IP National Institute of Biological Resources

Quinta do Anjo, Portugal

IP National Institute of Biological Resources

Quinta do Anjo, Portugal
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Sousa E.,IP National Institute of Biological Resources | Naves P.,IP National Institute of Biological Resources | Bonifacio L.,IP National Institute of Biological Resources | Henriques J.,IP National Institute of Biological Resources | And 2 more authors.
EPPO Bulletin | Year: 2011

The risks of Bursaphelenchus xylophilus (pine wood nematode) transfer in relation to wood material were assessed. Combinations of infested and non-infested adjacent boards, long-blocks and blocks of Pinus pinaster, simulating assembled pallets, were assessed. For the recipient wood, pieces with natural moisture content (MC), heat-treatment (56°C for 30min in the core) and kiln-drying to <20% MC were tested, along with in-service boards from pallets. Donor and recipient wood materials were kept in direct contact at 25°C or 10°C, with nine replicates per treatment. Bursaphelenchus xylophilus was found to transfer rapidly at 25°C when the wood had an MC above fibre-saturation point (>30%). Nematode reproduction was rapid and sustained, gradually declining to zero at 40weeks. Bursaphelenchus xylophilus did not transfer to kiln-dried or to in-service wood with an MC below fibre-saturation point, or to wood at 10°C. The key factors determining nematode transfer were the ambient temperature, the nematode load of the donor wood and the MC of the recipient wood, with a 'barrier' of 20% MC below which it becomes unsuitable for nematode transfer. This finding indicates that there is a limited risk of spread of B.xylophilus in treated and untreated solid wood packaging materials. © 2011 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2011 OEPP/EPPO.


Sousa E.,IP National Institute of Biological Resources | Naves P.,IP National Institute of Biological Resources | Bonifacio L.,IP National Institute of Biological Resources | Inacio L.,IP National Institute of Biological Resources | And 2 more authors.
EPPO Bulletin | Year: 2011

Survival and development of Bursaphelenchus xylophilus (pine wood nematode) was studied for up to 40weeks in Pinus pinaster sawn wood and branches: 30 boards (1200×100×25mm), 30 long-blocks (1200×95×95mm), 10 pine branches with bark and nine branches without bark (1200mm long). The nematode was found in all materials and through the entire sampling period, with higher abundance in the sawn wood (boards and long-blocks). In the initial period B. xylophilus reproduced abundantly and a population peak was detected at 8-12weeks. Subsequently, the populations declined and became dominated by third-stage resistant larvae (J III), and in the final sample nematode abundance was very low. Nematode decline in the wood was correlated with a decrease in the moisture content (MC) to below fibre saturation. Survival of the insect vector Monochamus galloprovincialis was also assessed in sawn boards (1200×100×25mm, n=31) and blocks (160×95×95mm, n=40). The majority of the larvae were killed when sawing the wood, although some adults successfully emerged from the boards (10% survival) and blocks (37%). These results represent a contribution to the quantification of the risks of dispersing pine wilt disease through wood packaging materials, confirming that untreated wood can support healthy and abundant B. xylophilus populations for sufficient time for vectors surviving the sawing process to complete their development, to emerge and disperse the nematode. © 2011 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2011 OEPP/EPPO.

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