Rabih S.A.,Hepatorenal Unit |
Agudo R.G.,Hepatorenal Unit |
Huidobro M.L.L.,La Mancha Centro Hospital Complex |
Ferrus M.Y.,La Mancha Centro Hospital Complex |
And 4 more authors.
Pancreas | Year: 2014
OBJECTIVES: The aims of this study were to determine the prevalence of exocrine pancreatic insufficiency (EPI) and chronic pancreatitis (CP) in patients with chronic alcoholic liver disease and to analyze the possible associated factors. METHODS: This is an analytical observational study of cases and controls for a sample of patients with chronic alcoholic and nonalcoholic liver disease. Exocrine pancreatic insufficiency was diagnosed using the C mixed-triglyceride breath test. Patients with abdominal pain underwent endoscopic ultrasonography for CP evaluation using the Wiersema criteria. RESULTS: A total of 154 patients were included, 129 with alcoholic liver disease (83 with cirrhosis) and 25 with nonalcoholic liver disease. Exocrine pancreatic insufficiency was found in 55.2% versus 16.7% (P < 0.001), 70% of patients without cirrhosis compared with 46.2% of patients with cirrhosis had pancreatic insufficiency (P = 0.017), and 82.7% of patients with alcoholic liver disease and abdominal pain had CP (P < 0.001). Exocrine pancreatic insufficiency was associated with the male sex, alcohol intake, abdominal pain, degree of liver failure, and the absence of portal hypertension. Chronic pancreatitis was correlated with age younger than 55 years and abdominal pain. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with alcoholic liver disease had a high prevalence of EPI and CP; this prevalence was even higher in patients who have not yet developed cirrhosis with liver failure or portal hypertension. © 2014 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
Vernaz N.,University of Geneva |
Huttner B.,University of Geneva |
Muscionico D.,OFAC |
Salomon J.-L.,OFAC |
And 5 more authors.
Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy | Year: 2011
Objectives: To determine the temporal relationship between antibiotic use and incidence of antibiotic-resistant Escherichia coli in both the inpatient and outpatient setting of a large urban area. Methods: A retrospective observational time-series analysis was performed to evaluate the incidence of nonduplicate clinical isolates of E. coli resistant to ciprofloxacin, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole and cefepime from January 2000 through December 2007, combined with a transfer function model of aggregated data on antibiotic use in both settings obtained from the hospital's pharmacy and outpatient billing offices. Results: Ciprofloxacin resistance increased from 6.0% (2000) to 15.4% (2007; P <0.0001) and cefepime resistance from 0.9% (2002) to 3.2% (2007; P = 0.01). Trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole resistance remained stable (23.7%-25.8%). Total antibiotic use increased in both settings, while fluoroquinolone use increased significantly only among outpatients. A temporal effect between fluoroquinolone resistance in community E. coli isolates and outpatient use of ciprofloxacin (immediate effect and time lag 1 month) and moxifloxacin (time lag 4 months) was observed, explaining 51% of the variance over time. The incidence of cefepime resistance in E. coli was correlated with ciprofloxacin use in the inpatient (lag 1 month) and outpatient (lag 4 months) settings and with the use of ceftriaxone (lag 0 month), piperacillin/tazobactam (3 months) and cefepime (3 months) in the hospital (R 2 = 51%). Conclusions: These results support efforts to reduce prescribing of fluoroquinolones for control of resistant E. coli including extended-spectrum β-lactamase producers and show the added value of time-series analysis to better understand the interaction between community and hospital antibiotic prescribing and its spill-over effect on antibiotic resistance. © The Author 2011. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.
Baudet J.-S.,Digestive Service |
Aguirre-Jaime A.,Investigation Unit
European Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology | Year: 2012
Aim: The aim of this research was to assess how the use of sedation during colonoscopy influences patient anxiety, fear, satisfaction, and acceptance of repeat examinations. MATERIALS AND Methods: A prospective case-control study quantifying the anxiety and fears of patients appointed for colonoscopy, comparing patients who had undergone previous colonoscopies with sedation (cases) with patients who had undergone previous colonoscopies without sedation and patients who had never had a colonoscopy before (controls). Following the examination, patients answered a satisfaction survey and were asked whether they would be willing to undergo future colonoscopies. Results: The study included 2016 patients (average age 50.05±14.44 years; 47% men). Of these, 1270 patients (63%) were undergoing colonoscopy for the first time and 746 (37%) had undergone the procedure before; in the latter group, 313 patients (42%) had been provided sedation, whereas 433 (58%) had not. Patients who had been sedated for prior colonoscopies assigned significantly lower scores than patients who had undergone previous colonoscopies without sedation and those undergoing the procedure for the first time both in the anxiety survey (3.3±2.5 vs. 7.5±2.8 vs. 10.3±3.5; P<0.01) and in the fears survey (7.1±3.0 vs. 14±2.8 vs. 20.3±4.5; P<0.01). Satisfaction survey scores were significantly higher among sedated patients than among nonsedated patients (22.8±2.7 vs. 18.6±2.3). The percentage of sedated patients who would be willing to undergo colonoscopy again was significantly higher than that of nonsedated patients (70 vs. 25%; P<0.001). Conclusion: Sedation reduces the anxiety and fear of undergoing a repeat colonoscopy and improves both patient satisfaction and the acceptability of future procedures. © 2012 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
Di Capua D.,Epilepsy Unit |
Garcia-Garcia M.E.,Epilepsy Unit |
Reig-Ferrer A.,University of Alicante |
Fuentes-Ferrer M.,Investigation Unit |
And 6 more authors.
Epilepsy and Behavior | Year: 2012
Introduction: To translate and validate into Spanish (Spain) the screening instrument of major depressive episodes (MDEs), Neurological Disorders Depression Inventory in Epilepsy (NDDI-E), in patients with epilepsy. Methods: A total of 121 outpatients, aged 18. years and older, with a diagnosis of epilepsy were included. The diagnosis of a current major depressive episode (MDE) was established with the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI). Results: A diagnosis of current MDE was established in 20% of the patients with the MINI. Receiver operator characteristics (ROC) analysis showed an area under the curve of 0.89, with an internal consistency of 0.78. At a cutoff score > 13, 22% of patients were considered to suffer from MDE with the NDDI-E (sensitivity: 84%; specificity: 78%; positive predictive value: 64.7%; and negative predictive value: 92.2%). Discussion: The Spanish-Spain version of the NDDI-E appears to be a good screening instrument to identify MDE. © 2012 Elsevier Inc.
Merenda A.,University of Miami |
Perez-Barcena J.,University of Miami |
Frontera G.,Investigation Unit |
Benveniste R.J.,University of Miami
Journal of the Neurological Sciences | Year: 2015
Object The aim of this study is to identify pre-operative clinical and/or radiological predictors of clinical failure of decompressive hemicraniectomy (DH) in the setting of malignant hemispheric infarction. These predictors could guide the decision for adjunctive internal brain decompression (e.g. strokectomy) at the time of the initial DH. Methods Retrospective chart review of all patients with malignant hemispheric infarction who underwent DH at our institution, from November 2008 to January 2013. Demographics, pre- and post-operative clinical characteristics and neuroimaging data were reviewed. The surgical outcome after DH was evaluated and clinical failure was defined as follows: lack of post-operative resolution of basal cistern effacement, and/or failure to achieve a post-operative decrease in midline shift by at least 50%, and/or post-operative neurological deterioration felt to be due to persistent mass effect, with or without a second, salvage operation (strokectomy). Results Out of 26 patients included in the study, 7 were considered to have clinical failure of their DH. Preoperative clinical and imaging variables were similar in the two groups, except that the presence of a nonreactive pupil immediately before surgery was associated clinical failure of the DH (p = 0.0015). Patients in the clinical failure group had a lower postoperative GCS motor score and a strong but not statistically significant trend towards less favorable functional outcome (GOS 1-3). Conclusions The presence of a nonreactive pupil before surgery is associated with clinical failure of DH, and should be taken into account when deciding whether to perform strokectomy at the time of DH. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.