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Trager M.D.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Ristau T.E.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Stoleson S.H.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Davidson R.L.,Section of Invertebrate Zoology | Acciavatti R.E.,Section of Invertebrate Zoology
Forest Ecology and Management | Year: 2013

Managing forests to promote biodiversity requires understanding the effects of silvicultural practices on a range of forest species and communities. We evaluated carabid beetle (Coleoptera; Carabidae) responses to operational herbicide and shelterwood seed cut treatments in northern hardwood stands on the Allegheny National Forest, Pennsylvania, USA, from 1992 to 2000. There was substantial defoliation by elm spanworms (Ennomos subsignarius Hübner) or cherry scallopshell moths (Hydria prunivorata Ferguson) during four of the 9. years of this study, so we also evaluated effects of these lepidopteran outbreaks on carabids. We found no differences in carabid species richness between herbicide-treated and no herbicide plots overall or in any year, but carabid abundance was higher in herbicide-treated plots in the year following application. Carabid community composition differed among years and increased in dissimilarity over the course of the study but did not differ between herbicide-treated and no herbicide plots. Shelterwood seed cuts had no effects on carabid species richness, abundance or community composition. The relatively few significant effects of experimental treatments on individual carabid species tended to be small and responses we did find differed somewhat from previous studies. In 1992, carabid abundance was significantly correlated with elm spanworm defoliation and in 1995 both species richness and abundance were significantly higher in areas defoliated by cherry scallopshell moth. These results support previous findings that forestry practices that have relatively minor and short-term effects on forest vegetation are unlikely to have substantial effects on carabids; however, natural resource variation resulting from forest lepidopteran outbreaks may have important cascading effects for carabid communities that have not been fully explored. © 2012.


Larsen T.B.,Natural History Museum in London | Rawlins J.E.,Section of Invertebrate Zoology
Annals of Carnegie Museum | Year: 2015

This paper describes a new African skipper, Procampta admiratio (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae: Pyrginae: Tagiadini), inhabiting much of the Democratic Republic of Congo. It cannot be distinguished by external features from Procampta rara Holland, 1892, from Gabon, the Central African Republic, and West Africa. For 122 years the genus Procampta Holland, 1892, was thought to be a monotypic genus. The genitalia of the two species are very different and it was possible to confirm that those of the P. rara holotype were West African. On present knowledge the two species are wholly allopatric, though a specimen from Bangui, Central African Republic, is only 220 km north of the nearest P. admiratio.


Podenas S.,Vilnius University | Young C.W.,Section of Invertebrate Zoology
Zootaxa | Year: 2015

Taiwanese species of the crane fly subgenus Antocha (Antocha) Osten Sacken, 1860, are reviewed. Antocha (Antocha) taiwanensis, new species, is described and figured. Previously known species, Antocha (A.) bifida Alexander, 1924a and Antocha (A.) styx Alexander, 1930 are redescribed and illustrated. Antocha (A.) javanensis Alexander, 1915 is removed from the list of Taiwanese crane flies. Antocha (A.) gracillima Alexander, 1924b and species close to Antocha (A.) streptocera Alexander, 1949 are listed for the first time in Taiwan. Identification key for all Taiwanese Antocha species is given. © 2015 Magnolia Press.


Davidson R.L.,Section of Invertebrate Zoology | Rykken J.,Harvard University | Farrell B.,Harvard University
ZooKeys | Year: 2011

As part of an All Taxa Biodiversity Inventory in Boston Harbor Islands national park area, an inventory of carabid beetles on 13 islands was conducted. Intensive sampling on ten of the islands, using an assortment of passive traps and limited hand collecting, resulted in the capture of 6,194 specimens, comprising 128 species. Among these species were seven new state records for Massachusetts (Acupalpus nanellus, Amara aulica, Amara bifrons, Apenes lucidulus, Bradycellus tantillus, Harpalus rubripes and Laemostenus terricola terricola-the last also a new country record; in passing we report also new state records for Harpalus rubripes from New York and Pennsylvania, Amara ovata from Pennsylvania, and the first mainland New York records for Asaphidion curtum). For most islands, there was a clear relationship between species richness and island area. Two islands, however, Calf and Grape, had far more species than their relatively small size would predict. Freshwater marshes on these islands, along with a suite of hygrophilous species, suggested that habitat diversity plays an important role in island species richness. Introduced species (18) comprised 14.0% of the total observed species richness, compared to 5.5% (17 out of 306 species) documented for Rhode Island. We surmise that the higher proportion of introduced species on the islands is, in part, due to a higher proportion of disturbed and open habitats as well as high rates of human traffic. We predict that more active sampling in specialized habitats would bring the total carabid fauna of the Boston Harbor Islands closer to that of Rhode Island or eastern Massachusetts in richness and composition; however, isolation, human disturbance and traffic, and limited habitat diversity all contribute to reducing the species pool on the islands relative to that on the mainland. © Robert L. Davidson et al.


The Brasiella tiger beetle fauna on Hispaniola, the second largest island of the Greater Antilles, has more species diversity than currently recognized as all populations previously have been assigned to the insular endemic Brasiella dominicana (Mandl). A comparative study of adult morphology, particularly male genitalic and female abdominal characters, for available Brasiella specimens from populations on Hispaniola, proposes eight additional new species also endemic to this island. Except for three sympatric species in the Sierra de Baoruco in southern Dominican Republic occurring in different habitats, all the Brasiella on Hispaniola appear to be allopatric. Most species occur in the major mountainous regions of Hispaniola. Two species, however, are known only from river floodplains in the southern coastal plain of the Dominican Republic. Brasiella dominicana (Mandl) and B. ocoa, new species, occur along river floodplains emanating from the eastern end of the Cordillera Central in the Dominican Republic. Two new Brasiella species, B. bellorum, and B. philipi, occur in the Cordillera Central, Dominican Republic, the former species from central portions, and the latter species from north slopes of this mountain range, respectively. Three new Brasiella species, B. rawlinsi, B. iviei, and B. youngi, are isolated in the Sierra de Baoruco, Dominican Republic, where each occupies a different habitat along an altitudinal gradient. The two new Brasiella species in Haiti are B. darlingtoniana, in the Massif de la Selle, and B. davidsoni, in the Massif de la Hotte. All nine Brasiella species on Hispaniola, along with B. viridicollis (Dejean) and its two subspecies on Cuba, belong to the viridicollis species group of the genus Brasiella based on criteria presented in earlier published phylo-genetic studies of Brazilian and West Indian tiger beetles. The subspecies Brasiella viridicollis fernandozayasi (Kippenhan, Ivie & Hopp) may represent a distinct species within this species group, whereas removal of Brasiella wickhami (W. Horn) from this species group seems warranted based on evidence presented. A general overview of species relationships for the Brasiella on Hispaniola are discussed, along with the current and ancestral geographic distributions of the Brasiella viridicollis species group in the West Indies. © Robert E. Acciavatti.


Bembidion (Lymnaeum) nigropiceum (Marsham) (=puritanum Hayward), a European species introduced into Massachusetts but presumed not to have become established, has been rediscovered during the Boston Harbor Islands All Taxa Biodiversity Inventory undertaken by the Museum of Comparative Zoology and the National Park Service. A summary is presented of treatment of this species in North America. Data on specimens collected are presented, along with observations on habitat and biology. Some speculations are presented about its highly specialized habitat in the gravel pushed up by high tide, which may act as a food-trapping sieve. A few words are included about future actions needed to resolve questions of distribution and behavior. © Robert L. Davidson, Jessica Rykken.


Two new species of crane flies in the genus Tipula Linnaeus, 1758, subgenus Emodotipula Alexander, 1966 (Diptera: Tipulidae: Tipulinae), are described from Taiwan and Thailand. Tipula (Emodotipula) lishanensis, new species, is the first representative of the subgenus known from Taiwan and is closely related to Tipula (Emodotipula) thailandica, new species, here described as the first species of that subgenus from Thailand based on characters of external male genitalia and on DNA-sequence comparisons. Illustrations of the diagnostic morphological features of the new species are provided.


Three land-snail species are reported as new to Norway: Pupilla pratensis, which has been segregated from P. muscorum s. lat., occurs in three isolated, calcareous wetland sites in the counties of Hedmark and Oppland and two calcareous rock habitats in Nordland County; Vertigo ultimathule, recently described from the northernmost part of Swedish Lapland, has been found in seven localities in the adjacent Norwegian county of Finnmark - the species is probably endemic to northernmost Scandinavia; finally Balea sarsii [= B. heydeni], a pronounced Atlantic element, which has been segregated from B. perversa s. lat., is found in five sites in Hordaland County and one in Sogn og Fjordane County - the locality at Florø in the latter province is the northernmost known for the species.


Collins M.M.,Section of Invertebrate Zoology | Rawlins J.E.,Section of Invertebrate Zoology
Annals of Carnegie Museum | Year: 2013

Egg fertility, embryo viability, and fecundity were measured, using experimental hybridization, to produce a profile of reproductive compatibility across a hybrid zone between Hyalophora euryalus (Boisduval, 1855) and H. columbia gloveri (Strecker, 1872) (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae) in the Sierra Nevada mountains of California. Three aspects of the genetic structure of the hybrid zone are discussed: 1) hybrid zone females have normal fecundity, in contrast to typically barren laboratory-reared F1 hybrid females from crosses between widely allopatric parental taxa; 2) hybrid zone females from defined sites along the transect, in comparison to allopatric species matings, showed no reduction in fertility or viability in matings with males from the same site; and 3) a "hybrid sink" was discovered, the moths from which were the least compatible among various inter-site crosses. Topography affects the genetic structure of the hybrid zone, especially by reducing gene flow in relation to rain shadows and associated ecological features. Within the hybrid zone, natural selection has apparently modified postzygotic isolation by favoring compatible genotypes regulating öogenesis. The long-term structure and stability of the hybrid zone is discussed in terms of ecological heterogeneity in complex montane landscapes. The suitability of the "tension zone" model, which depicts an equilibrium between the effects of selection balanced against dispersal, is discussed for the Hyalophora hybrid zone.


Eight new species of ground beetles of the lebiine genus Dolichoctis Schmidt-Goebel, 1846, from New Guinea and the island of Seram are described: D. bisetosiceps from Goodenough Island off the southeast coast of Papua New Guinea; D. ivimkae, D. ocularis, D. latibasis, D. aterrima, and D. cylindripennis from eastern and northern Papua New Guinea; D. lackneri from central Papua Indonesia; and D. mehli from Seram. All species belong to the subgenus Spinidolichoctis Baehr, 1999, which is characterized by the dentate or spinose apex of the elytra and the absence of the anterior marginal seta of the pronotum. This subgenus mainly occurs in the Papuan Region with a few species recorded from the southern Oriental Region and from northeastern Australia. For the new species, differential diagnoses are provided that distinguish them from related or similarly shaped species. A complete new key is provided for the subgenus Spinidolichoctis. Some thoughts on evolution and biogeography of the genus Dolichoctis in New Guinea are outlined.

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