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Busch F.,Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich | Mobasheri A.,University of Nottingham | Shayan P.,Investigating Institute of Molecular Biological System Transfer | Lueders C.,Laboratory for Tissue Engineering | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Biological Chemistry | Year: 2012

Background: Resveratrol has been proposed to have beneficial health effects due to its anti-inflammatory properties. Results: Resveratrol suppressed IL-1β-induced activation of NF-κB and PI3K in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Conclusion: Anti-inflammatory effects of resveratrol may be mediated at least in part through inhibition/deacetylation of PI3K and NF-κB. Significance: Activated Sirt-1 plays an essential role in anti-inflammatory effects of resveratrol. © 2012 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

Shakibaei M.,Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich | Mobasheri A.,University of Nottingham | Lueders C.,German Heart Institute Berlin | Busch F.,Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich | And 2 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

Objective: Development of treatment resistance and adverse toxicity associated with classical chemotherapeutic agents highlights the need for safer and effective therapeutic approaches. Herein, we examined the effectiveness of a combination treatment regimen of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) and curcumin in colorectal cancer (CRC) cells. Methods: Wild type HCT116 cells and HCT116+ch3 cells (complemented with chromosome 3) were treated with curcumin and 5-FU in a time- and dose-dependent manner and evaluated by cell proliferation assays, DAPI staining, transmission electron microscopy, cell cycle analysis and immunoblotting for key signaling proteins. Results: The individual IC50 of curcumin and 5-FU were approximately 20 μM and 5 μM in HCT116 cells and 5 μM and 1 μM in HCT116+ch3 cells, respectively (p<0.05). Pretreatment with curcumin significantly reduced survival in both cells; HCT116+ch3 cells were considerably more sensitive to treatment with curcumin and/or 5-FU than wild-type HCT116 cells. The IC50 values for combination treatment were approximately 5 μM and 1 μM in HCT116 and 5 μM and 0.1 μM in HCT116+ch3, respectively (p<0.05). Curcumin induced apoptosis in both cells by inducing mitochondrial degeneration and cytochrome c release. Cell cycle analysis revealed that the anti-proliferative effect of curcumin and/or 5-FU was preceded by accumulation of CRC cells in the S cell cycle phase and induction of apoptosis. Curcumin potentiated 5-FU-induced expression or cleavage of pro-apoptotic proteins (caspase-8, -9, -3, PARP and Bax), and down-regulated anti-apoptotic (Bcl-xL) and proliferative (cyclin D1) proteins. Although 5-FU activated NF-κB/PI-3K/Src pathway in CRC cells, this was down-regulated by curcumin treatment through inhibition of IκBα kinase activation and IκBα phosphorylation. Conclusions: Combining curcumin with conventional chemotherapeutic agents such as 5-FU could provide more effective treatment strategies against chemoresistant colon cancer cells. The mechanisms involved may be mediated via NF-κB/PI-3K/Src pathways and NF-κB regulated gene products. © 2013 Shakibaei et al.

Busch F.,Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich | Mobasheri A.,University of Nottingham | Shayan P.,Investigating Institute of Molecular Biological System Transfer | Stahlmann R.,Charite - Medical University of Berlin | Shakibaei M.,Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich
Journal of Biological Chemistry | Year: 2012

Tendon overuse injuries and tendinitis are accompanied by catabolic processes and apoptosis of tenocytes. However, the precise molecular mechanisms of the destructive processes in tendon are not fully understood. Sirt-1, a nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+)-dependent deacetylase, has been linked to transcriptional silencing and appears to play a key role in inflammation. The purpose of this study was to examine whether down-regulation of Sirt-1 using antisense oligonucleotides (ASO) affects inflammatory and apoptotic signaling in tenocytes. Transient transfection of tenocytes with ASO against Sirt-1 induced expression of Bax and other proteins involved in apoptosis (cleaved caspase-3 and poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase), acetylation of tumor suppressor p53, and mitochondrial degradation. Interestingly, Sirt-1 was found to interact directly with p53. In contrast, Sirt-1 activator resveratrol inhibited interleukin-1β (IL-1β)- and nicotinamide-induced NF-κB activation and p65 acetylation and suppressed the activation of IκB-α kinase. Resveratrol also reversed the IL-1β- or nicotinamide-induced up-regulation of various gene products that mediate inflammation (cyclooxygenase-2) and matrix degradation (matrix metalloproteinase-9) that are known to be regulated by NF-κB. Knockdown of Sirt-1 by using ASO abolished the inhibitory effects of resveratrol on inflammatory and apoptotic signaling including Akt activation and SCAX suppression. Down-regulation of histone deacetylase Sirt-1 by mRNA interference abrogated the effect of resveratrol on NF-κB suppression, thus highlighting the crucial homeostatic role of this enzyme. Overall, these results suggest for the first time that Sirt-1 can regulate p53 and NF-κB signaling via deacetylation, demonstrating a novel role for resveratrol in the treatment of tendinitis/tendinopathy. © 2012 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

Buhrmann C.,Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich | Shayan P.,Investigating Institute of Molecular Biological System Transfer | Aggarwal B.B.,University of Houston | Shakibaei M.,Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich
Arthritis Research and Therapy | Year: 2013

Introduction: Inflammatory cytokines play a key role in the pathogenesis of joint diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Current therapies target mainly tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) as this has proven benefits. However, a large number of patients do not respond to or become resistant to anti-TNF-α therapy. While the role of TNF-α in RA is quite evident, the role of TNF-β, also called lymphotoxin-α (LT-α), is unclear. In this study we investigated whether TNF-β and its receptor play a role in chondrocytes in the inflammatory environment.Methods: An in vitro model of primary human chondrocytes was used to study TNF-β-mediated inflammatory signaling.Results: Cytokine-induced inflammation enhances TNF-β and TNF-β-receptor expression in primary human chondrocytes accompanied by the up-regulation of inflammatory (cyclooxygenase-2), matrix degrading (matrix metalloproteinase-9 and -13) and apoptotic (p53, cleaved caspase-3) signaling pathways, all known to be regulated by NF-κB. In contrast, anti-TNF-β, similar to the natural NF-κB inhibitor (curcumin, diferuloylmethane) or the knockdown of NF-κB by using antisense oligonucleotides (ASO), suppressed IL-1β-induced NF-κB activation and its translocation to the nucleus, and abolished the pro-inflammatory and apoptotic effects of IL-1β. This highlights, at least in part, the crucial role of NF-κB in TNF-β-induced-inflammation in cartilage, similar to that expected for TNF-α. Finally, the adhesiveness between TNF-β-expressing T-lymphocytes and the responding chondrocytes was significantly enhanced through a TNF-β-induced inflammatory microenvironment.Conclusions: These results suggest for the first time that TNF-β is involved in microenvironment inflammation in chondrocytes during RA parallel to TNF-α, resulting in the up-regulation of NF-κB signaling and activation of pro-inflammatory activity. © 2013 Buhrmann et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Shakibaei M.,Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich | Kraehe P.,Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich | Popper B.,Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich | Shayan P.,Investigating Institute of Molecular Biological System Transfer | And 3 more authors.
BMC Cancer | Year: 2015

Background: To overcome the limitations of animal-based experiments, 3D culture models mimicking the tumor microenvironment in vivo are gaining attention. Herein, we investigated an alginate-based 3D scaffold for screening of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) or/and curcumin on malignancy of colorectal cancer cells (CRC). Methods: The potentiation effects of curcumin on 5-FU against proliferation and metastasis of HCT116 cell and its corresponding isogenic 5-FU-chemoresistant cells (HCT116R) were examined in a 3D-alginate tumor model. Results: CRC cells encapsulated in alginate were able to proliferate in 3D-colonospheres in a vivo-like phenotype and invaded from alginate. During cultivation of cells in alginate, we could isolate 3 stages of cells, (1) alginate proliferating (2) invasive and (3) adherent cells. Tumor-promoting factors (CXCR4, MMP-9, NF-κB) were significantly increased in the proliferating and invasive compared to the adherent cells, however HCT116R cells overexpressed factors in comparison to the parental HCT116, suggesting an increase in malignancy behavior. In alginate, curcumin potentiated 5-FU-induced decreased capacity for proliferation, invasion and increased more sensitivity to 5-FU of HCT116R compared to the HCT116 cells. IC50 for HCT116 to 5-FU was 8nM, but co-treatment with 5μM curcumin significantly reduced 5-FU concentrations in HCT116 and HCT116R cells (0.8nM, 0.1nM, respectively) and these effects were accompanied by down-regulation of NF-κB activation and NF-κB-regulated gene products. Conclusions: Our results demonstrate that the alginate provides an excellent tumor microenvironment and indicate that curcumin potentiates and chemosensitizes HCT116R cells to 5-FU-based chemotherapy that may be useful for the treatment of CRC and to overcome drug resistance. © Shakibaei et al.; licensee BioMed Central.

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