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Guyader J.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Guyader J.,VetAgro Sup | Doreau M.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Doreau M.,VetAgro Sup | And 6 more authors.
Animal | Year: 2016

A previous study showed the additive methane (CH4)-mitigating effect of nitrate and linseed fed to non-lactating cows. Before practical application, the use of this new strategy in dairy cows requires further investigation in terms of persistency of methanogenesis reduction and absence of residuals in milk products. The objective of this experiment was to study the long-term effect of linseed plus nitrate on enteric CH4 emission and performance in dairy cows. We also assessed the effect of this feeding strategy on the presence of nitrate residuals in milk products, total tract digestibility, nitrogen (N) balance and rumen fermentation. A total of 16 lactating Holstein cows were allocated to two groups in a randomised design conducted in parallel for 17 weeks. Diets were on a dry matter (DM) basis: (1) control (54% maize silage, 6% hay and 40% concentrate; CON) or (2) control plus 3.5% added fat from linseed and 1.8% nitrate (LIN+NIT). Diets were equivalent in terms of CP (16%), starch (28%) and NDF (33%), and were offered twice daily. Cows were fed ad libitum, except during weeks 5, 16 and 17 in which feed was restricted to 95% of dry matter intake (DMI) to ensure complete consumption of meals during measurement periods. Milk production and DMI were measured weekly. Nitrate and nitrite concentrations in milk and milk products were determined monthly. Daily CH4 emission was quantified in open circuit respiration chambers (weeks 5 and 16). Total tract apparent digestibility, N balance and rumen fermentation parameters were determined in week 17. Daily DMI tended to be lower with LIN+NIT from week 4 to 16 (-5.1 kg/day on average). The LIN+NIT diet decreased milk production during 6 non-consecutive weeks (-2.5 kg/day on average). Nitrate or nitrite residuals were not detected in milk and associated products. The LIN+NIT diet reduced CH4 emission to a similar extent at the beginning and end of the trial (-47%, g/day; -30%, g/kg DMI; -33%, g/kg fat- and protein-corrected milk, on average). Diets did not affect N efficiency and nutrients digestibility. In the rumen, LIN+NIT did not affect protozoa number but reduced total volatile fatty acid (-12%) and propionate (-31%) concentrations. We concluded that linseed plus nitrate may have a long-term CH4-mitigating effect in dairy cows and that consuming milk products from cows fed nitrate may be safe in terms of nitrate and nitrite residuals. Further work is required to optimise the doses of linseed plus nitrate to avoid reduced cows performance. © The Animal Consortium 2016. Source

Faruk M.U.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Faruk M.U.,University of Nigeria | Bouvarel I.,Institute Technique Of Laviculture Itavi | Meme N.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | And 6 more authors.
Poultry Science | Year: 2010

The effect of feeding nutritionally different diets in sequential or loose-mix systems on the performance of laying hen was investigated from 16 to 46 wk of age. Equal proportions of whole wheat grain and protein-mineral concentrate (balancer diet) were fed either alternatively (sequential) or together (loose-mix) to ISA Brown hens. The control was fed a complete layer diet conventionally. Each treatment was allocated 16 cages and each cage contained 5 birds. Light was provided 16 h daily (0400 to 2000 h). Feed offered was controlled (121 g/bird per d) and distributed twice (4 and 11 h after lights-on). In the sequential treatment, only wheat was fed at first distribution, followed by balancer diet at the second distribution. In loose-mix, the 2 rations were mixed and fed together during the 2 distributions. Leftover feed was always removed before the next distribution. Sequential feeding reduced total feed intake when compared with loose-mix and control. It had lower wheat (-9 g/bird per d) but higher balancer (+1.7 g/bird per d) intakes than loose-mix. Egg production, egg mass, and egg weight were similar among treatments. This led to an improvement in efficiency of feed utilization in sequential compared with loose-mix and control (10 and 5%, respectively). Birds fed sequentially had lower calculated ME (kcal/bird per d) intake than those fed in loose-mix and control. Calculated CP (g/bird per d) intake was reduced in sequential compared with loose-mix and control. Sequentially fed hens were lighter in BW. However, they had heavier gizzard, pancreas, and liver. Similar liver lipid was observed among treatments. Liver glycogen was higher in loose-mix than the 2 other treatments. It was concluded that feeding whole wheat and balancer diet, sequentially or loosely mixed, had no negative effect on performance in laying hens. Thus, the 2 systems are alternative to conventional feeding. The increased efficiency of feed utilization in sequential feeding is an added advantage compared with loose-mix and thus could be employed in situations where it is practicable. © 2010 Poultry Science Association Inc. Source

Faruk M.U.,University of Nigeria | Bouvarel I.,Institute Technique Of Laviculture Itavi | Meme N.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Roffidal L.,INZO | And 3 more authors.
British Poultry Science | Year: 2010

Feed intake and performance of birds given sequential or loose-mix feeding was investigated from 19 to 42 weeks of age. A complete diet was fed as control (C). A balancer diet (50) was fed either sequentially (S50) or in a loose-mix (L50) with wheat. This diet was formulated to provide a similar nutritive value as C assuming a 50:50 diet and wheat intake. Another balancer diet (25) was fed sequentially (S25) or in a loose-mix (L25) with wheat. The diet was to provide a similar nutritive value as C assuming 75: 25 diet and wheat intakes. In sequential feeding, only wheat was fed in the morning (4h after lights-on) and the balancer diet in the late afternoon (4h before lights-off). In the loose-mix treatment, a mixture of the two diets was fed throughout the 16-h daily light. Each treatment was given ad libitum to 25 birds in individual cages. Birds fed on L25 had lower total feed intakes than those receiving C, S50 or S25. Protein intake was reduced with L25 compared to C, S50, S25 and L50. Metabolisable energy (ME) intake was, however, similar among all treatments. Egg production and weight were reduced with L25 compared to S50 and S25. Body weight (BW) was lowered with L25. However, there was high individual variation in all variables. Feeding system (sequential vs loose-mix) had no effect on ME intake. However, the loose-mix treatment reduced feed and protein intake due to lower balancer diet intake. It also resulted in low egg production, egg and BWs compared to sequential feeding. The weights of pancreas and gizzard were heavier with sequential and loose-mix compared to the control. The loose-mix treatment reduced egg-laying performance. Sequential feeding resulted in similar egg-laying performance to conventional feeding and thus could be used to advantage in situations where it is applicable. © 2010 British Poultry Science Ltd. Source

Knudsen C.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Knudsen C.,National Graduate School of Agronomy, Toulouse | Knudsen C.,National Polytechnic Institute of Toulouse | Combes S.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | And 12 more authors.
Journal of Nutrition | Year: 2015

Background: Short-term feed restriction strategies are used in rabbits to reduce postweaning digestive disorders, but little is known about the involvement of the immune system in these beneficial effects. Objective: In the present study, the consequences of feed and energy restriction on immune response were investigated. Methods: At weaning, 320 male and female rabbits were assigned to 4 groups differing in dietary digestible energy (DE) concentrations and intake levels: a low-energy ad libitum-feed (LE100) group, a low-energy restricted-feed (LE75) group, a high-energy ad libitum-feed (HE100) group, and a high-energy restricted-feed (HE75) group. The high-energy groups consumed 10.13 MJ DE/kg of feed, whereas the low-energy groups consumed 9.08 MJ DE/kg (formulated values). Intake amounts for the restricted groups were 75% those of the ad libitum groups. Rabbits consumed these diets until age 63 d, after which they consumed feed ad libitum for 9 d. Ten rabbits per group and per age were killed at ages 42, 50, 63, and 72 d. Spleens and appendixes were weighed; Peyer's patch surface area was determined by image analysis; plasma total immunoglobulin (Ig) G and anti-ovalbumin IgG; and fecal and plasma IgA concentrations were determined by ELISA; and ileal expressions of cytokines were measured by quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction at ages 50 and 63 d. Results: The relative weight and size of the lymphoid organs were not affected by treatments. Concentrations of plasma total IgA (-41% at 63 d and -29% at 72 d), IgG (-22% at 72 d), and anti-ovalbumin IgG (-41% at 63 d) were lower with feed restriction. Fecal IgA concentrations were lower with quantitative restriction (-40%, -52%, and -65% at age 42, 50, and 63 d, respectively) and energy restriction (-56%, -46%, and -73% at ages 50, 63, and 72 d, respectively). Feed-restricted rabbits tended to have greater expressions of interleukin (IL) 1ß and IL-2 and lower expressions of tumor necrosis factor a (P < 0.1). Conclusion: These results demonstrated that, in rabbits, restriction and, to a lesser extent, dietary energy concentration modulate gut immunity. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition. Source

Traineau M.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Bouvarel I.,ITAVI | Mulsant C.,INZO | Roffidal L.,INZO | And 2 more authors.
Animal | Year: 2014

Sequential feeding (SF) consists of splitting energy (E) and protein/calcium (P) fractions temporally, improving the feed conversion ratio (FCR) of hens compared with a continuous distribution during the day. In a previous study, the E fraction (with a low level of protein) was provided in the morning, whereas the P fraction (with low level of energy) was given in the afternoon. However, there is no clear evidence that a requirement in energy or proteins is connected to these distribution sequences, whereas the requirement for calcium is known to be required in the afternoon. To evaluate the effects on performances of the modulation of energy and protein supplies in SF, five different sequential treatments were offered: E0P0/E0P0; E+P+/E-P-; E+P-/E-P+; E0P+/E0P- and E+P0/E-P0 where E+ represents a high energy level, E0 a moderate one and E- a low one (with the same meaning for P regarding protein supply). Afternoon fractions were provided with particulate calcium. A total of 168 Hendrix hens were housed in individual cages from 20 to 39 weeks of age in two environmentally contrasted rooms. Feed intake in the morning and afternoon fractions, egg production, egg weight, BW and weight of digestive organs were recorded. No diet effect was observed concerning feed intake, egg production and BW. These results suggested that hens are not able to fit their feed intake on energy or protein level of fractions within half-day duration, whereas at the day scale same protein and energy intakes were observed. Moreover, the time of nutrient distribution in feeding did not seem to have an impact on birds' performances. These studies have also demonstrated that, despite strong environmental pressure, the hens with SF had attenuated performance but continue to produce eggs. © © The Animal Consortium 2014 This is an Open Access article, distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution licence (. Source

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