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Kao Y.-Y.,Investigation Bureau | Cheng S.-C.,National Sun Yat - sen University | Cheng C.-N.,National Sun Yat - sen University | Shiea J.,National Sun Yat - sen University | Shiea J.,Kaohsiung Medical University
Journal of Mass Spectrometry | Year: 2016

Electrospray laser desorption ionization is an ambient ionization technique that generates neutrals via laser desorption and ionizes those neutrals in an electrospray plume and was utilized to characterize inks in different layers of copy paper and banknotes of various currencies. Depth profiling of inks was performed on overlapping color bands on copy paper by repeatedly scanning the line with a pulsed laser beam operated at a fixed energy. The molecules in the ink on a banknote were desorbed by irradiating the banknote surface with a laser beam operated at different energies, with results indicating that different ions were detected at different depths. The analysis of authentic $US100, $100 RMB and $1000 NTD banknotes indicated that ions detected in 'color-shifting' and 'typography' regions were significantly different. Additionally, the abundances of some ions dramatically changed with the depth of the aforementioned regions. This approach was used to distinguish authentic $1000 NTD banknotes from counterfeits. © Copyright 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.


Wu F.-C.,Investigation Bureau | Wu F.-C.,Tatung University | Ho C.-W.,Tatung University | Pu C.-E.,Investigation Bureau | And 4 more authors.
International Journal of Legal Medicine | Year: 2011

The distribution of Y-chromosomal short tandem repeat (Y-STR) haplotypes was determined in a population of Taiwanese Paiwan aboriginals. Using 17 Y-STR markers, a total of 135 haplotypes were observed, 102 of which were unique. The overall haplotype diversity for the 17 Y-STR loci tested was 0.9922 and the discrimination capacity was 0.6490. In addition, three novel intermediate alleles at the DYS448 locus were also found. © 2010 The Author(s).


Chen M.-Y.,Investigation Bureau | Pu C.-E.,Investigation Bureau | Wu F.-C.,Investigation Bureau | Lai H.-Y.,Investigation Bureau | Ho C.-W.,Tatung University
Proceedings - International Carnahan Conference on Security Technology | Year: 2016

A total of 656 unrelated males from Taiwan population were typed with 13 rapidly mutating Y-chromosome short tandem repeat (Y-STR) markers: DYF399S1, DYF387S1, DYS570, DYS576, DYS518, DYS526a+b, DYS626, DYS627, DYF403S1a+b, DYF404S1, DYS449, DYS547 and DYS612. 655 haplotypes of the RM 13 Y-STRs were obtained which only one haplotype was shared by two individuals. The combined haplotype diversity of the RM 13 Y-STRs was 0.9985. Allele frequencies for each locus are reported with nomenclature based on sequence analysis identical with published paper and recommendation from ISFG. Allele variances were observed in several loci when compared with allelic ladder by PCR duplicated. According to SWDGAM guidelines for Y-STR typing by forensic DNA laboratories, we illustrated the Y-STRs profile probability estimation by using Taiwan population database. © 2015 IEEE.


Chen M.-Y.,Investigation Bureau | Chen M.-Y.,Tatung University | Ho C.-W.,Tatung University | Pu C.-E.,Investigation Bureau | Wu F.-C.,Investigation Bureau
Electrophoresis | Year: 2014

Allele frequencies for the 12 short tandem repeat loci of the Investigator Argus X-12 kit were obtained from 514 unrelated Taiwanese individuals (327 males and 187 females). Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium tests with samples demonstrated no significant deviation from expected values for all 12 loci (p > 0.05). The linkage disequilibrium for the 12 loci in the female samples was identical to what was observed in other Han Chinese populations, with only the DXS10103 and DXS10101 loci showing significant linkage disequilibrium after corrected by Bonferroni's correction for multiple testing (p < 0.05/66). No significant differences were observed by population pairwise genetic distance analysis between Taiwanese and other Han Chinese populations. When compared with other Asian, European, and African populations, however, significant differences were observed at more than one locus. The combined mean exclusion chance was 0.99999 in duo cases and 0.99999999 in trio cases. This study used mathematical logic inferred likelihood ratio calculation formulas for full-sister, half-sister from the same father, and paternal grandmother-granddaughter relationships. The results for these three real familial cases suggest that these 12 short tandem repeat loci may appropriate for forensic relationship testing. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.


Wu F.-C.,Investigation Bureau | Chen M.-Y.,Investigation Bureau | Chao C.-H.,Investigation Bureau | Pu C.-E.,Investigation Bureau
Forensic Science International: Genetics Supplement Series | Year: 2013

The 1281 donators were from populations of Holo, Hakka, Mainlander, Amis, Paiwan, Atayal, Bunun, Truku, Rukai, Puyuma, Tsou, Saisiyat, Yami and Thao. 923 DNA Y-STR haplotypes were obtained and allele frequencies for the 17 Y-STR loci were determined. The genetic distance values below 0.2, which showed high genetic affinity between compared groups, that were four groups: (1) Holo, Hakka and Mainlander; (2) Paiwan and Rukai; (3) Paiwan and Puyuma; (4) Atayal and Truku. © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.


Leu J.-G.,National Taipei University | Geeng L.-T.,Investigation Bureau | Pu C.E.,Investigation Bureau | Shiau J.-B.,Investigation Bureau
Proceedings - International Carnahan Conference on Security Technology | Year: 2014

In text-independent speaker verification, we compare two sets of sentences with different text content for their tonal similarity to determine if they were due to the same speaker. Since the sentences are different, we may not have matching words to compare. However, the sentences are constructed from the same set of phonemes of the language used, including vowels and consonants. Generally speaking, vowels are fewer in number, but are the more significant parts of a sentence in terms of duration and loudness, very suitable to be used for tonal comparison. In this paper, we first built spectral models for the simple vowels in Mandarin Chinese. Then we applied the models to analyze two given sets of speech sentences, detecting the various simple vowels in the sentences, and used the detected vowels to build a tonal model for each speaker. After that, we proceed to compare the two tonal models to determine the probability that the two speakers are indeed the same person. © 2013 IEEE.


Leu J.-G.,National Taipei University | Geeng L.-T.,Investigation Bureau | Pu C.E.,Investigation Bureau | Shiau J.-B.,Investigation Bureau
Proceedings - International Carnahan Conference on Security Technology | Year: 2011

Voice is one of the primary biometrics and can be used to identify a person. By comparing the similarity of two spectrograms, one is able to investigate if the two voice samples were originated from a same speaker. In this paper a method to normalize the spectrogram of a given voiced sound is presented. Through this normalization process, the differences between the spectrograms of two voice samples due to factors such as speed of utterance, loudness, and the frequency responses of the recording devices are removed. As a result, it is expected that normalized spectrograms reflects mainly the tonal characteristics of its speaker and is more suitable for voice comparison than the original spectrograms. For speaker verification, if the correlation coefficient between two normalized spectrograms is higher than a threshold value, the two sound samples will be regarded as originated from a same speaker. In the experiment, voice samples from 36 males and 33 females were collected. The proposed method was used to conduct speaker verification. When only one sentence (around 6 to 10 Chinese characters) was used, 94% or higher speaker verification accuracy was achieved. The accuracy rate increased when more sentences were included. When 7 sentence were used for comparison, the accuracy rates exceeded 99%. © 2011 IEEE.


Wu F.-C.,Investigation Bureau | Chen M.-Y.,Investigation Bureau | Chao C.-H.,Investigation Bureau | Pu C.-E.,Investigation Bureau
Proceedings - International Carnahan Conference on Security Technology | Year: 2016

Samples collected from 775 unrelated Chinese population in Taiwan were identified to obtain the allele frequencies for 20 DNA short tandem repeat (STR) loci (D3S1358, D1S1656, D6S1043, D13S317, Penta E, D16S539, D18S51, D2S1338, CSF1PO, Penta D, TH01, vWA, D21S11, D7S820, D5S818, TPOX, D8S1179, D12S391, D19S433, FGA) included in the Promega PowerPlex® 21 system amplification kit. The values of observed heterozygosity (Ho) ranged from 0.5290 for TPOX to 0.9058 for Penta E, expected heterozygosity (He) ranged from 0.5862 for TPOX to 0.9122 for Penta E, polymorphism information content (PIC) ranged from 0.5267 for TPOX to 0.9058 for Penta E, power of discrimination (PD) ranged from 0.5460 for TPOX to 0.9833 for Penta E, the duos probability of paternity exclusion (PEduos) ranged from 0.1826 for TPOX to 0.7001 for Penta E and the trios probability of paternity exclusion (PEtjios) ranged from 0.3327 for TPOX to 0.8236 for Penta E were calculated. The five new markers (D1S1656, D6S1043, Penta E, Penta D and D12S391) of the Promega PowerPlex® 21 system were different from the AmpFLSTR® IdentifilerTM kit, which were identified to decrease the random match probability and got the result for increasing the discrimination over 106 times than Identifiler system that were very useful for confirming the source of trace evidence identification. © 2015 IEEE.


Chiu N.-H.,Chien Hsin University of Science and Technology | Pu C.-E.,Investigation Bureau | Hsieh M.-C.,Chien Hsin University of Science and Technology
ICEIS 2013 - Proceedings of the 15th International Conference on Enterprise Information Systems | Year: 2013

The paper-moneys may face the problems of shreds in the unexpected accidents or human negligence. The reconstruction of ripped-up paper-moneys can demonstrate the evidences for decision makers or forensic examiners in order to exchange the complete paper-moneys. However, the reconstruction of ripped-up paper-moneys is very difficult on the basis of a lot of shreds with different distance factors that are measured from neighbouring pieces. How to identify the suitable feature weight for each distance factor is a critical issue for reconstructing the ripped-up paper-moneys. Particle swarm optimization is a search algorithm which is successfully adopted for solving many combination optimization problems in many fields. This study utilizes particle swarm optimization for exploring the proper feature weight for each distance factor to improve the reconstructed abilities. The proposed approach demonstrates the automatically reconstructing abilities which enhance the effects and efficiencies on the reconstruction of ripped-up paper-moneys.


PubMed | Investigation Bureau and National Sun Yat - sen University
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of mass spectrometry : JMS | Year: 2016

Electrospray laser desorption ionization is an ambient ionization technique that generates neutrals via laser desorption and ionizes those neutrals in an electrospray plume and was utilized to characterize inks in different layers of copy paper and banknotes of various currencies. Depth profiling of inks was performed on overlapping color bands on copy paper by repeatedly scanning the line with a pulsed laser beam operated at a fixed energy. The molecules in the ink on a banknote were desorbed by irradiating the banknote surface with a laser beam operated at different energies, with results indicating that different ions were detected at different depths. The analysis of authentic $US100, $100 RMB and $1000 NTD banknotes indicated that ions detected in color-shifting and typography regions were significantly different. Additionally, the abundances of some ions dramatically changed with the depth of the aforementioned regions. This approach was used to distinguish authentic $1000 NTD banknotes from counterfeits. Copyright 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

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