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Manchester, United Kingdom

Brasil P.,Institute Pesquisa Clinica Evandro Chagas IPEC | Costa A.P.,Institute Pesquisa Clinica Evandro Chagas IPEC | Longo C.L.,Institute Pesquisa Clinica Evandro Chagas IPEC | Da Silva S.,IPEC Inc | And 2 more authors.
Malaria Journal | Year: 2013

Abstract. A case of autochthonous Plasmodium vivax malaria with sub-microscopic parasitaemia and polyclonal B-cell activation (PBA) (as reflected by positive IgM and IgG serology for toxoplasmosis, cytomegalovirus, and antinuclear and rheumatoid factors) was diagnosed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) after consecutive negative rapid diagnostic test results and blood films. The patient, a 44-year-old man from Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil, had visited the Atlantic Forest, a tourist, non-malaria-endemic area where no autochthonous cases of 'bromeliad malaria' has ever been described. The characteristic pattern of fever, associated with PBA, was the clue to malaria diagnosis, despite consecutive negative thick blood smears. The study highlights a need for changes in clinical and laboratory diagnostic approaches, namely the incorporation of PCR as part of the current routine malaria diagnostic methods in non-endemic areas. © 2013 Brasil et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


Paula F.L.,Escola Nacional de Saude Publica | da Fonseca M.J.M.,Escola Nacional de Saude Publica | de Oliveira R.V.C.,IPEC Inc | Rozenfeld S.,Ensp da FIOCRUZ
Revista Brasileira de Epidemiologia | Year: 2010

Objective: To describe the common characteristics of elderly people admitted to public hospitals of Niterói (RJ) due to falls. Methods: Cross-sectional study with 110 elderly patients (60 years and more) admitted to public hospitals in Niteroi - RJ, with fractures after falls. Data were collected by a multidimensional questionnaire. Multiple correspondence and cluster analysis were used to describe the characteristics of this population. Results: The results indicated four groups. The first group was formed by individuals with better physical conditions who did not have a hip fracture, were more independent, used to go out more than twice a week, had good vision, had a short hospital stay, and were discharged to their homes. There was a group with worse conditions including those who were less independent, had a long hospital stay (more than 30 days), and died at the hospital. A third group was formed by those who had had a hip fracture, had poor vision, and used to go out less than once a week. The fourth group was comprised of those who stayed in the hospital from 11 to 30 days and used to go out once or twice a week. Conclusions: The multiple correspondence analysis proved to be a good technique to identify subgroups with common characteristics, which provides tools for the creation of strategies for fall prevention programs.


Clemmer L.,La Jolla Bioengineering Institute | Martins Y.C.,La Jolla Bioengineering Institute | Zanini G.M.,La Jolla Bioengineering Institute | Zanini G.M.,IPEC Inc | And 2 more authors.
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy | Year: 2011

The murine model of cerebral malaria (ECM) caused by Plasmodium berghei ANKA (PbA) infection in susceptible mice has been extensively used for studies of pathogenesis and identification of potential targets for human CM therapeutics. However, the model has been seldom explored to evaluate adjunctive therapies for this malaria complication. A first step toward this goal is to define a treatment protocol with an effective antimalarial drug able to rescue mice presenting late-stage ECM. We evaluated the efficacy of artemisinin, artemether, artesunate, and quinine given intraperitoneally once a day, and combinations with mefloquine, in suppressing PbA infection in mice with moderate parasitemia. Artemether, artesunate, and quinine were then evaluated for efficacy in rescuing PbA-infected mice with ECM, strictly defined by using objective criteria based on the presentation of clinical signs of neurological involvement, degree of hypothermia, and performance in a set of six motor behavior tests. Artemether at 25 mg/kg presented the fastest parasite killing ability in 24 h and fully avoided recrudescence in a 5-day treatment protocol. Artemether and artesunate were equally effective in rescuing mice with late-stage ECM (46 and 43% survival, respectively), whereas quinine had a poor performance (12.5% survival). Artemether caused a marked decrease in brain leukocyte accumulation 24 h after the first dose. In conclusion, artemether and artesunate are effective in rescuing mice with late-stage ECM and decrease brain inflammation. In addition, the described protocols for more strict clinical evaluation and for rescue treatment provide a framework for studies of CM adjunctive therapies using this mouse model. Copyright © 2011, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.


Singh A.P.,IPEC Inc | Varun,National Institute of Technology Hamirpur | Siddhartha,National Institute of Technology Hamirpur
Experimental Thermal and Fluid Science | Year: 2014

Incorporating artificial roughness on the underside of the absorber plate is an established effective and economic method for improving the thermal performance of a solar air heater. The present experimental investigation is undertaken to analyze the effect of various geometrical parameters for multiple arc shape ribs on heat transfer and friction characteristics. The experiments carried out encompasses Reynolds number (Re) in the range of 2200-22,000, relative roughness height (e/. D) values of 0.018-0.045, arc angle (α) range of 30-75° and relative roughness width (W/. w) ranges from 1 to 7 and relative roughness pitch (p/. e) range of 4-16. Thorough experimentation has been conducted to accumulate data on heat transfer and friction characteristics of a rectangular duct roughened solar air heater. Utilizing these experimental data, correlations for Nusselt number and friction factor are also developed. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.


Cabrales P.,La Jolla Bioengineering Institute | Zanini G.M.,La Jolla Bioengineering Institute | Zanini G.M.,IPEC Inc | Meays D.,La Jolla Bioengineering Institute | And 2 more authors.
American Journal of Pathology | Year: 2010

Brain hemodynamics in cerebral malaria (CM) is poorly understood, with apparently conflicting data showing microcirculatory hypoperfusion and normal or even increased blood flow in large arteries. Using intravital microscopy to assess the pial microvasculature through a closed cranial window in the murine model of CM by Plasmodium berghei ANKA, we show that murine CM is associated with marked decreases (mean: 60%) of pial arteriolar blood flow attributable to vasoconstriction and decreased blood velocity. Leukocyte sequestration further decreased perfusion by narrowing luminal diameters in the affected vessels and blocking capillaries. Remarkably, vascular collapse at various degrees was observed in 44% of mice with CM, which also presented more severe vasoconstriction. Coadministration of artemether and nimodipine, a calcium channel blocker used to treat postsubarachnoid hemorrhage vasospasm, to mice presenting CM markedly increased survival compared with artemether plus vehicle only. Administration of nimodipine induced vasodilation and increased pial blood flow. We conclude that vasoconstriction and vascular collapse play a role in murine CM pathogenesis and nimodipine holds potential as adjunctive therapy for CM. Copyright © American Society for Investigative Pathology.

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