Pirgozliev V.,National United University |
Beccaccia A.,National United University |
Beccaccia A.,University of Sao Paulo |
Rose S.P.,National United University |
Bravo D.,InVivo Animal Nutrition and Health
Journal of Animal Science | Year: 2015
The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of a standardized mixture of a commercial blend of phytogenic feed additives containing 5% carvacrol, 3% cinnamaldehyde, and 2% capsicum on utilization of dietary energy and performance in broiler chickens. Four experimental diets were offered to the birds from 7 to 21 d of age. These included 2 basal control diets based on either wheat or maize that contained 215 g CP/kg and 12.13 MJ/kg ME and another 2 diets using the basal control diets supplemented with the plant extracts combination at 100 mg/kg diet. Each diet was fed to 16 individually penned birds following randomization. Dietary plant extracts improved feed intake and weight gain (P < 0.05) and slightly (P < 0.1) improved feed efficiency of birds fed the maizebased diet. Supplementary plant extracts did not change dietary ME (P > 0.05) but improved (P < 0.05) dietary NE by reducing the heat increment (P < 0.05) per kilogram feed intake. Feeding phytogenics improved (P < 0.05) total carcass energy retention and the efficiency of dietary ME for carcass energy retention. The number of interactions between type of diet and supplementary phytogenic feed additive suggest that the chemical composition and the energy to protein ratio of the diet may influence the efficiency of phytogenics when fed to chickens. The experiment showed that although supplementary phytogenic additives did not affect dietary ME, they caused a significant improvement in the utilization of dietary energy for carcass energy retention but this did not always relate to growth performance. © 2015 American Society of Animal Science. All rights reserved.
Pirgozliev V.,Avian Science Research Center |
Pirgozliev V.,National United University |
Bravo D.,InVivo Animal Nutrition and Health |
Mirza M.W.,Avian Science Research Center |
And 2 more authors.
Poultry Science | Year: 2015
An experiment was conducted to compare the effect of a supplementary mixture of essential oils, with and without exogenous xylanase, on performance, carcass composition, dietary nitrogen (N)-corrected apparent metabolizable energy (AMEn), dry matter retention (DMR), N retention (NR), fat digestibility (FD) coefficients, and endogenous mucin losses (measured as sialic acid, SA) when fed to broiler chickens. Three hundred male Ross 308 broilers in total were reared in floor pens from 0 to 21 d of age. Birds were fed 1 of 3 wheat-based diets: basal diet (215 g/kg CP, 12.12 MJ/kg AME) with either no additive (control diet; C) or 100 g/tonne of a standardized combination of 5% carvacrol, 3% cinnamaldehyde, and 2% capsicum oleoresin (diet XT); or a combination of XT and commercial xylanase enzyme at a rate of 100 g of XT and 2,000 units (U) of xylanase/kg (diet XYL), respectively. Each diet was randomly allocated to 10 pens with 10 birds. Feeding XT and XYL diets improved birds' growth performance (P∈<∈0.05). Birds fed XT and XYL diets had an improved caloric conversion ratio (P∈<∈0.05) and consumed 1.3 MJ less AMEn per kilogram of growth compared to birds fed the control diet only. Feeding XT improved only the dietary FD coefficient (P∈<∈0.05) compared to control-fed birds, but the dietary FD coefficient did not differ for XYL diet (P∈>∈0.05). Birds fed XYL diet excreted 35% less endogenous mucin compared to control-fed birds (P∈<∈0.05). Birds fed XT alone gained more carcass protein than the control-fed birds (P∈<∈0.05) but did not differ from the birds fed XYL diet (P∈>∈0.05). There was no indication of a negative interaction between dietary essential oils and xylanase. © 2015 Poultry Science Association Inc.
Oh J.,Pennsylvania State University |
Giallongo F.,Pennsylvania State University |
Frederick T.,Pennsylvania State University |
Pate J.,Pennsylvania State University |
And 5 more authors.
Journal of Dairy Science | Year: 2015
This study investigated the effect of Capsicum oleoresin in granular form (CAP) on nutrient digestibility, immune responses, oxidative stress markers, blood chemistry, rumen fermentation, rumen bacterial populations, and productivity of lactating dairy cows. Eight multiparous Holstein cows, including 3 ruminally cannulated, were used in a replicated 4. ×. 4 Latin square design experiment. Experimental periods were 25 d in duration, including a 14-d adaptation and an 11-d data collection and sampling period. Treatments included control (no CAP) and daily supplementation of 250, 500, or 1,000 mg of CAP/cow. Dry matter intake was not affected by CAP (average 27.0. ±. 0.64 kg/d), but milk yield tended to quadratically increase with CAP supplementation (50.3 to 51.9. ±. 0.86 kg/d). Capsicum oleoresin quadratically increased energy-corrected milk yield, but had no effect on milk fat concentration. Rumen fermentation variables, apparent total-tract digestibility of nutrients, and N excretion in feces and urine were not affected by CAP. Blood serum β-hydroxybutyrate was quadratically increased by CAP, whereas the concentration of nonesterified fatty acids was similar among treatments. Rumen populations of Bacteroidales, Prevotella, and Roseburia decreased and Butyrivibrio increased quadratically with CAP supplementation. T cell phenotypes were not affected by treatment. Mean fluorescence intensity for phagocytic activity of neutrophils tended to be quadratically increased by CAP. Numbers of neutrophils and eosinophils and the ratio of neutrophils to lymphocytes in peripheral blood linearly increased with increasing CAP. Oxidative stress markers were not affected by CAP. Overall, in the conditions of this experiment, CAP did not affect feed intake, rumen fermentation, nutrient digestibility, T cell phenotypes, and oxidative stress markers. However, energy-corrected milk yield was quadratically increased by CAP, possibly as a result of enhanced mobilization of body fat reserves. In addition, CAP increased neutrophil activity and immune cells related to acute phase immune response. © 2015 American Dairy Science Association.
Furness J.B.,University of Melbourne |
Furness J.B.,Florey Institute of Neuroscience and Mental Health |
Bravo D.M.,InVivo Animal Nutrition and Health
Journal of Comparative Physiology B: Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology | Year: 2015
We discuss the relations of processed foods, especially cooked foods, in the human diet to digestive tract form and function. The modern consumption of over 70 % of foods and beverages in highly refined form favours the diet-related classification of humans as cucinivores, rather than omnivores. Archaeological evidence indicates that humans have consumed cooked food for at least 300–400,000 years, and divergence in genes associated with human subpopulations that utilise different foods has been shown to occur over periods of 10–30,000 years. One such divergence is the greater presence of adult lactase persistence in communities that have consumed dairy products, over periods of about 8,000 years, compared to communities not consuming dairy products. We postulate that 300–400,000 years, or 10,000–14,000 generations, is sufficient time for food processing to have influenced the form and function of the human digestive tract. It is difficult to determine how long humans have prepared foods in other ways, such as pounding, grinding, drying or fermenting, but this appears to be for at least 20,000 years, which has been sufficient time to influence gene expression for digestive enzymes. Cooking and food processing expands the range of food that can be eaten, extends food availability into lean times and enhances digestibility. Cooking also detoxifies food to some extent, destroys infective agents, decreases eating time and slightly increases the efficiency of assimilation of energy substrates. On the other hand, cooking can destroy some nutrients and produce toxic products. The human digestive system is suited to a processed food diet because of its smaller volume, notably smaller colonic volume, relative to the intestines of other species, and because of differences from other primates in dentition and facial muscles that result in lower bite strength. There is no known group of humans which does not consume cooked foods, and the modern diet is dominated by processed foods. We conclude that humans are well adapted as consumers of processed, including cooked, foods. © 2015 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg