Frankfurt am Main, Germany
Frankfurt am Main, Germany

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Preissl S.,European ScreeningPort GmbH | Preissl S.,Albert Ludwigs University of Freiburg | Bick I.,IonGate Biosciences GmbH | Obrdlik P.,IonGate Biosciences GmbH | And 4 more authors.
Assay and Drug Development Technologies | Year: 2011

Membrane-bound transporter proteins are involved in cell signal transduction and metabolism as well as influencing key pharmacological properties such as drug bioavailability. The functional activity of transporters that belong to the group of electrically active membrane proteins can be directly monitored using the solid-supported membrane-based SURFE 2R™ technology (SURFace Electrogenic Event Reader; Scientific Devices Heidelberg GmbH, Heidelberg, Germany). The method makes use of membrane fragments or vesicles containing transport proteins adsorbed onto solid-supported membrane-covered electrodes and allows the direct measurement of their activity. This technology has been used to develop a robust screening compatible assay for Complex I/Complex III, key components of the respiratory chain in 96-well microtiter plates. The assay was screened against 1,000 compounds from the ComGenex Lead-like small molecule library to ascertain whether mitochondrial liabilities might be an underlying, although undesirable feature of typical commercial screening libraries. Some 105 hits (compounds exhibiting >50% inhibition of Complex I/Complex III activity at 10 μM) were identified and their activities were subsequently confirmed in duplicate, yielding a confirmation rate of 68%. Analysis of the confirmed hits also provided evidence of structure-activity relationships and two compounds from one structural class were further evaluated in dose-response experiments. This study provides evidence that profiling of compounds for potential mitochondrial liabilities, even at an early stage of drug discovery, may be a necessary additional quality filter that should be considered during the compound screening and profiling cascade. © Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. 2011.


Watzke N.,IonGate Biosciences GmbH | Watzke N.,Scientific Devices Heidelberg GmbH | Diekert K.,IonGate Biosciences GmbH | Diekert K.,Scientific Devices Heidelberg GmbH | And 2 more authors.
Biochemistry | Year: 2010

Transport of protons and solutes across mitochondrial membranes is essential for many physiological processes. However, neither the proton-pumping respiratory chain complexes nor the mitochondrial secondary active solute transport proteins have been characterized electrophysiologically in their native environment. In this study, solid-supported membrane (SSM) technology was applied for electrical measurements of respiratory chain complexes CI, CII, CIII, and CIV, the FOF1-ATPase/synthase (CV), and the adenine nucleotide translocase (ANT) in inner membranes of pig heart mitochondria. Specific substrates and inhibitors were used to validate the different assays, and the corresponding0.5 and IC50 values were in good agreement with previously published results obtained with other methods. In combined measurements of CI-CV, it was possible to detect oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS), to measure differential effects of the uncoupler carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone (CCCP) on the respective protein activities, and to determine the corresponding IC50 values. Moreover, the measurements revealed a tight functional coupling of CI and CIII. Coenzyme Q (CoQ) analogues decylubiquinone (DBQ) and idebenone (Ide) stimulated the CII- and CIII-specific electrical currents but had inverse effects on CI-CIII activity. In summary, the results describe the electrophysiological and pharmacological properties ofrespiratory chain complexes, OXPHOS, and ANT in native mitochondrial membranes and demonstrate that SSM-based electrophysiology provides new insights into a complex molecular mechanism of the respiratory chain and the associated transport proteins. Besides, the SSM-based approach is suited for highly sensitive and specific testing of diverse respiratory chain modulators such as inhibitors, CoQ analogues, and uncoupling agents. © 2010 American Chemical Society.


Graff L.,University of Hohenheim | Obrdlik P.,IonGate Biosciences GmbH | Obrdlik P.,Joint BioEnergy Institute | Yuan L.,China Agricultural University | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Experimental Botany | Year: 2011

AMMONIUM TRANSPORTER (AMT) proteins are conserved in all domains of life and mediate the transport of ammonium or ammonia across cell membranes. AMTs form trimers and use intermolecular interaction between subunits to regulate activity. So far, binding forces that stabilize AMT protein complexes are not well characterized. High temperature or reducing agents released mono- and dimeric forms from trimeric complexes formed by AMT1;1 from Arabidopsis and tomato. However, in the paralogue LeAMT1;3, trimeric complexes were not detected. LeAMT1;3 differs from the other AMTs by an unusually short N-terminus, suggesting a role for the N-terminus in oligomer stability. Truncation of the N-terminus in LeAMT1;1 destabilized the trimer and led to loss of functionality when expressed in yeast. Swapping of the N-terminus between LeAMT1;1 and LeAMT1;3 showed that sequences in the N-terminus of LeAMT1;1 are necessary and sufficient for stabilization of the interaction among the subunits. Two N-terminal cysteine residues are highly conserved among AMT1 transporters in plants but are lacking in LeAMT1;3. C3S or C27S variants of LeAMT1;1 showed reduced complex stability, which coincided with lower transport capacity for the substrate analogue methylammonium. Both cysteine-substituted LeAMT1;1 variants showed weaker interactions with the wildtype as determined by a quantitative analysis of the complex stability using the mating-based split-ubiquitin assay. These data indicate that the binding affinity of AMT1 subunits is stabilized by cysteines in the N-terminus and suggest a role for disulphide bridge formation via apoplastic N-terminal cysteine residues. © 2010 The Author.


Chen J.,Carnegie Institution for Science | Chen J.,Michigan State University | Lalonde S.,Carnegie Institution for Science | Obrdlik P.,IonGate Biosciences GmbH | And 6 more authors.
Frontiers in Plant Science | Year: 2012

High-throughput data are a double-edged sword; for the benefit of large amount of data, there is an associated cost of noise. To increase reliability and scalability of high-throughput protein interaction data generation, we tested the efficacy of classification to enrich potential protein-protein interactions. We applied this method to identify interactions among Arabidopsis membrane proteins enriched in transporters. We validated our method with multiple retests. Classification improved the quality of the ensuing interaction network and was effective in reducing the search space and increasing true positive rate. The final network of 541 interactions among 239 proteins (of which 179 are transporters) is the first protein interaction network enriched in membrane transporters reported for any organism. This network has similar topological attributes to other published protein interaction networks. It also extends and fills gaps in currently available biological networks in plants and allows building a number of hypotheses about processes and mechanisms involving signal-transduction and transport systems. © 2012 Chen, Lalonde, Obrdlik, Noorani Vatani, Parsa, Vilarino, Revuelta, Frommer and Rhee.


PubMed | IonGate Biosciences GmbH
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Biochemistry | Year: 2010

Transport of protons and solutes across mitochondrial membranes is essential for many physiological processes. However, neither the proton-pumping respiratory chain complexes nor the mitochondrial secondary active solute transport proteins have been characterized electrophysiologically in their native environment. In this study, solid-supported membrane (SSM) technology was applied for electrical measurements of respiratory chain complexes CI, CII, CIII, and CIV, the F(O)F(1)-ATPase/synthase (CV), and the adenine nucleotide translocase (ANT) in inner membranes of pig heart mitochondria. Specific substrates and inhibitors were used to validate the different assays, and the corresponding K(0.5) and IC(50) values were in good agreement with previously published results obtained with other methods. In combined measurements of CI-CV, it was possible to detect oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS), to measure differential effects of the uncoupler carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone (CCCP) on the respective protein activities, and to determine the corresponding IC(50) values. Moreover, the measurements revealed a tight functional coupling of CI and CIII. Coenzyme Q (CoQ) analogues decylubiquinone (DBQ) and idebenone (Ide) stimulated the CII- and CIII-specific electrical currents but had inverse effects on CI-CIII activity. In summary, the results describe the electrophysiological and pharmacological properties of respiratory chain complexes, OXPHOS, and ANT in native mitochondrial membranes and demonstrate that SSM-based electrophysiology provides new insights into a complex molecular mechanism of the respiratory chain and the associated transport proteins. Besides, the SSM-based approach is suited for highly sensitive and specific testing of diverse respiratory chain modulators such as inhibitors, CoQ analogues, and uncoupling agents.

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