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Batayneh M.,IPITEK, Inc. | Schupke D.A.,Nokia Inc. | Hoffmann M.,Nokia Inc. | Kirstaedter A.,University of Stuttgart | Mukherjee B.,University of California at Davis
IEEE/ACM Transactions on Networking | Year: 2011

Ethernet's success in local area networks (LANs) is fueling the efforts to extend its reach to cover metro and long-haul networks. This new Ethernet is refereed to as Carrier Ethernet. Among the various transport infrastructures for realizing Carrier Ethernet, wavelength-division multiplexing (WDM) optical network is a strong candidate for this purpose. Optical transmission rates per channel are increasing from 10 to 40 Gb/s and even 100 Gb/s, and they can also coexist in the same fiber. Along with the flexibility associated with such a network with mixed-line rates (MLR), signal-related constraints at high rates become a challenge for cost-efficient routing. Among these issues is the maximum nonregenerated optical distance that a signal can travel before its quality degrades or maximum transmission range (TR). TR is rate-dependent: The higher the rate, the shorter the range. While high-rate pipes may require signal regeneration to restore the signal's quality, they support more traffic and, hence, can save resources. We study the problem of cost-efficient routing of multi-bit-rate (1/10/40/100 Gb/s) Ethernet tunnels using MLR over a carrier's WDM optical network with signal-transmission-range constraints. We studied the effect of TR for mixed-rate signals (10/40/100 Gb/s) on the network's cost to determine the optimal TR of each bit rate. We present an analytical model based on a mixed-integer linear program (MILP) to determine the optimal TR of a small network. Since MILP has scalability constraints that makes it hard or sometimes impossible to solve for real network topologies, we propose a graph-based solution that constructs a mixed-line-rate auxiliary (MLR-AUX) graph to capture the network's heterogeneity and a weight-assignment approach that allows the routing to be cost-efficient. Our algorithms were tested on a U.S. nationwide network topology. We found that it is possible to reduce the network's cost by using short TR and that the optimal TR depends strongly on traffic characteristics and on the TR values of different bit-rate signals. © 2011 IEEE.


Batayneh M.,IPITEK, Inc. | Schupke D.,Nokia Inc. | Hoffmann M.,Nokia Inc. | Kirstaedter A.,University of Stuttgart | Mukherjee B.,University of California at Davis
Journal of Optical Communications and Networking | Year: 2011

Ethernets success in local-area networks (LANs) is fueling the efforts to extend its reach to cover metro and long-haul networks. A key enabler for using Ethernet in the carriers network is its ability to efficiently support multipoint-to-multipoint (MP2MP) services. MP2MP service is the core underlying structure to enable standard Ethernet services such as Ethernet virtual private networks (E-VPNs). Since most of the research, standardization, and development have focused on designing protection architectures for point-to-point (P2P) Ethernet connections, protecting E-VPN services is an important research problem. Among the various transport methods for realizing carrier Ethernet, the wavelength-division multiplexing (WDM) optical network is a strong candidate. Wavelength channel rates are increasing from 10 to 40Gbits/s and even 100Gbits/s, and they can also coexist in the same fiber. We study the problem of cost-efficient provisioning of multi-bit-rate (1/10/40/100Gbits/s) self-protected E-VPN demands over a carrier-grade Ethernet network employing WDM optical network (Ethernet over WDM) with mixed line rates (MLRs). We study two algorithms for self-protected E-VPN provisioning. The first algorithm reforms the original E-VPN topology and increases the provisioning rates (10/40/100/Gbits/s) of the E-VPN edge demands to create excess capacity that can be used for protection (E-VPN reformation). The second algorithm routes the E-VPN edge demands using the lowest available rate (10/40/100/Gbits/s) and establishes backup capacity for protecting the E-VPN (no E-VPN reformation). Our algorithms are tested on a 17-node German national network topology. The results show that using E-VPN reformation achieves significant cost reduction and significant improvement in the networks performance by reducing the traffic-blocking ratio. © 2011 Optical Society of America.


Andrei D.,University of California at Davis | Tornatore M.,University of California at Davis | Batayneh M.,IPITEK, Inc. | Martel C.U.,University of California at Davis | Mukherjee B.,University of California at Davis
IEEE/ACM Transactions on Networking | Year: 2010

With the increasing diversity of applications supported over optical networks, new service guarantees must be offered to network customers. Among the emerging data-intensive applications are those which require their data to be transferred before a predefined deadline. We call these deadline-driven requests (DDRs). In such applications, data-transfer finish time (which must be accomplished before the deadline) is the key service guarantee that the customer wants. In fact, the amount of bandwidth allocated to transfer a request is not a concern for the customer as long as its service deadline is met. Hence, the service provider can choose the bandwidth (transmission rate) to provision the request. In this case, even though DDRs impose a deadline constraint, they provide scheduling flexibility for the service provider since it can choose the transmission rate while achieving two objectives: 1) satisfying the guaranteed deadline; and 2) optimizing the network's resource utilization. We investigate the problem of provisioning DDRs with flexible transmission rates in wavelength-division multiplexing (WDM) mesh networks, although this approach is generalizable to other networks also. We investigate several (fixed and adaptive to network state) bandwidth-allocation policies and study the benefit of allowing dynamic bandwidth adjustment, which is found to generally improve network performance. We show that the performance of the bandwidth-allocation algorithms depends on the DDR traffic distribution and on the node architecture and its parameters. In addition, we develop a mathematical formulation for our problem as a mixed integer linear program (MILP), which allows choosing flexible transmission rates and provides a lower bound for our provisioning algorithms. © 2009 IEEE.


Rogers C.E.,University of Connecticut | Rogers C.E.,IPITEK, Inc. | Gould P.L.,University of Connecticut
Optics Express | Year: 2016

We describe a system for generating frequency-chirped and amplitude-shaped pulses on time scales from sub-nanosecond to ten nanoseconds. The system starts with cw diode-laser light at 780 nm and utilizes fiber-based electro-optical phase and intensity modulators, driven by an arbitrary waveform generator, to generate the shaped pulses. These pulses are subsequently amplified to several hundred mW with a tapered amplifier in a delayed double-pass configuration. Frequency chirps up to 5 GHz in 2 ns and pulse widths as short as 0.15 ns have been realized. © 2016 Optical Society of America.


Chadderdon S.,Brigham Young University | Gibson R.,Brigham Young University | Selfridge R.H.,Brigham Young University | Schultz S.M.,Brigham Young University | And 4 more authors.
Applied Optics | Year: 2011

This paper provides a detailed analysis of electric field sensing using a slab-coupled optical fiber sensor (SCOS). This analysis explains that the best material for the slab waveguide is an inorganic material because of the low RF permittivity combined with the high electro-optic coefficient. The paper also describes the fabrication and testing of a SCOS using an AJL chromophore in amorphous polycarbonate. The high uniform polymer slab waveguide is fabricated using a hot embossing process to create a slab with a thickness of 50μm. The fabricated polymer SCOS was characterized to have a resonance slope of ΔP/Δλ = 6.83E5W/m and a resonance shift of ΔλlE = 1.47E - 16m2/V. © 2011 Optical Society of America.


Perry D.,Brigham Young University | Chadderdon S.,Brigham Young University | Forber R.,IPITEK, Inc. | Wang W.C.,IPITEK, Inc. | And 2 more authors.
Applied Optics | Year: 2013

This paper provides the details of a multiaxis electric field sensor. The sensing element consists of three slab coupled optical-fiber sensors that are combined to allow directional electric field sensing. The packaged three-axis sensor has a small cross-sectional area of 0.5 cm×0.5 cm by using an x-cut crystal. A method is described that uses a sensitivity-matrix approach to map the measurements to field components. The calibration and testing are described, resulting in an average error of 1.5̊. © 2013 Optical Society of America.


Patent
IPITEK, Inc. and U.S. Air force | Date: 2016-06-29

An electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielded device which includes an object to be shielded and an EMI shielding material encompassing the object. The EMI shielding material is made up of, but not limited to a broadband biopolymer or polymer dissolved in organic solvents, and metal and carbon-based nano-powders or nanoparticles. The specific makeup of the shielding material and fabrication procedure of the shielding material is also included herein.


Grant
Agency: Department of Defense | Branch: Air Force | Program: SBIR | Phase: Phase I | Award Amount: 149.93K | Year: 2013

ABSTRACT: In modern battlefields, Electronic Warfare (EW) plays dominating role. To win the battlefield, it is a must to win EW first. In fighting the EW, it is vital to possess the most advanced radio frequency-selective shielding technologies to effectively protect electronic equipment, electronic communications and data storage systems on which the C4I system is established, while the microwave bands of data communications, which are the life-support lines in battlefields, must be kept opened only for friends with absolutely no interrupt anytime. IPITEK proposes to develop a DNA-based, all-dielectric, pattern-less, multilayer-periodic structures (MPS) for frequency selective shielding. The MPS consist of only a pair of two films, with slightly different permittivity and permeability, which is periodically overlapped each other forming a multilayer structure. The proposed MPS feature multiple, very narrow pass-bands, allowing users quickly switch transmission frequency from one to another, while blocking any unwanted frequencies. Phase I work will prove the feasibility of the proposed MPS for selective frequency shielding by refining modeling, selecting materials, testing dielectric properties of selected materials, fabricating demo samples and preliminarily measuring the RF shielding efficiencies of the samples. Phase II will ultimately produce prototypes of proposed MPS. BENEFIT: The novel DNA-based MPS could significantly impact capability for anti-Electronic Warfare defense, as well as numerous commercial needs for EMI-suppression in broadband and high-speed electronics industries. The military and civilian applications include high power antennas, radomes, filters, polarizers, stealth techniques, diplexers, dichroic sub-reflectors and reflection array lenses, Radio Frequency Identification (RFID), radar cross section (RCS) argumentations and EM interference (EMI) protections, and etc. It could have a huge potential market impact.


Grant
Agency: Department of Defense | Branch: Air Force | Program: SBIR | Phase: Phase II | Award Amount: 749.13K | Year: 2010

IPITEK demonstrated novel DNA-based EMI-shielding composite materials (DESM) that exhibit excellent EMI shielding effectiveness while being non-conductive. Major applications for such films include Electro-Magnetic Pulse (EMP) suppression as well as myriad commercial high-speed electronics and communications industries. Phase II will investigate and improve formulations of the DESM components to optimize physical properties, device compatibility, and EMI-shielding performance to meet the needs and requirements from both military and industries. Phase II goals include establishing a fundamental, mass-producible process for low-cost DESM materials, in coordination with end-user requirements. IPITEK will leverage its established position in wideband photonic-based networks to aggressively pursue commercialization of DESM technology in both DOD and commercial sectors. BENEFIT: The novel nonconductive DESM materials could significantly impact capability for anti-Electro-Magnetic Pulse (EMP) defense, as well as numerous commercial needs for EMI-suppression in broadband and high-speed electronics industries. This technology may become critical across broad C4I systems and networks. We anticipate broad use in protecting civil electrical, electronic and communications equipment, even extending to operator health effects protection. Radio Magnetic Interference (RMI) control and suppression is a vital issue in consumer electronic systems on high-speed electronic PCBs and connectors, with huge potential market impact.


Grant
Agency: Department of Defense | Branch: Air Force | Program: SBIR | Phase: Phase II | Award Amount: 750.00K | Year: 2014

ABSTRACT: In modern battlefields, Electronic Warfare (EW) plays dominating role. To win the battlefield, it is a must to win EW first. In fighting the EW, it is vital to possess the most advanced radio frequency-selective shielding technologies to effectively protect electronic equipment, electronic communications and data storage systems on which the C4I system is established, while the microwave bands of data communications, which are the life-support lines in battlefields, must be kept opened only for friends with absolutely no interrupt anytime. IPITEK proposes to develop a DNA-based, all-dielectric, pattern-less, multilayer-periodic structures (MPS) for frequency selective shielding. The MPS consist of only a pair of two films, with slightly different permittivity and permeability, which is periodically overlapped each other forming a multilayer structure. The proposed MPS feature multiple, very narrow pass-bands, allowing users quickly switch transmission frequency from one to another, while blocking any unwanted frequencies. Phase I work will prove the feasibility of the proposed MPS for selective frequency shielding by refining modeling, selecting materials, testing dielectric properties of selected materials, fabricating demo samples and preliminarily measuring the RF shielding efficiencies of the samples. This Phase II project will produce prototypes of proposed MPS for evaluations, tests, validations, and verifications by the US AirFoce. BENEFIT: The novel DNA-based MPS could significantly impact capability for anti-Electronic Warfare defense, as well as numerous commercial needs for EMI-suppression in broadband and high-speed electronics industries. The military and civilian applications include high power antennas, radomes, filters, polarizers, stealth techniques, diplexers, dichroic sub-reflectors and reflection array lenses, Radio Frequency Identification (RFID), radar cross section (RCS) argumentations and EM interference (EMI) protections, and etc. It could have a huge potential market impact.

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