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Ogrzewalska M.,University of Sao Paulo | Uezu A.,Institute Pesquisas Ecologicas IPE | Labruna M.B.,University of Sao Paulo
Parasitology Research | Year: 2011

A total of 232 individuals representing 46 species of birds were mist-netted and screened for ticks in a region of the Atlantic Forest, State of Bahia, Brazil. Thirty-eight (16.4%) of these birds representing 17 species were found infested by immature stages of Amblyomma ticks, namely, Amblyomma longirostre (Koch, 1844) (15 larvae and seven nymphs), Amblyomma nodosum (Neumann, 1899) (nine nymphs), Amblyomma calcaratum (Neumann, 1899) (five nymphs), Amblyomma cajennense (Fabricius, 1787) (seven larvae), and Amblyomma parkeri (Fonseca and Aragão, 1952) (four larvae). Overall, 21 larvae and five nymphs collected from birds could not be identified to species and were morphologically identified as Amblyomma spp. Among 13 A. longirostre larvae and two A. parkeri larvae, two individuals of A. longirostre (15.4%) were found infected by Rickettsia amblyommii. This study provides some bird species found infested by A. longirostre, A. parkeri, A. calcaratum, A. nodosum, or A. cajennense for the first time and expands the distribution of R. amblyommii-infected A. longirostre ticks. © Springer-Verlag 2010. Source


Ogrzewalska M.,University of Sao Paulo | Uezu A.,Institute Pesquisas Ecologicas IPE | Labruna M.B.,University of Sao Paulo
Parasitology Research | Year: 2010

The aim of the study was to report tick infestations on wild birds in a region of the eastern Brazilian Amazon and evaluate the rickettsial infection of these ticks. Wild birds captured by mist nets were examined for the presence of ticks, which were collected and identified to species by morphology or molecular methods. In addition, part of these ticks was individually tested by polymerase chain reaction targeting portions of the rickettsial genes gltA and ompA. Among 331 captured birds, representing 56 species, 133 individuals (40.2%) from 34 species were found infested by 443 ticks, being Amblyomma longirostre (Koch) the most common (103 larvae, 12 nymphs), followed by Amblyomma humerale Koch (15 larvae, 3 nymphs), Amblyomma geayi Neumann (seven larvae, one nymph), Amblyomma calcaratum Neumann (one larva, four nymphs), Amblyomma coelebs Neumann (two larvae), and Haemaphysalis juxtakochi Cooley (one larva, two nymphs). Other 285 larvae and 7 nymphs collected from birds could not be identified to species and were morphologically identified as Amblyomma spp. The species A. humerale and A. geayi are recorded for first time parasitizing birds in the Neotropical region. Among 67 A. longirostre and 7 A. geayi, 38 (56.7%) and 4 (57.1%), respectively, were found infected by Rickettsia amblyommii. In spite of R. amblyommii being not currently recognized as human or animal pathogen, there has been serological evidence for human and canine infection by this agent in the USA and in the Brazilian western Amazon. © Springer-Verlag 2010. Source


Ogrzewalska M.,University of Sao Paulo | Uezu A.,Institute Pesquisas Ecologicas IPE | Jenkins C.N.,North Carolina State University | Labruna M.B.,University of Sao Paulo
EcoHealth | Year: 2011

Habitat loss and modifications affect biodiversity, potentially contributing to outbreaks of infectious diseases. We evaluated if the patch sizeinfragmented areas of Atlantic Forest in southeastern Brazil influences the diversity of forest birds and consequently the prevalence of ticks on birds and the rickettsial infection of these ticks. During 2 years, we collected ticks from birds in 12 sites: four small forest patches (80-140 ha), four large ones (480-1,850 ha), and four forest control areas within the much larger Morro do Diabo State Park (~36,000 ha). A total of 1,725 birds were captured (81 species, 24 families), from which 223 birds were infested by 2,339 ticks of the genus Amblyomma, mostly by the species A. nodosum. Bird diversity and richness were higher in larger than smaller forest fragments. The prevalence of ticks on birds was inversely correlated with bird diversity and richness. Among 174 A. nodosum tested for rickettsial infection by polymerase chain reaction, 51 were found to be infected by Rickettsia bellii or Rickettsia parkeri. However, tick infection rates by Rickettsia spp. were not statistically different between forest patch sizes. The higher prevalence of ticks on birds in degraded patches might be caused by a dominance of a few generalist bird species in small patches, allowing an easier transmission of parasites among individuals. It could also be related to more favorable microclimatic conditions for the free-living stages of A. nodosum in smaller forest fragments.The higher burden of ticks on birds in smaller forest fragments is an important secondary effect of habitat fragmentation, possibly increasing the likelihood of Rickettsia contagion. © 2011 International Association for Ecology and Health. Source


Ometto T.,University of Sao Paulo | Durigon E.L.,University of Sao Paulo | de Araujo J.,University of Sao Paulo | Aprelon R.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | And 25 more authors.
Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene | Year: 2013

Background: West Nile virus (WNV) is an emergent pathogen that is widely distributed in North and Central America. The recent introduction in South America has focused attention on the spread of WNVacross Southern American countries. The transmission network involves mosquitoes, birds, horses and humans. Methods: The serological evaluation of sera from 678 equids and 478 birds was performed using a WNV-specific blocking ELISA, and only the positive results were confirmed by plaque reduction neutralisation tests (PRNTs). Molecular analysis was performed on sera from992 healthy equids and on 63 macerates of brains from equids that died of encephalitis and had previously tested negative for other pathogens. We also tested swabs from 928 birds. The samples analysed were collected in different biomes of Brazil. Results:We identified WNVantibodies by ELISA in thirteen equids and five birds, and PRNT90 confirmedWNVpositivity in four equid samples collected in 2009 in an area between the Amazon and the Pantanal. None of the ELISA positive bird samples were confirmed by PRNT90, and all samples tested by RT-PCR were negative. Conclusion: WNV circulation is confirmed by this large scale survey even in the absence of detection of clinical cases. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved. Source


Kluyber D.,Institute Pesquisas Ecologicas IPE | Martins T.F.,University of Sao Paulo | Desbiez A.J.L.,Institute Pesquisas Ecologicas IPE | Amorim M.,Instituto Oswaldo Cruz | And 2 more authors.
Systematic and Applied Acarology | Year: 2016

The occurrence of ticks in four species of armadillos (Priodontes maximus, Euphractus sexcinctus, Cabassous unicinctus and Dasypus novemcinctus) in Pantanal wetland, State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil is described. During the period from May 2011 to September 2015, 542 ticks of 28 wild armadillos were collected. Ticks species were identified as Amblyomma auricularium (Conil 1878), Amblyomma parvum Aragão, 1908 and Amblyomma sculptum Berlese, 1888. This study describes for the first time the identification of A. parvum parasitizing P. maximus, as well as A. sculptum for C. unicinctus in Brazil. The high diversity of ticks found in wild armadillos in the relatively pristine Pantanal biome, highlights the need for more studies on ticks and their interaction with wild, domestic and human species, specially their role for disease transmission and the potential risk for endangered species such as P. maximus. © Systematic & Applied Acarology Society. Source

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