Burkle D.,University of Leeds |
De Motte R.,University of Leeds |
Taleb W.,University of Leeds |
Kleppe A.,Diamond Light Source |
And 4 more authors.
Review of Scientific Instruments | Year: 2016
An electrochemically integrated Synchrotron Radiation-Grazing Incidence X-Ray Diffraction (SR-GIXRD) flow cell for studying corrosion product formation on carbon steel in carbon dioxide (CO2)-containing brines typical of oil and gas production has been developed. The system is capable of generating flow velocities of up to 2 m/s at temperatures in excess of 80 °C during SR-GIXRD measurements of the steel surface, enabling flow to be maintained over the course of the experiment while diffraction patterns are being collected. The design of the flow cell is presented, along with electrochemical and diffraction pattern transients collected from an initial experiment which examined the precipitation of FeCO3 onto X65 carbon steel in a CO2-saturated 3.5 wt. % NaCl brine at 80 °C and 0.1 m/s. The flow cell is used to follow the nucleation and growth kinetics of FeCO3 using SR-GIXRD linked to the simultaneous electrochemical response of the steel surface which were collected in the form of linear polarisation resistance measurements to decipher in situ corrosion rates. The results show that FeCO3 nucleation could be detected consistently and well before its inhibitive effect on the general corrosion rate of the system. In situ measurements are compared with ex situ scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observations showing the development of an FeCO3 layer on the corroding steel surface over time confirming the in situ interpretations. The results presented demonstrate that under the specific conditions evaluated, FeCO3 was the only crystalline phase to form in the system, with no crystalline precursors being apparent. The numerous capabilities of the flow cell are highlighted and presented in this paper. © 2016 Author(s).
Stevenson T.,University of Leeds |
Martin D.G.,Ionix Advanced Technologies |
Cowin P.I.,Ionix Advanced Technologies |
Blumfield A.,National Physical Laboratory United Kingdom |
And 3 more authors.
Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Electronics | Year: 2015
Piezoelectric sensors and actuators are a mature technology, commonplace amongst a plethora of industrial fields including automotive, maritime and non-destructive testing. However the environments that these devices are required to serve in are becoming more demanding, with temperatures being driven higher to increase efficiencies and reduce shut-downs. Materials to survive these temperatures have been the focus of many research groups over the last decade, but there still remains no standard for the measurement of piezoelectric materials at high temperature. This is required to effectively determine comparable Figures of Merit into which devices can be successfully designed. As part of a recent European effort to establish metrological techniques for high temperature evaluation of electro-mechanical properties, we present here a review of the most promising high temperature polycrystalline materials. Where their properties allow operation above that of the ubiquitous commercial material lead zirconate titanate, as well as work done to modify a promising high temperature system, for use as a material standard. © 2015 The Author(s)
PubMed | University of Leeds, Ionix Advanced Technologies, Diamond Light Source and British Petroleum
Type: Journal Article | Journal: The Review of scientific instruments | Year: 2016
An electrochemically integrated Synchrotron Radiation-Grazing Incidence X-Ray Diffraction (SR-GIXRD) flow cell for studying corrosion product formation on carbon steel in carbon dioxide (CO
Agency: GTR | Branch: Innovate UK | Program: | Phase: Feasibility Study | Award Amount: 99.91K | Year: 2016
Piezoelectric materials are used to produce and sense ultrasound in instrumentation used to monitor structural integrity, monitor flows and measure distance variations in a rnage of industrial environments. Ionix Advanced Technologies specializes in piezoelectric materials and ultrasound devices for the high temperature applications in this field. The project will develop a new form of piezoelectric material, a composite comprising a piezoelectric ceramic and a porous glass which will exhibit advantageous properties for ultrasound use at high temperatures. The resulting instruments will have high sensitivity, improved spatial resolution and much improved signal to noise ratio, enabling new applications for these systems in safety critical applications in power generation, the oil & gas industry, plus the automotive and aerospace sectors.
Agency: GTR | Branch: Innovate UK | Program: | Phase: European | Award Amount: 149.83K | Year: 2016
Agency: GTR | Branch: Innovate UK | Program: | Phase: Feasibility Study | Award Amount: 60.56K | Year: 2014
This project will test whether a new piezoelectric material, for use in structural health monitoring systems, is suitable for use in nuclear power generation plants. The materials resistance to to radiation damage will be assessed by testing the functional properties of the material after exposure to various doses of radiation. If the radiation hardness is sufficient, the new material could then be successfully used as the basis of sensors that can be permanently installed in in nuclear power plants to continuously monitor the integrity of key components, such as vessels and pipes containing nuclear materials. The sensors would greatly enhance safety and reduce the operation and maintenance costs of the plant, leading ultimately to cheaper electricity.
Agency: GTR | Branch: Innovate UK | Program: | Phase: Smart - Development of Prototype | Award Amount: 96.49K | Year: 2014
The aim of the project is to design, build, test and demonstrate a prototype ultrasound transducer that can be used in structural health monitoring, flow measurement and rangefinding applications in the temperature range 200 to 450°C. Such devices are required by the nuclear, oil & gas, industrial controls and aerospace industries. As currently available piezoelectric elements cannot operate beyond 250°C, the prototype will be based on a recently developed high temperature piezoelectric ceramic proprietary to the company. The project will identify acoustic matching and damping layers, compatible with the piezoelectric ceramic and the proposed applications, that can withstand the temperature range of operation and will identify techniques for making robust electrical connections to the active element. The prototype will be tested in the context of structural health monitoring and range-finding applications within the temperature range of interest.
Ionix Advanced Technologies | Entity website
Piezo injectors have several key benefits. The most prominent is that they can open and close much faster than conventional injectors, providing extremely accurate combustion, reducing emissions and soot to make cleaner, greener cars Piezoelectric actuators open and close much faster than conventional injectors, allowing injection several times during a cycle to give very precise fuel quantity and control, providing extremely accurate and efficient combustion ...
Ionix Advanced Technologies | Entity website
Ionix develops and supplies sensors, actuators and transducers which address applications and markets not accessible to existing piezoelectric systems. Ionix has created its HotSense platform of devices based on its materials for use in a range of extreme environment applications ...