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Sattler K.,Ingolstadt University of Applied Sciences | Raith A.,Ingolstadt University of Applied Sciences | Brandmeier T.,Ingolstadt University of Applied Sciences | Schyr C.,IPG Automotive GmbH | Sadou D.,Continental AG
Lecture Notes in Electrical Engineering | Year: 2013

Active safety and passive safety were long viewed as separate entities of automotive safety systems, while current trends point toward networks and integration. In addition to signals from the crash phase, modern passive safety systems use pre-crash information from other systems (such as ESC). This new system interdependence leads to new development requirements. Whenever communication takes place across several levels such as different bus systems with many bus participants, reliability and data consistency have to be assured at all times. Network intensification and a large number of variants dramatically increase the complexities of fault protection and control unit tests during the development process. This requires new types of test systems with corresponding interfaces and advanced simulation tools for efficient, cost-effective and seamless testing. The test system presented here uses highly capable vehicle dynamics and driver simulations with integrated crash data and fault feed-in. Normal driving conditions as well as pre-crash and in-crash scenarios were implemented to conduct a realistic test (illustrated here by the example of a safety control unit). The test was run by defining the corresponding driving maneuvers in extensive test catalogs, analogous to real-world tests. This creates the basis for a highly capable, seamless test platform. In addition, testing depth and fault detection probability can be significantly increased through a flexible and comprehensive selection of test cases. © Springer-Verlag 2013.


Geyer S.,TU Darmstadt | Baltzer M.,RWTH Aachen | Franz B.,TU Darmstadt | Hakuli S.,IPG Automotive GmbH | And 8 more authors.
IET Intelligent Transport Systems | Year: 2014

Activities in the field of automated driving have produced a variety of development tools and methodologies over the past decades. The requirements the systems have to fulfil and thus also the development guidelines are often documented in different kinds of catalogues (use-case catalogues, situation catalogues, scenario catalogues etc.). These catalogues cannot be directly applied for the development of partially and highly automated vehicle guidance concepts like conduct-by-wire (CbW) or H-mode. One reason is that up to now, no consistent terminology known to the authors yet exists for vehicle automation within the community. Moreover, as the aim of the two project groups CbW and H-mode is to make a comprehensive feasibility assessment of cooperative vehicle guidance, all interacting components of the overall system as well as all potential driving conditions a cooperative vehicle guidance system might have to cope with have to be analysed. This article focuses on two aspects. The first is a metaphor-based terminology discussion leading to a proposal for a fundamental ontology. The second aspect is an outlook on the different catalogues that use the new terminology and that have been developed. The methodology introduced here is a fundamental contribution towards simplifying communication and the exchange of findings. © The Institution of Engineering and Technology 2014.


Zofka M.R.,Research Center for Information Technology | Kohlhaas R.,Research Center for Information Technology | Bar T.,Research Center for Information Technology | Schwab S.,IPG Automotive GmbH | And 2 more authors.
Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics) | Year: 2014

One of the great challenges for the release of automated vehicles is the verification and evaluation of their cognitive skills. Therefore, Vehicle-in-the-loop testing provides an adequate tool, combining real test drives with simulations. In this paper we present our innovative Vehiclein- the-loop framework: First, a marker-based head tracking is presented, which is able to track the driver’s head in presence of vehicle’s movement and illumination influences. Second, we present our realization based on the Open-Source framework ROS with an exemplary coupling to the professional simulation tool CarMaker. Finally, we evaluate our approach in different driving scenarios. © Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2014.


Kobayashi M.,IPG Automotive K.K. | Donn C.,IPG Automotive GmbH
2015 54th Annual Conference of the Society of Instrument and Control Engineers of Japan, SICE 2015 | Year: 2015

In this paper, an open integration and test platform is used for the multi-objective optimization of the powertrain concept of a hybrid vehicle. This was done for different driving scenarios and driver types and taking into account longitudinal and lateral vehicle dynamics. A comparative study of fuel efficiency and performance for a hybrid-electric powertrain with different battery sizes and operating strategies was made, using the Functional Mockup Interface (FMI) approach to integrate a detailed vehicle powertrain model into a comprehensive full-vehicle model driven by a virtual driver on a virtual road. © 2015 The Society of Instrument and Control Engineers-SICE.


Shen D.,TU Berlin | Bensch V.,IPG Automotive GmbH | Muller S.,TU Berlin
IFAC Proceedings Volumes (IFAC-PapersOnline) | Year: 2015

This paper introduces a model predictive control (MPC) strategy for the purpose of fuel-optimal operation of a range-extender hybrid vehicle. The modern navigation system nowadays can provide abundant road information. Using this information, the proposed controller solves a global optimization problem offline in order to determine a preset trajectory of the state of charge (SoC). The online MPC uses the resulting SoC trajectory as set-points for the terminal state in every moving horizon. Repeating this process, the optimal energy management along the trip to be traveled can thus be calculated. This proposed control strategy is implemented in the commercial vehicle simulation environment IPG CarMaker. From the first simulation results, the proposed strategy shows a promising fuel saving potential with real-time capability. © 2015, IFAC (International Federation of Automatic Control) Hosting by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved..


Schick B.,IPG Automotive GmbH | Leonhard V.,IPG Automotive GmbH | Lange S.,AVL Deutschland GmbH
AutoTechnology | Year: 2012

IPG Automotive and AVL are jointly using a new CarMaker simulation method to evaluate networked controller functions in a simulated complete vehicle, achieving a higher level of certainty earlier during system development. The simulation makes it possible to manage and organize many different models in parallel. The models can be changed over with the user interface or on the fly from within the test automation. Realistic traffic situations can be simulated in CarMaker in real-time, as up to 1000 objects can be configured to build a traffic scenario. To achieve the most energy efficient approach to the object, the controller calculates, depending on the boundary condition - the optimal moment of releasing the accelerator pedal and the level of recuperation in the powertrain. Networked hybrid functions are tested in realistic driving scenarios to evaluate their proper operation.


Witter H.-J.,IPG Automotive GmbH | Lange S.,AVL Deutschland GmbH | Talwar K.,OEM Technology Instruments
SAE Technical Papers | Year: 2013

The evaluation of vehicle characteristics at an early phase of functional development is a key task in the definition of a viable system architecture. Today this is complicated by the fact that full vehicle characteristics, in particular those of modern hybrid vehicles, are dependent on a broad range of electrical, mechanical, thermal and control-related partial aspects. In addition to the current driving status and information on the environment, modern energy management systems (e.g. control systems, range, charging and thermal management) also require predictive information on the driving route to be expected. This includes, for example, uphill road grades, curve radii, speed limits, number of lanes, urban and residential areas, intersections and traffic lights. All together, the intelligent fusion of this information provides for increased safety and energy efficiency. Copyright © 2013 SAE International and Copyright © 2013 SIAT, India.


Kunz A.,IPG Automotive GmbH | Schick B.,IPG Automotive GmbH | Lange S.,AVL Deutschland GmbH
Lecture Notes in Electrical Engineering | Year: 2013

Research and/or Engineering Questions/Objective: The evaluation of vehicle characteristics at an early phase of functional development is a key task in the definition of a viable system and function architecture. Today this is complicated by the fact that full vehicle characteristics, in particular those of modern hybrid and electric vehicles, are dependent on a broad range of electrical, mechanical, thermal and control-related partial aspects. In addition to the current driving status and information on the environment, modern energy management systems (e.g. control systems, range, charging and thermal management) also require predictive information on the driving route to be expected. This includes, for example, uphill road grades, curve radii, speed limits, number of lanes, urban and residential areas, intersections and traffic lights. All together, the intelligent fusion of this information provides for increased safety and energy efficiency. Methodology: These additional functions however result in additional complexity in the development process, which must be controlled. Nevertheless many questions already arise in a very early phase of development, in particular in the interaction with the actual utilization profile, such as route, driver and environment characteristics in the various target regions of the future vehicle. This article shows new ways and methods of how the functions and total vehicle characteristics can be evaluated in virtual driving tests in the early phase of development. The method provides a major support for the development and evaluation of energy management systems in the complete vehicle environment with corresponding system interactions: The evaluation of energy states, losses and fuel consumptions in realistic utilization profiles, such as route, driver and environment characteristics in the various target regions of the future vehicle. Results In addition to the evaluation of the individual target functions in a broad range of different scenarios, the correct designs of the individual system components in the complete vehicle can also be verified. The performance and robustness of the operating strategy, as well as the corresponding fuel consumption or CO 2 emission values in the range of worldwide conditions of use can also be predicted with the different choice of route and driver types and the amount of traffic typical for the region. Limitations of this study: Furthermore, positive fuel consumption effects are identified in the virtual driving test which cannot be recognized due to the insufficient repetitive accuracy in actual traffic. During this, the method can be consistently and uniformly used in the x-in-the-loop development process. As soon as hardware components like the engine, drive train or battery are available, these actual components can already be tested in the virtual driving test in combination with the virtual vehicle in accordance with the principles described. Conclusion As a result, the system and functional architecture can already be comprehensively evaluated in a very early development phase and the degree of integration maturity in the later, actual integration levels can be raised to a considerably higher standard, minimizing time-consuming, expensive development loops. © Springer-Verlag 2013.


Schmidt S.,IPG Automotive GmbH | Schick W.,IPG Automotive GmbH
International Journal of Automotive Engineering | Year: 2015

The application of a full vehicle model with MBS (<100 DOF) in real time has now become reality. This makes it possible to efficiently evaluate vehicle handling performance in the whole vehicle. An array of chassis design parameters (e.g. geometries, kinematics, hard points) can be evaluated in combination with systems (e.g. air suspensions, steering, powertrain). New applications are possible, such as the MIL, SIL and HIL tool chain, to validate the interactions with controllers and their variants. Tools and methods (e.g. automation, analysis) can be added. Best combinations can be achieved by using DoE methods -transferred from powertrain ECU calibration. ©2015 Society of Automotive Engineers of Japan, Inc.


Schick B.,IPG Automotive GmbH | Schmidt S.,IPG Automotive GmbH
Lecture Notes in Electrical Engineering | Year: 2013

Research and/or Engineering Questions/Objective: The vehicle of the future will support its driver by advising him regarding potential hazards. Essential prerequisite therefore is the sensor based perception of the traffic situation. For the recognition of traffic related objects, camera based sensors, deepness cameras, vehicle sensors as well as radar and lidar sensors are used. For the future development of ADAS the fusion of multiple sensor data to a consistent environmental picture will play a key role. The evaluation approach of real world driving tests will no longer be sufficient due to the complexity of the system interactions. New simulation methods are needed to evaluate ADAS by using virtual test driving with realistic vehicle behavior and complex traffic environment. Methodology Therefore it is important to integrate camera based components in a "closed loop"- simulation platform to be able to test sensor data fusion technologies under realistic conditions. To test new driver assistance systems in a simulation environment today animation data is filmed, subsequently this data is used to test an image processing algorithm or a fusion algorithm. But this method cannot be applied if wide-angle cameras such as cameras with fisheye lenses will be used. Within a research frame work for autonomous driving functions a new simulation technology was developed to integrate virtual cameras beside the well know environment sensor in the vehicle dynamic simulation CarMaker. For this purpose the real-time animation was extended with a sophisticated virtual camera model so called "VideoDataStream" to generate simultaneous video data (also PMD for 3D images). The camera positions as well as the camera properties could be applied individually. Additionally it is possible to freely define the type of the camera lens (e.g. fisheye) with lens settings like opening angle and the typical lens failures (e.g. distortion and vignetting). With this new technology it is possible that e.g. camera and radar data can be provided time and place synchronal for the fusion algorithm which should be tested! Results The video data could be used for evaluating image processing and sensor data fusion in Model-/Software-/Hardware-in-the-Loop applications within virtual test driving conditions. Here the created method and examples of image based perception of the vehicle environment as well as sensor data fusion algorithms shall be presented. Among others this covers first of all the recognition of traffic lanes, traffic signs and other traffic partners as well as the fusion of the single information up to a comprehensive environment picture. A further field of application will be the conjunction with navigation systems and digital maps, by which the virtual vehicle supports the navigation system with related GPS position and gets back the "MPP-Most Probable Path" with the "electronic horizon", which is a type of predictive sensor, with all related preview information in front of the vehicle which are defined in the ADASIS protocol. Conclusion By using the introduced method the capability and efficiency of function development and testing in the area of Advanced Driver Assistant Systems will significantly be improved. Due to a powerful simulation environment a broad range of validation tests can be shifted into simulation because also complex test scenarios can be replicated and the tests are reproducible. The simulation data can be provided time and place synchronal, which is absolutely important, e.g. for a fusion algorithm which should be tested. © Springer-Verlag 2013.

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