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News Article | December 6, 2016
Site: www.eurekalert.org

New research examines how vertebrate species in the eastern United States ranging from snakes to mammals to birds responded to climate change over the last 500,000 years. The study, recently published in the journal Ecology Letters, reveals that contrary to expectation, the massive glaciers that expanded and contracted across the region affected animal populations in different ways at different times. The analysis provides a window into how animals might react to any kind of climate change, whether glacial cycles or global warming. "A big glacier should have affected everybody. It doesn't matter if you're a snake or a bird, it probably makes it hard to live there," said Frank Burbrink, an associate curator in the American Museum of Natural History's Department of Herpetology and lead author of the study. "So did these communities all change together as if they were one unit? There's never been a study that has comprehensively analyzed whether vertebrate communities responded to the glacial cycles in a uniform way." The most recent, rapid, and significant effect of global climate change occurred about 2.5 million years ago in the Quaternary period, when ice sheets expanded and contracted, altering both the environment and available land. In the area known as the Eastern Nearctic--defined as the forested and coastal regions of the eastern United States--glaciers extended as far south in the east to New York City and in the Midwest to south central Illinois. Temperature changed rapidly, in some cases at the rate of 5 to 10 degrees Celsius (about 40 to 50 degrees Fahrenheit) within several decades. To analyze the impact of this climate change, multidisciplinary researchers from the Museum, the 'Iolani School in Honolulu, the City University of New York's College of Staten Island, and Louisiana State University focused on the historical population sizes of tetrapods--snakes, lizards, mammals, birds, turtles, salamanders, and frogs--in the Eastern Nearctic over the last 500,000 years. They did this by looking at the animals' genomes and modeling the likelihood of their populations growing or shrinking. "When a glacier retreats, all of the organisms that were pushed south move back into that space and the signal of those changing populations gets imprinted in the genome," Burbrink said. "If you look at any individual species, you can see what its population has been doing over time based on how many changes they have in their genome. When populations expand, they have more genetic differences. And when populations are small, they have fewer." The longstanding scientific thought is that as a glacier recedes, local populations will expand "synchronously," or all at the same time. But the researchers did not find a uniform response to climate change within the tetrapod community. About 75 percent of the animals went through a population expansion, with only about 50 percent of those lineages expanding together. And 25 percent of the populations contracted. The results imply that there are additional layers of complexity involved in this problem. "In some ways, the old idea that the glacier receding would have a single effect on everything in the community is naïve," Burbrink said. And what do the results mean for the global warming the Earth is currently facing? "We need to move beyond viewing communities as single units," said co-author Brian T. Smith, an assistant curator in the Museum's Department of Ornithology. "Some species will respond in one way and others will respond in other ways. And there are many external historical, biological, and stochastic factors that will influence how populations respond to global warming." Other authors on this study include Yvonne Chan from the 'Iolani School, Edward Myers and Michael Hickerson from the City University of New York, and Sara Ruane from Louisiana State University. This work was funded in part by National Science Foundation grant #s DEB 1257926, DOB 1343578, DEB 1253710, the 7th European Community Framework Programme, and the São Paulo Research Foundation (FAPESP). The American Museum of Natural History, founded in 1869, is one of the world's preeminent scientific, educational, and cultural institutions. The Museum encompasses 45 permanent exhibition halls, including the Rose Center for Earth and Space and the Hayden Planetarium, as well as galleries for temporary exhibitions. It is home to the Theodore Roosevelt Memorial, New York State's official memorial to its 33rd governor and the nation's 26th president, and a tribute to Roosevelt's enduring legacy of conservation. The Museum's five active research divisions and three cross-disciplinary centers support approximately 200 scientists, whose work draws on a world-class permanent collection of more than 33 million specimens and artifacts, as well as specialized collections for frozen tissue and genomic and astrophysical data, and one of the largest natural history libraries in the world. Through its Richard Gilder Graduate School, it is the only American museum authorized to grant the Ph.D. degree and the Master of Arts in Teaching degree. Annual attendance has grown to approximately 5 million, and the Museum's exhibitions and Space Shows can be seen in venues on five continents. The Museum's website and collection of apps for mobile devices extend its collections, exhibitions, and educational programs to millions more beyond its walls. Visit amnh.org for more information. Become a fan of the Museum on Facebook at facebook.com/naturalhistory, and follow us on Instagram at @AMNH, Tumblr at amnhnyc, or Twitter at twitter.com/AMNH.


News Article | December 6, 2016
Site: phys.org

A coluber constrictor, one of the vertebrates included in the study. Credit: © AMNH/F. Burbrink New research examines how vertebrate species in the eastern United States ranging from snakes to mammals to birds responded to climate change over the last 500,000 years. The study, recently published in the journal Ecology Letters, reveals that contrary to expectation, the massive glaciers that expanded and contracted across the region affected animal populations in different ways at different times. The analysis provides a window into how animals might react to any kind of climate change, whether glacial cycles or global warming. "A big glacier should have affected everybody. It doesn't matter if you're a snake or a bird, it probably makes it hard to live there," said Frank Burbrink, an associate curator in the American Museum of Natural History's Department of Herpetology and lead author of the study. "So did these communities all change together as if they were one unit? There's never been a study that has comprehensively analyzed whether vertebrate communities responded to the glacial cycles in a uniform way." The most recent, rapid, and significant effect of global climate change occurred about 2.5 million years ago in the Quaternary period, when ice sheets expanded and contracted, altering both the environment and available land. In the area known as the Eastern Nearctic—defined as the forested and coastal regions of the eastern United States—glaciers extended as far south in the east to New York City and in the Midwest to south central Illinois. Temperature changed rapidly, in some cases at the rate of 5 to 10 degrees Celsius (about 40 to 50 degrees Fahrenheit) within several decades. To analyze the impact of this climate change, multidisciplinary researchers from the Museum, the 'Iolani School in Honolulu, the City University of New York's College of Staten Island, and Louisiana State University focused on the historical population sizes of tetrapods—snakes, lizards, mammals, birds, turtles, salamanders, and frogs—in the Eastern Nearctic over the last 500,000 years. They did this by looking at the animals' genomes and modeling the likelihood of their populations growing or shrinking. "When a glacier retreats, all of the organisms that were pushed south move back into that space and the signal of those changing populations gets imprinted in the genome," Burbrink said. "If you look at any individual species, you can see what its population has been doing over time based on how many changes they have in their genome. When populations expand, they have more genetic differences. And when populations are small, they have fewer." The longstanding scientific thought is that as a glacier recedes, local populations will expand "synchronously," or all at the same time. But the researchers did not find a uniform response to climate change within the tetrapod community. About 75 percent of the animals went through a population expansion, with only about 50 percent of those lineages expanding together. And 25 percent of the populations contracted. The results imply that there are additional layers of complexity involved in this problem. "In some ways, the old idea that the glacier receding would have a single effect on everything in the community is naïve," Burbrink said. And what do the results mean for the global warming the Earth is currently facing? "We need to move beyond viewing communities as single units," said co-author Brian T. Smith, an assistant curator in the Museum's Department of Ornithology. "Some species will respond in one way and others will respond in other ways. And there are many external historical, biological, and stochastic factors that will influence how populations respond to global warming." Explore further: Common US snake actually three different species More information: Frank T. Burbrink et al, Asynchronous demographic responses to Pleistocene climate change in Eastern Nearctic vertebrates, Ecology Letters (2016). DOI: 10.1111/ele.12695


Wilson A.G.,University of British Columbia | Chan Y.,Iolani School | Taylor S.S.,Louisiana State University | Arcese P.,University of British Columbia
PLoS ONE | Year: 2015

The Californian Channel Islands are near-shore islands with high levels of endemism, but extensive habitat loss has contributed to the decline or extinction of several endemic taxa. A key parameter for understanding patterns of endemism and demography in island populations is the magnitude of inter-island dispersal. This paper estimates the extent of migration and genetic differentiation in three extant and two extinct populations of Channel Island song sparrows (Melospiza melodia graminea). Inter-island differentiation was substantial (G''ST: 0.14-0.37), with San Miguel Island having the highest genetic divergence and lowest migration rates. Santa Rosa and Santa Cruz Island populations were less diverged with higher migration rates. Genetic signals of past population declines were detected in all of the extant populations. The Channel Island populations were significantly diverged from mainland populations of M. m. heermanni (G"ST: 0.30-0.64). Ten mtDNA haplotypes were recovered across the extant and extinct Channel Island population samples. Two of the ten haplotypes were shared between the Northern and Southern Channel Islands, with one of these haplotypes being detected on the Californian mainland. Our results suggest that there is little contemporary migration between islands, consistent with early explanations of avian biogeography in the Channel Islands, and that song sparrow populations on the northern Channel Islands are demographically independent. © 2015 Wilson et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


PubMed | Standley Lake High School, Iolani School, National Jewish Health, University of Colorado at Denver and Island Pacific Academy
Type: Comparative Study | Journal: FEMS microbiology letters | Year: 2016

The household is a potential source of opportunistic pathogens to humans, a particularly critical issue for immunodeficient individuals. An important human-microbe interface is the biofilm that develops on showerhead surfaces. Once microbe-laden biofilms become aerosolized, they can potentially be inhaled into the lungs. Understanding how quickly a new showerhead becomes colonized would provide useful information to minimize exposure to potentially pathogenic environmental microbes. High school scientists sampled the inner surfaces of pre-existing and newly fitted showerheads monthly over a nine-month period and applied standard microbiologic culture techniques to qualitatively assess microbial growth. Water chemistry was also monitored using commercial test strips. Sampling was performed in households on Oahu, Hawaii and Denver, Colorado, representing warm/humid and cold/arid environments, respectively. Pre-existing showerheads in Hawaii showed more diverse microbial growth and significantly greater microbial numbers than a comparable showerhead from Colorado. New, chrome-plated or plastic showerheads in Hawaii showed diverse and abundant growth one month after installment compared to new showerheads from Colorado. The pH, total chlorine and water hardness levels varied significantly between the Hawaii and Colorado samples. Enthusiastic student and teacher participation allowed us to answer long-standing questions regarding the temporal colonization of microbial biofilms on pre-existing and new showerhead surfaces.


Kuo I.,Iolani School | Kuo I.,University of Hawaii at Manoa | Saw J.,University of Hawaii at Manoa | Kapan D.D.,University of Hawaii at Manoa | And 4 more authors.
International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology | Year: 2013

Strain IK-1T was isolated from decaying tissues of the shrub Wikstroemia oahuensis collected on O'ahu, Hawai'i. Cells were rods that stained Gram-negative. Gliding motility was not observed. The strain was oxidase-negative and catalase-positive. Zeaxanthin was the major carotenoid. Flexirubin-type pigments were not detected. The most abundant fatty acids in whole cells of IK-1T grown on R2A were iso-C15:0 and one or both of C16:1ω7c and C16:1ωβc. Based on comparisons of the nucleotide sequence of the 16S rRNA gene, the closest neighbouring type strains were Flavobacterium rivuli WB 3.3-2T and Flavobacterium subsaxonicum WB 4.1-42T, with which IK-1T shares 93.84 and 93.67% identity, respectively. The G + C content of the genomic DNA was 44.2 mol%. On the basis of distance from its nearest phylogenetic neighbours and phenotypic differences, the species Flavobacterium akiainvivens sp. nov. is proposed to accommodate strain IK-1T (=ATCC BAA-2412T=CIP 110358T) as the type strain. The description of the genus Flavobacterium is emended to reflect the DNA G + C contents of Flavobacterium akiainvivens IK-1T and other species of the genus Flavobacterium described since the original description of the genus. © 2013 IUMS.


PubMed | Kaiser Permanente, Iolani School, University of Massachusetts Medical School and University of Colorado at Boulder
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of medical Internet research | Year: 2016

Patients are increasingly using physician review websites to find a good doctor. However, to our knowledge, no prior study has examined the relationship between online rating and an accepted measure of quality.The purpose of this study was to assess the association between online physician rating and an accepted measure of quality: 30-day risk-adjusted mortality rate following coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery.In the US states of California, Massachusetts, New Jersey, New York, and Pennsylvania-which together account for over one-quarter of the US population-risk-adjusted mortality rates are publicly reported for all cardiac surgeons. From these reports, we recorded the 30-day mortality rate following isolated CABG surgery for each surgeon practicing in these 5 states. For each surgeon listed in the state reports, we then conducted Internet-based searches to determine his or her online rating(s). We then assessed the relationship between physician online rating and risk-adjusted mortality rate.Of the 614 surgeons listed in the state reports, we found 96.1% (590/614) to be rated online. The average online rating was 4.4 out of 5, and 78.7% (483/614) of the online ratings were 4 or higher. The median number of reviews used to formulate each rating was 4 (range 1-89), and 32.70% (503/1538) of the ratings were based on 2 or fewer reviews. Overall, there was no correlation between surgeon online rating and risk-adjusted mortality rate (P=.13). Risk-adjusted mortality rates were similar for surgeons across categories of average online rating (P>.05), and surgeon average online rating was similar across quartiles of surgeon risk-adjusted mortality rate (P>.05).In this study of cardiac surgeons practicing in the 5 US states that publicly report outcomes, we found no correlation between online rating and risk-adjusted mortality rates. Patients using online rating websites to guide their choice of physician should recognize that these ratings may not reflect actual quality of care as defined by accepted metrics.


Trademark
Iolani School | Date: 2013-05-21

All purpose sport bags; All-purpose athletic bags; All-purpose carrying bags; All-purpose reusable carrying bags; Athletic bags; Backpacks, book bags, sports bags, bum bags, wallets and handbags; Bags and holdalls for sports clothing; Bags for sports; Carry-all bags; Luggage tags; Sport bags; Umbrellas. Athletic apparel, namely, shirts, pants, jackets, footwear, hats and caps, athletic uniforms; Athletic pants; Athletic shirts; Athletic shorts; Athletic uniforms; Baseball caps and hats; Button-front aloha shirts; Headgear, namely, hats, caps, visors; Jerseys; Pants; Polo shirts; Shirts; Shirts and short-sleeved shirts; Shorts; Socks; Sports jerseys; Sports pants; Sweat shirts; T-shirts; Vests.


Trademark
Iolani School | Date: 2013-05-21

Athletic apparel, namely, shirts, pants, jackets, footwear, hats and caps, athletic uniforms; Athletic pants; Athletic shirts; Athletic shorts; Athletic uniforms; Baseball caps and hats; Button-front aloha shirts; Headgear, namely, hats, caps, visors; Jerseys; Pants; Polo shirts; Shirts; Shirts and short-sleeved shirts; Shorts; Socks; Sports jerseys; Sports pants; Sun visors; Sweatshirts; T-shirts; Vests; Visors.


Trademark
Iolani School | Date: 2013-05-21

Athletic apparel, namely, shirts, pants, jackets, footwear, hats and caps, athletic uniforms; Baseball caps and hats; Button-front aloha shirts; Coats; Headgear, namely, hats, caps, visors , and swimming caps; Jackets; Pants; Polo shirts; Shirts; Shorts; Skirts; Socks; Sports jerseys; Sweatpants; Sweatshirts; Swimwear; T-shirts.


Trademark
Iolani School | Date: 2013-05-29

Ball point pens; Bumper stickers; Color pencils; Coloured pens; Composition books; Decals; Decorative decals for vehicle windows; Felt marking pens; Folders; Gift bags; Note books; Paper bags and sacks; Paper folders; Pencils; Postcards; Postcards and greeting cards; Protective covers for books; Stickers; Stickers and transfers. Lanyards for holding badges, keys, ID cards. Ankle socks; Athletic apparel, namely, shirts, pants, jackets, footwear, hats and caps, athletic uniforms; Athletic footwear; Athletic pants; Athletic shirts; Athletic shoes; Athletic shorts; Athletic uniforms; Baseball caps and hats; Button-front aloha shirts; Hats; Headgear, namely, hats, caps, visors, eyeglasses; Jerseys; Knit shirts; Mens socks; Pants; Polo shirts; Shirts; Shirts and short-sleeved shirts; Short-sleeved shirts; Shorts; Socks; Socks and stockings; Sports jerseys; Sports pants; Sweat pants; Sweat shirts; T-shirts; Vests.

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