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Le Touquet – Paris-Plage, France

Lucas J.-P.,French Scientific and Technical Center for Building | Lucas J.-P.,University of Nantes | Le Bot B.,University of Paris Pantheon Sorbonne | Le Bot B.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | And 9 more authors.
Environmental Research | Year: 2012

Lead in homes is a well-known source of childhood lead exposure, which is still of concern due to the health effects of low lead doses. This study aims to describe lead contamination in the homes of children aged 6 months to 6 years in France (without overseas).Between October 2008 and August 2009, 484 housing units were investigated. Lead in tap water and total and leachable lead levels from floor dust, outdoor soils and paint chips were measured. X-ray fluorescence measurements were carried out on non-metallic and metallic substrates. Nationwide results are provided. The indoor floor dust lead (PbD) geometric mean (GM) was 8.8 μg/m2 (0.8 μg/ft2) and 6.8 μg/m2 (0.6 μg/ft2) for total and leachable lead respectively; 0.21% of homes had an indoor PbD loading above 430.5 μg/m2 (40 μg/ft2). The outdoor play area concentration GM was 33.5. mg/kg and 21.7. mg/kg in total and leachable lead respectively; 1.4% of concentrations were higher than or equal to 400. mg/kg. Outdoor floor PbD GM was 44.4 μg/m2 (4.1 μg/ft2) that was approximately 3.2 times higher than the GM of indoor PbD. Lead-based paint (LBP) was present in 25% of dwellings, LBP on only non-metallic substrates was present in 19% of homes and on metallic substrates in 10% of dwellings. The GM of lead concentrations in tap water was below 1 μg/L; 58% of concentrations were lower than 1 μg/L and 2.9% were higher than or equal to 10 μg/L. The age cut-off for homes with lead would be 1974 for paint and 1993 for indoor floor dust. This study provides, for the first time, a look at the state of lead contamination to which children are exposed in French housing. Moreover, it provides policy makers an estimate of the number of French dwellings sheltering children where abatement should be conducted. © 2012 Elsevier Inc. Source

Mandin C.,University Paris Est Creteil | Dor F.,InVS | Boulanger G.,Anses | Cabanes P.-A.,Electricite de France | Solal C.,Anses
Environnement, Risques et Sante | Year: 2012

A health risk assessment linked to the inhalation of formaldehyde by the general population in France was conducted according to the standardized four-step process of risk assessment: hazard identification, dose-response assessment, exposure assessment and risk characterization. The originality of this work consisted in assessing both acute exposure during or after using household products, and chronic exposure through exposure situations in various, regularly frequented places. The quantitative risk assessment was conducted on the basis of toxicity reference values (TRVs) for acute and chronic exposure and a range of hazard quotients (HQ) was calculated in both contexts. For almost all of the consumer products, tested in normal conditions of use, acute inhaled formaldehyde concentrations are lower than the TRVs calculated to protect against ocular and nasal irritation. However, for three domestic products, acute TRVs are reached or exceeded, and exposures are thus capable of causing ocular and nasal irritation. Regarding chronic exposure, the time spent in the home leads to inhaled concentrations exceeding the chronic TRVs protecting against long-term ocular and nasal irritation. The dose-effect relationship does not indicate the occurrence of other non-carcinogenic effects, even for the highest inhaled concentrations and for the worst case scenario. It appears that the highest inhaled concentrations are at only one tenth of the levels for which irritations might trigger nasopharyngeal cancer. Source

Venier A.-G.,Bordeaux University Hospital Center | Venier A.-G.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Lavigne T.,CHU | Jarno P.,Rennes University Hospital Center | And 4 more authors.
Clinical Microbiology and Infection | Year: 2012

Individual and ward risk factors for P. aeruginosa-induced urinary tract infection in the case of nosocomial urinary tract infection in the intensive care unit were determined with hierarchical (multilevel) logistic regression. The 2004-2006 prospective French national intensive care unit nosocomial infection surveillance dataset was used and 3252 patients with urinary tract infection were included; 16% were infected by P. aeruginosa. Individual risk factors were male sex, duration of stay, antibiotics at admission and transfer from another intensive care unit. Ward risk factors were patient turnover and incidence of P. aeruginosa-infected patients. © 2011 The Authors. Clinical Microbiology and Infection © 2011 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Source

Purpose of the study In a context of uncertainties, when trying to determine a health risk for the population associated with exposure to a chemical, a health risk assessment method is required. This approach requires to organize the available knowledge concerning exposure-related adverse effects, appropriate TRVs (toxicological reference values) and in parallel to determine the exposure levels of the target population (adults and children). The data are then confronted for defining the necessary public health measures to be taken for this population. The choice of the TRV to be used according to the context is important in this approach. TRVs are developed by various agencies (US EPA, ATSDR, Health Canada, WHO, RIVM, EFSA, Anses) for a specific period of exposure (acute, subchronic and chronic) and for two types of toxic effects (threshold and non-threshold). Although human variability in susceptibility is taken into account for defining the most appropriate TRV, it is not possible to guarantee the inclusion of hypersensitive individuals for example. Also, many health risk assessors have raised concerns about the applicability of TRVs to specific populations, in particular to children because although in most cases, uncertainty factors, inter-species then intra-species, are taken into account (for substances with threshold toxic effects) in fact most of the toxicity studies used adult animals and not juvenile animals. Methods Through the review of the various documents developed by agencies, their points of view concerning the applicability to children of agencies TRVs are exposed. Results Concerning TRVs for threshold toxicity, points of view are divided between agencies. Some of them (US EPA, Health Canada and ATSDR) consider that TRVs are protective for the general population including children. Danish EPA, KEMI, RIVM consider that it is necessary to add factors to protect children. OEHHA and ECHA recommends to build a specific TRV and JECFA and FAO/WHO recommend to precise the age of TRV applicability. Concerning TRVs without threshold toxicity, the point of view of three agencies is available. UBA and US EPA recommend using an additional uncertainty factor for mutagenic carcinogens according to the age of the children. OEHHA recommends to use this factor for all carcinogenic substances (whether mutagenic or not). Discussion There is no international consensus for the applicability or not of TRVs to children. In France, ANSES considers that TRVs protect the whole population. © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved. Source

Goldberg S.,INCA | Goldberg S.,Institute of Veille Sanitaire | Rey G.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Luce D.,University of Versailles | And 5 more authors.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine | Year: 2010

Background: In population-based mesothelioma studies in industrialised countries, the incidence of mesothelioma without any identified asbestos exposure (IAE) is usually higher among women, while male incidence is mainly attributed to IAE. Through a comparison of the spatial distribution of male and female rates, and IAE and no IAE incidence, this study investigated whether mesotheliomas without IAE are in fact induced by nonrecognised asbestos exposure, mostly from environmental sources. Methods: We calculated mesothelioma mortality (SMR) and incidence (SIR) ratios by district in France, pooling 30 and 10 years of data, respectively. Using correlation coefficients, we compared geographical patterns of male and female mesothelioma ratios, and IAE and no IAE mesothelioma ratios. Results: The raw numbers of male and female mesothelioma cases were equivalent. Mesothelioma SMR (0.76) and SIR (0.80) geographical correlations between men and women were strongly positive. SIR correlation between occupationally IAE and no IAE cases was also positive (0.69). Correlation between occupationally IAE and no IAE cases was positive among women but not among men. Conclusions: Data analyses of mesothelioma mortality and incidence showed that female cases occur in the same geographical areas as male cases. Female mesotheliomas with no IAE occur in the same geographical areas as exposed cases, suggesting asbestos has a major influence on female mesothelioma, likely through environmental exposure. Source

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