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Holder P.,Plant Health and Environment Laboratory | Disbury M.,Wellington Mail Center | Singe M.,Southern Monitoring Services New Zealand BioSecure | Kean J.M.,Agresearch Ltd. | McFadden A.,Investigation and Diagnostic Center
Journal of Medical Entomology | Year: 2010

A biosecurity response was triggered by the detection of Aedes albopictus (Skuse) (Diptera: Culicidae) at the Port of Auckland, New Zealand, Ae. albopictus does not occur in New Zealand and is the most significant mosquito threat to this country, The possibility that a founding population had established, resulted in a large-scale biosecurity surveillance and control program. The response was initiated in early March 2007 and completed by mid-May 2007. No further exotic mosquitoes were detected, The response surveillance program consisted of larval habitat surveys and high density ovi- and light trapping. It was coordinated with a habitat modification and S-methoprene treatment control program, The response policies were guided by analysis of surveillance and quality assurance data, population modeling, and trace-back activities. Mosquito habitat and activity close to port were both more abundant than expected, particularly in storm water drain sumps, Sumps are difficult to treat, and during the response some modification was required to the surveillance program and the control regime. We were assured of the absence or eradication of any Ae. albopictus population, as a result of nil detection from surveillance, backed up by four overlapping rounds of insecticide treatment of habitat. This work highlights the importance of port surveillance and may serve as a guide for responses for future urban mosquito incursions. © 2010 Entomological Society of America.


Lockhart C.Y.,Massey University | Stevenson M.A.,Massey University | Rawdon T.G.,Investigation and Diagnostic Center | Gerber N.,Poultry Industry Association of New Zealand | French N.P.,Massey University
Preventive Veterinary Medicine | Year: 2010

Members of the Poultry Industry Association and the Egg Producers Federation of New Zealand (n=420) were sent a questionnaire asking them to describe the type and frequency of on- and off-enterprise movements relating to feed, live birds and hatching eggs, table eggs and poultry product, and manure and waste litter. Social network analyses were used to describe patterns of contact among poultry enterprises and their associates for these four movement types. The response rate to the survey was 58% (244 out of 420). Network structures for enterprise-to-enterprise movements of feed, live birds and hatching eggs, and table egg and poultry product were characterised by 'hub and spoke' type structures with small-world characteristics. Small worlds were created by network hubs (e.g. feed suppliers and hatcheries) providing goods and services to larger numbers of client farms. In addition to hubs acting as the predominant source of material moving onto farms we identified enterprises acting as bridges between identified small worlds. The presence of these bridges is a concern, since their presence has the potential to facilitate the spread of hazards (e.g. feed contaminants, infectious agents carried within feed) more readily throughout the population. An ability to predict enterprises with these network characteristics on the basis of factors such as shed capacity, enterprise type, geographic location would be useful for developing risk-based approaches to disease prevention, surveillance, detection, response and control activities. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.


Paine S.,Institute of Environmental Science and Research ESR | Paine S.,Australian National University | Mercer G.N.,Australian National University | Kelly P.M.,Australian National University | And 7 more authors.
Eurosurveillance | Year: 2010

The first wave of pandemic influenza A(H1N1) has subsided in New Zealand as in other southern hemisphere countries. This study aimed to estimate the effective reproduction number (R) of 2009 pandemic influenza A(H1N1) taking into account imported cases. It also aimed to show the temporal variation of R throughout the New Zealand epidemic, changes in age- and ethnicity-specific cumulative incidence, and the effect of school holidays. Using a new modelling method to account for imported cases, we have calculated the peak R during the containment phase of the pandemic as 1.55 (95% confidence interval: 1.16 to 1.86). This value is less than previously estimated in the country early in the pandemic but in line with more recent estimates in other parts of the world. Results also indicated an increase in the proportion of notifications among school-age children after the school holiday (3-19 July 2009). This finding provides support for the potential effectiveness of timely school closures, although such disruptive interventions need to be balanced against the severity of the pandemic.


Pande A.,Victoria University of Wellington | Pande A.,Investigation and Diagnostic Center | Gardner J.P.A.,Victoria University of Wellington
New Zealand Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research | Year: 2012

Kapiti Marine Reserve (KMR) was established in May 1992 following a single baseline biological survey. We surveyed macroalgal, macroinvertebrate and fish species for abundance and/or size at two sites inside and two outside KMR and then conducted reservation status (inside vs outside KMR) and temporal (1992 baseline vs 1999-2000) tests to quantify biological responses after 8 years of protection. Reservation status has had a significant effect on abundance or size for four fish species (banded wrasse, blue cod, butterfish, blue moki), but not for heavily fished macroinvertebrates (two species of paua, kina, rock lobster). Temporal analyses revealed only one significant difference (banded wrasse), but that is not attributable to the reserve. Despite low statistical power to detect change, the value of the baseline survey is highlighted by our ability to understand and interpret better the biological responses that we observed and to demonstrate conservation outcomes at KMR. © 2012 Copyright The Royal Society of New Zealand.


Hine P.M.,Investigation and Diagnostic Center | Carnegie R.B.,Virginia Institute of Marine Science | Kroeck M.A.,National University of Comahue | Engelsma M.Y.,Central Veterinary Institute of Wageningen UR | Burreson E.M.,Virginia Institute of Marine Science
Diseases of Aquatic Organisms | Year: 2014

The ultrastructure of Bonamia from Ostrea angasi from Australia, Crassostrea aria - kensis from the USA, O. puelchana from Argentina and O. edulis from Spain was compared with described Bonamia spp All appear conspecific with B. Exitiosa. The Bonamia sp from Chile had similarities to the type B. Exitiosa from New Zealand (NZ), but less so than the other forms recognized as B. Exitiosa. Two groups of ultrastructural features were identified; those associated with metabolism (mitochondrial profiles, lipid droplets and endoplasmic reticulum), and those associated with haplosporogenesis (Golgi, indentations in the nuclear surface, the putative trans-Golgi network, perinuclear granular material and haplosporosome-like bodies). Metabolic features were regarded as having little taxonomic value, and as the process of haplosporogenesis is not understood, only haplosporosome shape and size may be of taxonomic value. However, the uninucleate stages of spore-forming haplosporidians are poorly known and may be confused with Bonamia spp uni-nucleate stages. The many forms of NZ B. Exitiosa have not been observed in other hosts, which may indicate that it has a plastic life cycle. Although there are similarities between NZ B. Exitiosa and Chilean Bonamia in the development of a larger uni-nucleate stage and the occurrence of cylindrical confronting cisternae, the clarification of the identity of Chilean Bonamia must await molecular studies. © Inter-Research 2014.

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