more authors.
European Journal of Clinical Nutrition | Year: 2010

Food-fermenting lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are generally considered to be non-toxic and non-pathogenic. Some species of LAB, however, can produce biogenic amines (BAs). BAs are organic, basic, nitrogenous compounds, mainly formed through decarboxylation of amino acids. BAs are present in a wide range of foods, including dairy products, and can occasionally accumulate in high concentrations. The consumption of food containing large amounts of these amines can have toxicological consequences. Although there is no specific legislation regarding BA content in many fermented products, it is generally assumed that they should not be allowed to accumulate. The ability of microorganisms to decarboxylate amino acids is highly variable, often being strain specific, and therefore the detection of bacteria possessing amino acid decarboxylase activity is important to estimate the likelihood that foods contain BA and to prevent their accumulation in food products. Moreover, improved knowledge of the factors involved in the synthesis and accumulation of BA should lead to a reduction in their incidence in foods. © 2010 Macmillan Publishers Limited All rights reserved.


Milani C.,University of Parma | Hevia A.,IPLA CSIC | Foroni E.,University of Parma | Duranti S.,University of Parma | And 8 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

Assessing the distribution of 16S rRNA gene sequences within a biological sample represents the current state-of-the-art for determination of human gut microbiota composition. Advances in dissecting the microbial biodiversity of this ecosystem have very much been dependent on the development of novel high-throughput DNA sequencing technologies, like the Ion Torrent. However, the precise representation of this bacterial community may be affected by the protocols used for DNA extraction as well as by the PCR primers employed in the amplification reaction. Here, we describe an optimized protocol for 16S rRNA gene-based profiling of the fecal microbiota. © 2013 Milani et al.


Campelo A.B.,IPLA CSIC | Gaspar P.,New University of Lisbon | Roces C.,IPLA CSIC | Rodriguez A.,IPLA CSIC | And 4 more authors.
Applied and Environmental Microbiology | Year: 2011

pBL1 is a Lactococcus lactis theta-replicating 10.9-kbp plasmid that encodes the synthetic machinery of the bacteriocin Lcn972. In this work, the transcriptomes of exponentially growing L. lactis strains with and without pBL1 were compared. A discrete response was observed, with a total of 10 genes showing significantly changed expression. Upregulation of the lactococcal oligopeptide uptake (opp) system was observed, which was likely linked to a higher nitrogen demand required for Lcn972 biosynthesis. Strikingly, celB, coding for the membrane porter IIC of the cellobiose phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent phosphotransferase system (PTS), and the upstream gene llmg0186 were downregulated. Growth profiles for L. lactis strains MG1363, MG1363/pBL1, and MG1363 ΔcelB grown in chemically defined medium (CDM) containing cellobiose confirmed slower growth of MG1363/pBL1 and MG1363 ΔcelB, while no differences were observed with growth on glucose. The presence of pBL1 shifted the fermentation products toward a mixed acid profile and promoted substantial changes in intracellular pool sizes for glycolytic intermediates in cells growing on cellobiose as determined by highpressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). Overall, these data support the genetic evidence of a constriction in cellobiose uptake. Notably, several cell wall precursors accumulated, while other UDP-activated sugar pools were lower, which could reflect rerouting of precursors toward the production of structural or storage polysaccharides. Moreover, cells growing slowly on cellobiose and those lacking celB were more tolerant to Lcn972 than cellobiose-adapted cells. Thus, downregulation of celB could help to build up a response against the antimicrobial activity of Lcn972, enhancing self-immunity of the producer cells. © 2011, American Society for Microbiology.


Capozzi V.,University of Foggia | Ladero V.,IPLA CSIC | Beneduce L.,University of Foggia | Fernandez M.,IPLA CSIC | And 5 more authors.
Food Microbiology | Year: 2011

Enterococcus faecium strains were isolated from red wines undergoing malolactic fermentation and identified by comparison of their 16S rDNA gene sequences with those included in the GenEMBL Databases. The tyrosine decarboxylase gene was identified in all the strains analysed by PCR using gene-specific primers and the ability to produce tyramine in a synthetic media was analysed by RP-HPLC. Survival of an . E. faecium strain was also evaluated in microvinification assays using two different musts with different ethanol concentrations (10% and 12% (v/v)). Tyramine production was monitored during the vinification trials. Our results suggest that . E. faecium strains isolated from wine are able to produce tyramine and tolerate wine conditions following a pre-acidic stress. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.


Bottacini F.,Alimentary Pharmabiotic Center | Milani C.,University of Parma | Turroni F.,Alimentary Pharmabiotic Center | Sanchez B.,IPLA CSIC | And 13 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2012

Bifidobacteria are known as anaerobic/microaerophilic and fermentative microorganisms, which commonly inhabit the gastrointestinal tract of various animals and insects. Analysis of the 2,167,301 bp genome of Bifidobacterium asteroides PRL2011, a strain isolated from the hindgut of Apis mellifera var. ligustica, commonly known as the honey bee, revealed its predicted capability for respiratory metabolism. Conservation of the latter gene clusters in various B. asteroides strains enforces the notion that respiration is a common metabolic feature of this ancient bifidobacterial species, which has been lost in currently known mammal-derived Bifidobacterium species. In fact, phylogenomic based analyses suggested an ancient origin of B. asteroides and indicates it as an ancestor of the genus Bifidobacterium. Furthermore, the B. asteroides PRL2011 genome encodes various enzymes for coping with toxic products that arise as a result of oxygen-mediated respiration. © 2012 Bottacini et al.


Milani C.,University of Parma | Lugli G.A.,University of Parma | Duranti S.,University of Parma | Turroni F.,Alimentary Pharmabiotic Center | And 12 more authors.
Applied and Environmental Microbiology | Year: 2014

Bifidobacteria represent one of the dominant microbial groups that are present in the gut of various animals, being particularly prevalent during the suckling stage of life of humans and other mammals. However, the overall genome structure of this group of microorganisms remains largely unexplored. Here, we sequenced the genomes of 42 representative (sub)species across the Bifidobacterium genus and used this information to explore the overall genetic picture of this bacterial group. Furthermore, the genomic data described here were used to reconstruct the evolutionary development of the Bifidobacterium genus. This reconstruction suggests that its evolution was substantially influenced by genetic adaptations to obtain access to glycans, thereby representing a common and potent evolutionary force in shaping bifidobacterial genomes. © 2014, American Society for Microbiology.


PubMed | University of Turku, IPLA CSIC and University of Oviedo
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Food & function | Year: 2016

The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of daily chewing, for 12 weeks, of 2 different probiotic gums compared with placebo on saliva flow rate, saliva IgA levels and saliva pH. The intervention study included 54 adult volunteers with hyposalivation in a double-blind, randomised and placebo-controlled design with three parallel groups. Volunteers were randomly assigned to 3 different groups: subjects in group A (n = 19) were given placebo chewing gum, group B (n = 17) received Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis Bb12 (ATCC 27536) and group C (n = 18) received Lactobacillus rhamnosus LGG (ATCC 53103), Bifidobacterium longum 46 (DSM 14583) and Bifidobacterium longum 2C (DSM 14579) gums, during 3 months. Two volunteers from group B left the study for personal reasons leaving 19, 15 and 18 volunteers, respectively, for analyses. Clinical examinations, personal interviews, sialometries and saliva sampling were conducted at baseline and after 1, 2, 3 and 4 months. No statistically significant differences were found between probiotic and placebo groups for any of the parameters analysed. No side effects of probiotic or placebo chewing gums were observed. Chewing gum, with and without probiotics, had a positive impact on salivary flow rate and saliva pH and IgA levels.


PubMed | University of Trento, Teagasc, IPLA CSIC, National University of Ireland and 3 more.
Type: | Journal: Scientific reports | Year: 2015

Bifidobacteria are common and frequently dominant members of the gut microbiota of many animals, including mammals and insects. Carbohydrates are considered key carbon sources for the gut microbiota, imposing strong selective pressure on the complex microbial consortium of the gut. Despite its importance, the genetic traits that facilitate carbohydrate utilization by gut microbiota members are still poorly characterized. Here, genome analyses of 47 representative Bifidobacterium (sub)species revealed the genes predicted to be required for the degradation and internalization of a wide range of carbohydrates, outnumbering those found in many other gut microbiota members. The glycan-degrading abilities of bifidobacteria are believed to reflect available carbon sources in the mammalian gut. Furthermore, transcriptome profiling of bifidobacterial genomes supported the involvement of various chromosomal loci in glycan metabolism. The widespread occurrence of bifidobacterial saccharolytic features is in line with metagenomic and metatranscriptomic datasets obtained from human adult/infant faecal samples, thereby supporting the notion that bifidobacteria expand the human glycobiome. This study also underscores the hypothesis of saccharidic resource sharing among bifidobacteria through species-specific metabolic specialization and cross feeding, thereby forging trophic relationships between members of the gut microbiota.


Alonso S.,University of Oviedo | Laca A.,University of Oviedo | Rendueles M.,University of Oviedo | Mayo B.,IPLA CSIC | Diaz M.,University of Oviedo
Journal of the Institute of Brewing | Year: 2015

The surface microbiota of different recognized apple varieties used to elaborate a Protected Designation of Origin cider was studied to analyse the microbial diversity and its potential link to the microorganisms involved in the cider fermentation process. The V3 region of the bacterial 16S gene and the D1 domain of the eukaryotic 26S gene were amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and analysed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). The most intense bands found in the DGGE profiles were sequenced and compared with those in the GenBank database. The profiles showed a high microbial diversity, but little variation was found among the varieties. Identification of the bands showed that the usual species associated with an apple juice fermentation were not found, suggesting that the microorganisms responsible for spontaneous fermentation come from the equipment and the production environment. © 2015 The Institute of Brewing & Distilling.

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