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Heilbronn, Germany

Kummerer K.,Luneburg University | Menz J.,Luneburg University | Schubert T.,IOLITEC GmbH | Thielemans W.,University of Nottingham
Chemosphere | Year: 2011

Synthetic nanoparticles have already been detected in the aquatic environment. Therefore, knowledge on their biodegradability is of utmost importance for risk assessment but such information is currently not available. Therefore, the biodegradability of fullerenes, single, double, multi-walled as well as COOH functionalized carbon nanotubes and cellulose and starch nanocrystals in aqueous environment has been investigated according to OECD standards. The biodegradability of starch and cellulose nanoparticles was also compared with the biodegradability of their macroscopic counterparts. Fullerenes and all carbon nanotubes did not biodegrade at all, while starch and cellulose nanoparticles biodegrade to similar levels as their macroscopic counterparts. However, neither comfortably met the criterion for ready biodegradability (60% after 28 days). The cellulose and starch nanoparticles were also found to degrade faster than their macroscopic counterparts due to their higher surface area. These findings are the first report of biodegradability of organic nanoparticles in the aquatic environment, an important accumulation environment for manmade compounds. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. Source


The combination of nanomaterials and ionic liquids offers multiple options for a set of future technologies. The applications range from the synthesis of nanomaterials in ionic liquids, the preparation of stable dispersions to numerous electrochemical tasks, e.g., dye solar cells or batteries. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim. Source


Grant
Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP | Phase: ENERGY.2012.10.2.1 | Award Amount: 3.20M | Year: 2012

Among today challenges that of energy needs is one of the most important. An obvious question is its production but the need of energy storage systems is almost as large. Renewable energies will not have an impact unless we find an efficient way to store the electricity that they produce. Energy should be available everywhere and at any time, this translates in a strong need for energy containers in the form of electrochemical storage. In this context, the NEST project aims to demonstrate and develop a new kind of integrated supercapacitors, electrochemical capacitors (ECs), as well as novel pseudocapacitors devices able to drastically enhance the energy storage capacity. The primary target of the project is to produce a micro-supercapacitor with integrated electrodes compatible with microelectronics process that can withstand solder reflow (280C for few minutes). We will associate the high surface area of a new kind of silicon nanostructures, to the high thermal stability of ionic liquids used as the electrolyte. We propose to integrate Si nanowires with sub-nanostructures such as silicon branches and nano-diamond coatings. Diamond coating will bring the additional advantage to allow using protonic electrolyte while keeping a wide 2-3 V electrochemical window. In addition to the giant surface area provided by the nanotree design, even higher capacitance will be achieved by using redox-active coating such as metal oxides and electro-conducting polymers (ECPs). As a result, this combination will lead to highly reversible surface redox reaction with electrochemical double layer capacitance. These new devices well adapted to peak power demand and storage while improving energy capacity will enhance the energy efficiency and consequently will increase the competitiveness of Europes industries.


Grant
Agency: Cordis | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: FETOPEN-RIA-2014-2015 | Award Amount: 3.87M | Year: 2015

In DIACAT we propose the development of a completely new technology for the direct photocatalytic conversion of CO2 into fine chemicals and fuels using visible light. The approach utilises the unique property of man-made diamond, now widely available at low economic cost, to generate solvated electrons upon light irradiation in solutions (e.g. in water and ionic liquids). The project will achieve the following major objectives on the way to the efficient production of chemicals from CO2 : - experimental and theoretical understanding of the principles of production of solvated electrons stemming from diamond - identification of optimal forms of nanostructured diamond (wires, foams pores) and surface modifications to achieve high photoelectron yield and long term performance - investigation of optimized energy up-conversion using optical nearfield excitation as a means for the direct use of sunlight for the excitation of electrons -characterisation of the chemical reactions which are driven by the solvated electrons in green solvents like water or ionic liquids and reaction conditions to maximise product yields. - demonstration of the feasibility of the direct reduction of CO2 in a laboratory environment. The ultimate outcome of the project will be the development of a novel technology for the direct transformation of CO2 into organic chemicals using illumination with visible light. On a larger perspective, this technology will make an important contribution to a future sustainable chemical production as man-made diamond is a low cost industrial material identified to be environmentally friendly. Our approach lays the foundation for the removal and transformation of carbon dioxide and at the same time a chemical route to store and transport energy from renewable sources. This will have a transformational impact on society as whole by bringing new opportunities for sustainable production and growth.


Grant
Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: FoF.NMP.2013-10 | Award Amount: 4.22M | Year: 2013

The main objective of this project is to develop a radically new manufacturing industrial green process based on the electrodeposition of aluminium from ionic liquids and post-processed the aluminium pure coating to obtain high-tech engineered metallic materials for the automotive and aeronautic sectors. This new process will replace conventional harmful techniques and will be more energy and material efficient. For achieving this goal, all barriers that difficult the industrialization of electrodeposition processes based on ionic liquid formulations will be overcome. SCAIL-UP project will seek for overcoming the barriers found in the upscaling of the process for electrodepositing Al with Ionic Liquids by the development of a radically new manufacturing industrial process for the automotive and aeronautic sectors. Thus the SCAIL-UP consortium will work on the design, development and validation of an industrial scale pilot plant that will be able to electroplate Al on current 3D polymeric (ABS) and metal (nickel alloys) industrial parts using Ionic Liquids.

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