Iphes Institute Catala Of Paleoecologia Humana I Evolucio Social

Tarragona, Spain

Iphes Institute Catala Of Paleoecologia Humana I Evolucio Social

Tarragona, Spain
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Verges J.M.,Iphes Institute Catala Of Paleoecologia Humana I Evolucio Social | Verges J.M.,Rovira i Virgili University | Morales J.I.,Iphes Institute Catala Of Paleoecologia Humana I Evolucio Social | Morales J.I.,Rovira i Virgili University
Quaternary International | Year: 2016

The polish generated by sheep and goats in the walls of caves and stone-made enclosures is a clear indicator about their use as a livestock folds. The study of the polish distribution and intensity, together with the data revealed by the sedimentary context, or even if it is absent, allows to understand the kind of management carried out with the animal dung. In this way it is possible to identify if the dung has been merely dismissed, if it has been periodically extracted for the field manuring, and also if it has been intensively exploited by the completely emptying of the caves. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and INQUA.

Lopez-Polin L.,Iphes Institute Catala Of Paleoecologia Humana I Evolucio Social | Lopez-Polin L.,Rovira i Virgili University
Quaternary International | Year: 2015

The Pleistocene record can be simultaneously studied from different disciplines within the fields of archaeology and palaeontology. Each of these disciplines seeks slightly different information and makes use of different methodologies. These differences may change the goal of the conservation treatments, affect the degree of intervention or require the limited application of certain techniques and materials.This article discusses the basic reasons why some researchers may request a closer focus on recovering the original appearance of the bones while others require their taphonomic modifications to remain intact. Further research into the needs of archaeopalaeontological studies and into adjusting conservation aims and methods to meet those needs would help to maximize the recovery and preservation of the information that fossils contain. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and INQUA.

Lozano M.,Iphes Institute Catala Of Paleoecologia Humana I Evolucio Social | Lozano M.,Rovira i Virgili University | Bermudez de Castro J.M.,Cenieh National Research Center Sobre Evolucion Humana | Bermudez de Castro J.M.,University College London | And 3 more authors.
Quaternary International | Year: 2015

Cultural dental wear provides useful information about the use of anterior teeth for non-masticatory purposes. Non-alimentary tasks are usually related to economic and cultural activities. The presence of cultural dental wear has been checked in four different Homo species from the Sierra de Atapuerca sites (Sima del Elefante, Gran Dolina-TD6, Sima de los Huesos and El Mirador cave). The chronology of these sites ranges from more than one million to 4000 years ago.Evidence of dental wear has been documented in the four Homo species analysed, confirming that hominins began using their teeth as tools as far back as one million years ago. Each species exhibits specific typologies and frequencies of dental wear features. Also, dental features are located on different dental surfaces and tooth types, indicating a diversity of activities carried out using the anterior teeth as a tool.The use of the teeth as a tool was a widespread habit in the genus Homo. However, the diversity of dental wear patterns can be related to cultural and economic activities, broadening our knowledge of the behaviour of ancient hominins. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and INQUA.

Guardiola M.,Iphes Institute Catala Of Paleoecologia Humana I Evolucio Social | Guardiola M.,Rovira i Virgili University | Guardiola M.,University of Geneva | Morales J.I.,Iphes Institute Catala Of Paleoecologia Humana I Evolucio Social | And 3 more authors.
Quaternary International | Year: 2015

Two main knapping strategies can be used to start bifacial reduction on a lithic cobble or nodule: the alternate strategy, in which first one face is knapped and then the other; and the alternating strategy, in which both faces are removed in the same sequence, interspersing core about-turns between strikes. Flaking reduction of spherical and elliptical blanks (cobbles or nodules) is a common knapping process documented in many archaeological records. Rounded and thick edges require different fracture parameters and give rise to constraints in terms of viable knapping methods. When analysing abandoned cores, it is only possible to see the last strikes, so it is important to know how they were shaped or exploited in the earlier knapping stages in order to understand the entire reduction process. As cortical flakes are the direct evidence of the first reduction phases, we undertook an experimental programme for the purpose of comparing the first flakes generated using the alternate and alternating knapping strategies. We have focused our efforts on identifying and diagnosing distinctive features produced by each strategy in the first or cortical flakes. Our study indicates that several platform attributes can be considered as diagnostic features to differentiate between the alternate and alternating knapping strategies, and that this kind of analysis can be translated to archaeological assemblages. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and INQUA.

Garcia J.,Iphes Institute Catala Of Paleoecologia Humana I Evolucio Social | Garcia J.,Rovira i Virgili University | Martinez K.,Iphes Institute Catala Of Paleoecologia Humana I Evolucio Social | Martinez K.,Rovira i Virgili University | And 3 more authors.
Quaternary International | Year: 2013

The Vallparadís site contains a long and continuous archaeological sequence dating to between the late Early Pleistocene and the first half of the Middle Pleistocene. Levels 10 and 10c (unit EVT7) have yielded abundant macrofauna and Mode 1 stone tools calibrated by paleomagnetism and by biostratigraphy to the upper limit of the Jaramillo subchron (0.98Ma) and by U-series/ESR to 0.83±0.13Ma. The industries, elaborated from local raw materials, are of small size. The chaînes opératoires used for lithic production are poorly elaborated and are based on an anvil knapping technique. Shaped tools include notches, becs, scrapers and denticulates on small pebbles, clasts, fragments and flakes as well as a large single chopper. Using a techno-typological study and comparisons with other known Early Pleistocene sites in Spain (Orce and Atapuerca) and elsewhere in Eurasia, we propose that these sites belong to an analogous Mode 1 techno-complex with a variability range. The fundamental difference between them lies in the retouched tools because these are poorly represented in Europe prior to around 1Ma. In contrast, orthogonal knapping methods were used in the exploitation of the cores during all this period. The successive episodes of interbreeding and independent evolution regarding the phylogenetic reports on the hominin remains from Atapuerca would have probably led to regional technological traditions in the European Mode 1 lithic record. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and INQUA.

Lopez-Garcia J.M.,Iphes Institute Catala Of Paleoecologia Humana I Evolucio Social | Lopez-Garcia J.M.,Rovira i Virgili University | Blain H.-A.,Iphes Institute Catala Of Paleoecologia Humana I Evolucio Social | Blain H.-A.,Rovira i Virgili University | And 7 more authors.
Geology | Year: 2013

We investigate changes in small-mammal richness and diversity in southwestern Europe (Iberian Peninsula) during the late Pleistocene- Holocene transition in order to evaluate whether they follow a climatic pattern or are predominantly determined by human impact, especially after the emergence of agriculture in the Neolithic period. We selected 6 late Pleistocene and Holocene sites that correspond to 18 different layers dated to between ca. 22 and 3 kyr B.P. Using indices of species richness and evenness diversity, we show that climate played an important role at some sites during the late Pleistocene and at the beginning of the Holocene, in that the richness and diversity of small mammals were closely related to the mean annual temperatures and landscape changes, and varied according to the different climatic fluctuations detected (Heinrich Event 1, Bølling-Allerød, and Preboreal-Boreal). However, at the beginning of the mid-Holocene, the small-mammal richness and diversity no longer seem to follow any kind of climatic pattern, and the observed changes in some studied sites are more closely related to human activities. By contrast with similar studies carried out in other parts of the world, the changes in diversity in the Iberian Peninsula do not seem to follow a constant pattern during the late Pleistocene and beginning of the Holocene. Some of the changes detected appear to be related to climate (late Pleistocene), and others appear to be related to human influence (Holocene) on the landscape. © 2013 Geological Society of America.

Hardy B.L.,Kenyon College | Moncel M.-H.,French Natural History Museum | Daujeard C.,French Natural History Museum | Fernandes P.,Paleotime | And 6 more authors.
Quaternary Science Reviews | Year: 2013

Neanderthal behavior is often described in one of two contradictory ways: 1) Neanderthals were behaviorally inflexible and specialized in large game hunting or 2) Neanderthals exhibited a wide range of behaviors and exploited a wide range of resources including plants and small, fast game. Using stone tool residue analysis with supporting information from zooarchaeology, we provide evidence that at the Abri du Maras, Ardèche, France, Neanderthals were behaviorally flexible at the beginning of MIS 4. Here, Neanderthals exploited a wide range of resources including large mammals, fish, ducks, raptors, rabbits, mushrooms, plants, and wood. Twisted fibers on stone tools provide evidence of making string or cordage. Using a variety of lines of evidence, we show the presence of stone projectile tips, possibly used in complex projectile technology. This evidence shows a level of behavioral variability that is often denied to Neanderthals. Furthermore, it sheds light on perishable materials and resources that are not often recovered which should be considered more fully in reconstructions of Neanderthal behavior. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Allue E.,Iphes Institute Catala Of Paleoecologia Humana I Evolucio Social | Allue E.,Rovira i Virgili University | Euba I.,ICAC Institute Catala dArqueologia Classica | Rodriguez A.,Iphes Institute Catala Of Paleoecologia Humana I Evolucio Social | Rodriguez A.,Rovira i Virgili University
Cuaternario y Geomorfologia | Year: 2012

The aim of this work is to present a synthetical overview on archaeobotanical studies from the NE of the Iberian Peninsula taking into account palaeoecological and palaeoeconomical approaches based on anthracological and carpological records. Thus, we will present the assemblage of data as well as some methodological aspects in order to understand the characterization of the assemblages and their interpretation. In this region, biogeographical differences are a key fact to explain past landscape transformations, which were dominated by Pinus sylvestris type during the end of the Pleistocene and changed, due to climatic causes. The new plant communities were characterized by a larger diversity, which included Pinus and other meso-thermophilous taxa. Furthermore, there are changes related to the inclusion of new species as energetic resources and as plant food. This fact has implications in the resource management and finally in the last hunter-gatherer's behaviour.

Blain H.-A.,Iphes Institute Catala Of Paleoecologia Humana I Evolucio Social | Blain H.-A.,Rovira i Virgili University | Cuenca-Bescos G.,University of Zaragoza | Lozano-Fernandez I.,Iphes Institute Catala Of Paleoecologia Humana I Evolucio Social | And 4 more authors.
Geology | Year: 2012

In the Mediterranean area, which is climatically stressed by limited water resources and extremes of heat, climate variations are known to play a crucial role in the ecosystems and environment. Investigating how climate has changed in the past may help us to understand how it may change in the future and its consequences on temperature and water resources. The Gran Dolina sequence (north-central Spain) provides a unique long paleontological and archaeological record spanning the Mid-Brunhes (ca. 450 ka) climatic transition. A fossil amphibian- and squamate-based reconstruction of temperature and precipitation shows marked peaks that have been related to various interglacial peaks in accordance with numeric dates and paleomagnetic and biochronological data. An analysis of climate and herpetofaunal assemblage changes during the interglacial periods reveals that (1) post-Mid-Brunhes Event (MBE) interglacials were warmer than pre-MBE interglacials, (2) pre-MBE interglacials were warmer than present day, and (3) there were lower levels of rainfall in post-MBE interglacials than in pre-MBE interglacials. The climate trend in the Mediterranean area was found to be congruous with global climate changes as reconstructed from ice and sea-surface temperature records over the past million years. © 2012 Geological Society of America.

PubMed | Complutense University of Madrid, Independent researcher, Netherlands Institute in Turkey, University Pompeu Fabra and 14 more.
Type: Historical Article | Journal: Nature | Year: 2015

Ancient DNA makes it possible to observe natural selection directly by analysing samples from populations before, during and after adaptation events. Here we report a genome-wide scan for selection using ancient DNA, capitalizing on the largest ancient DNA data set yet assembled: 230 West Eurasians who lived between 6500 and 300 bc, including 163 with newly reported data. The new samples include, to our knowledge, the first genome-wide ancient DNA from Anatolian Neolithic farmers, whose genetic material we obtained by extracting from petrous bones, and who we show were members of the population that was the source of Europes first farmers. We also report a transect of the steppe region in Samara between 5600 and 300 bc, which allows us to identify admixture into the steppe from at least two external sources. We detect selection at loci associated with diet, pigmentation and immunity, and two independent episodes of selection on height.

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