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Batayneh M.,IPITEK, Inc. | Schupke D.A.,Nokia Inc. | Hoffmann M.,Nokia Inc. | Kirstaedter A.,University of Stuttgart | Mukherjee B.,University of California at Davis
IEEE/ACM Transactions on Networking | Year: 2011

Ethernet's success in local area networks (LANs) is fueling the efforts to extend its reach to cover metro and long-haul networks. This new Ethernet is refereed to as Carrier Ethernet. Among the various transport infrastructures for realizing Carrier Ethernet, wavelength-division multiplexing (WDM) optical network is a strong candidate for this purpose. Optical transmission rates per channel are increasing from 10 to 40 Gb/s and even 100 Gb/s, and they can also coexist in the same fiber. Along with the flexibility associated with such a network with mixed-line rates (MLR), signal-related constraints at high rates become a challenge for cost-efficient routing. Among these issues is the maximum nonregenerated optical distance that a signal can travel before its quality degrades or maximum transmission range (TR). TR is rate-dependent: The higher the rate, the shorter the range. While high-rate pipes may require signal regeneration to restore the signal's quality, they support more traffic and, hence, can save resources. We study the problem of cost-efficient routing of multi-bit-rate (1/10/40/100 Gb/s) Ethernet tunnels using MLR over a carrier's WDM optical network with signal-transmission-range constraints. We studied the effect of TR for mixed-rate signals (10/40/100 Gb/s) on the network's cost to determine the optimal TR of each bit rate. We present an analytical model based on a mixed-integer linear program (MILP) to determine the optimal TR of a small network. Since MILP has scalability constraints that makes it hard or sometimes impossible to solve for real network topologies, we propose a graph-based solution that constructs a mixed-line-rate auxiliary (MLR-AUX) graph to capture the network's heterogeneity and a weight-assignment approach that allows the routing to be cost-efficient. Our algorithms were tested on a U.S. nationwide network topology. We found that it is possible to reduce the network's cost by using short TR and that the optimal TR depends strongly on traffic characteristics and on the TR values of different bit-rate signals. © 2011 IEEE. Source


Rogers C.E.,University of Connecticut | Rogers C.E.,IPITEK, Inc. | Gould P.L.,University of Connecticut
Optics Express | Year: 2016

We describe a system for generating frequency-chirped and amplitude-shaped pulses on time scales from sub-nanosecond to ten nanoseconds. The system starts with cw diode-laser light at 780 nm and utilizes fiber-based electro-optical phase and intensity modulators, driven by an arbitrary waveform generator, to generate the shaped pulses. These pulses are subsequently amplified to several hundred mW with a tapered amplifier in a delayed double-pass configuration. Frequency chirps up to 5 GHz in 2 ns and pulse widths as short as 0.15 ns have been realized. © 2016 Optical Society of America. Source


Andrei D.,University of California at Davis | Tornatore M.,University of California at Davis | Batayneh M.,IPITEK, Inc. | Martel C.U.,University of California at Davis | Mukherjee B.,University of California at Davis
IEEE/ACM Transactions on Networking | Year: 2010

With the increasing diversity of applications supported over optical networks, new service guarantees must be offered to network customers. Among the emerging data-intensive applications are those which require their data to be transferred before a predefined deadline. We call these deadline-driven requests (DDRs). In such applications, data-transfer finish time (which must be accomplished before the deadline) is the key service guarantee that the customer wants. In fact, the amount of bandwidth allocated to transfer a request is not a concern for the customer as long as its service deadline is met. Hence, the service provider can choose the bandwidth (transmission rate) to provision the request. In this case, even though DDRs impose a deadline constraint, they provide scheduling flexibility for the service provider since it can choose the transmission rate while achieving two objectives: 1) satisfying the guaranteed deadline; and 2) optimizing the network's resource utilization. We investigate the problem of provisioning DDRs with flexible transmission rates in wavelength-division multiplexing (WDM) mesh networks, although this approach is generalizable to other networks also. We investigate several (fixed and adaptive to network state) bandwidth-allocation policies and study the benefit of allowing dynamic bandwidth adjustment, which is found to generally improve network performance. We show that the performance of the bandwidth-allocation algorithms depends on the DDR traffic distribution and on the node architecture and its parameters. In addition, we develop a mathematical formulation for our problem as a mixed integer linear program (MILP), which allows choosing flexible transmission rates and provides a lower bound for our provisioning algorithms. © 2009 IEEE. Source


Grant
Agency: Department of Defense | Branch: Navy | Program: STTR | Phase: Phase II | Award Amount: 495.08K | Year: 2006

Photonic links and networks offer numerous advantages to analog RF systems, and enable advanced performance in Naval aircraft analog RF systems: spurious-free dynamic range (SFDR) exceeding 125 dB/Hz^2/3 with instantaneous bandwidth up to and exceeding 1GHz for operational frequencies from 0.1 to 20 GHz. IPITEK proposes a novel single sideband suppressed-carrier (SSB-SC) technique that offers a significantly larger SFDR than is possible using direct detection or conventional coherent detection. This technique uses the lowest transmitted power and attains the highest bit-rate efficiency of all techniques that are used to obtain high SFDR. The proposed SSB-SC transmitter is a photonic circuit ring laser oscillator that outputs only sideband optical power (that may be filtered to SSB only). The needed pump power is limited to the sum of sideband power and roundtrip cavity losses. We envision this high efficiency transmitter to be ultimately compacted into a hybrid photonic transceiver circuit composed of optimized transmitter and receiver components.


Grant
Agency: Department of Defense | Branch: Air Force | Program: SBIR | Phase: Phase I | Award Amount: 99.53K | Year: 2009

Highly powered electromagnetic interference (EMI) could disable electronic equipment, electronic communications and data storage systems, on which the C4I system is established, and disable (or threaten) soldiers activity (or lives). Effective shielding from EMI is of critical importance in the battlefield. IPITEK proposes to develop effective DNA-based EMI-shielding clothing for this critical application.  DNA has unique physical, electric and dielectric properties, which make it an excellent EMI-shielding clothing material.   In addition, DNA (a bio-waste) is very cheap and easy-processing material, thus, the cost could be significantly low compared with other materials. In Phase I we will design and demonstrate the materials that provide shielding at relevant bandwidth and attenuation levels.  In Phase II we will implement these designs into deliverable samples for Air Force test and evaluation, and will continue to evolve advanced materials for eventual commercialization. BENEFIT: Many Dual-Use benefits derive from this proposed development.  . Effectively shielding EMI is of critical importance for both military and civilian applications. For military, it can protect the C4I system and soldier activity (and lives) ensuring winning the war.  For civilian applications, it could protect civil electrical, electronic and communications equipment and personnel health of the operators.

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