Intravacc Institute for Translational Vaccinology

Bilthoven, Netherlands

Intravacc Institute for Translational Vaccinology

Bilthoven, Netherlands
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Kraan H.,Intravacc Institute for Translational Vaccinology | Soema P.,Intravacc Institute for Translational Vaccinology | Amorij J.-P.,Intravacc Institute for Translational Vaccinology | Kersten G.,Intravacc Institute for Translational Vaccinology | Kersten G.,Leiden University
Vaccine | Year: 2017

Polio is on the brink of eradication. Improved inactivated polio vaccines (IPV) are needed towards complete eradication and for the use in the period thereafter. Vaccination via mucosal surfaces has important potential advantages over intramuscular injection using conventional needle and syringe, the currently used delivery method for IPV. One of them is the ability to induce both serum and mucosal immune responses: the latter may provide protection at the port of virus entry. The current study evaluated the possibilities of polio vaccination via mucosal surfaces using IPV based on attenuated Sabin strains. Mice received three immunizations with trivalent sIPV via intramuscular injection, or via the intranasal or sublingual route. The need of an adjuvant for the mucosal routes was investigated as well, by testing sIPV in combination with the mucosal adjuvant cholera toxin. Both intranasal and sublingual sIPV immunization induced systemic polio-specific serum IgG in mice that were functional as measured by poliovirus neutralization. Intranasal administration of sIPV plus adjuvant induced significant higher systemic poliovirus type 3 neutralizing antibody titers than sIPV delivered via the intramuscular route. Moreover, mucosal sIPV delivery elicited polio-specific IgA titers at different mucosal sites (IgA in saliva, fecal extracts and intestinal tissue) and IgA-producing B-cells in the spleen, where conventional intramuscular vaccination was unable to do so. However, it is likely that a mucosal adjuvant is required for sublingual vaccination. Further research on polio vaccination via sublingual mucosal route should include the search for safe and effective adjuvants, and the development of novel oral dosage forms that improve antigen uptake by oral mucosa, thereby increasing vaccine immunogenicity. This study indicates that both the intranasal and sublingual routes might be valuable approaches for use in routine vaccination or outbreak control in the period after complete OPV cessation and post-polio eradication. © 2017 The Author(s)


Schipper P.,Leiden University | van der Maaden K.,Leiden University | Romeijn S.,Leiden University | Oomens C.,TU Eindhoven | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Controlled Release | Year: 2016

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of various repeated fractional intradermal dosing schedules of inactivated polio vaccine serotype 1 (IPV1) on IPV1-specific IgG responses in rats. By utilizing an applicator that allowed for precisely controlled intradermal microinjections by using a single hollow microneedle, rats were immunized intradermally with 5 D-antigen units (DU) of IPV1 at 150 μm skin depth. This dose was administered as a bolus, or in a repeated fractional dosing schedule: 4 doses of 1.25 DU (1/4th of total dose) were administered on four consecutive days or every other day; 8 doses of 0.625 DU (1/8th of total dose) were administered on eight consecutive days; or 4 exponentially increasing doses (0.04, 0.16, 0.8 and 4 DU), either with or without an exponentially increasing CpG oligodeoxynucleotide 1826 (CpG) dose, were administered on four consecutive days. All of these fractional dosing schedules resulted in up to ca. 10-fold higher IPV1-specific IgG responses than intradermal and intramuscular bolus dosing. IPV1 combined with adjuvant CpG in exponential dosing did not significantly increase the IPV1-specific IgG responses further, which demonstrated that maximal responses were achieved by fractional dosing. In conclusion, repeated fractional intradermal IPV1 dosing leads to superior IPV1-specific IgG responses without the use of adjuvants. These results indicate that a controlled release delivery system for intradermal IPV1 delivery can potentiate IPV1-specific IgG responses. © 2016 Elsevier B.V.


PubMed | Leiden University, University of Groningen and Intravacc Institute for Translational Vaccinology
Type: Journal Article | Journal: International journal of pharmaceutics | Year: 2016

Spray dried vaccine formulations might be an alternative to traditional lyophilized vaccines. Compared to lyophilization, spray drying is a fast and cheap process extensively used for drying biologicals. The current study provides an approach that utilizes Design of Experiments for spray drying process to stabilize whole inactivated influenza virus (WIV) vaccine. The approach included systematically screening and optimizing the spray drying process variables, determining the desired process parameters and predicting product quality parameters. The process parameters inlet air temperature, nozzle gas flow rate and feed flow rate and their effect on WIV vaccine powder characteristics such as particle size, residual moisture content (RMC) and powder yield were investigated. Vaccine powders with a broad range of physical characteristics (RMC 1.2-4.9%, particle size 2.4-8.5m and powder yield 42-82%) were obtained. WIV showed no significant loss in antigenicity as revealed by hemagglutination test. Furthermore, descriptive models generated by DoE software could be used to determine and select (set) spray drying process parameter. This was used to generate a dried WIV powder with predefined (predicted) characteristics. Moreover, the spray dried vaccine powders retained their antigenic stability even after storage for 3 months at 60C. The approach used here enabled the generation of a thermostable, antigenic WIV vaccine powder with desired physical characteristics that could be potentially used for pulmonary administration.


Soema P.C.,Intravacc Institute for Translational Vaccinology | Soema P.C.,Leiden University | Rosendahl Huber S.K.,National Institute for Public Health and the Environment RIVM | Willems G.-J.,Intravacc Institute for Translational Vaccinology | And 4 more authors.
Pharmaceutical Research | Year: 2015

Purpose: Influenza CD8+ T-cell epitopes are conserved amongst influenza strains and can be recognized by influenza-specific cytotoxic T-cells (CTLs), which can rapidly clear infected cells. An influenza peptide vaccine that elicits these CTLs would therefore be an alternative to current influenza vaccines, which are not cross-reactive. However, peptide antigens are poorly immunogenic due to lack of delivery to antigen presenting cells, and therefore need additional formulation with a suitable delivery system. In this study, the potential of virosomes as a delivery system for an influenza T-cell peptide was investigated. Methods: The conserved human HLA-A2.1 influenza T-cell epitope M158-66 was formulated with virosomes. The immunogenicity and protective effect of the peptide-loaded virosomes was assessed in HLA-A2 transgenic mice. Delivery properties of the virosomes were studied in mice and in in vitro dendritic cell cultures. Results: Immunization of HLA-A2.1 transgenic C57BL/6 mice with peptide-loaded virosomes in the presence of the adjuvant CpG-ODN 1826 increased the number of peptide-specific CTLs. Vaccination with adjuvanted peptide-loaded virosomes reduced weight loss in mice after heterologous influenza infection. Association with fusion-active virosomes was found to be crucial for antigen uptake by dendritic cells, and subsequent induction of CTLs in mice. Conclusions: These results show that influenza virosomes loaded with conserved influenza epitopes could be the basis of a novel cross-protective influenza vaccine. © 2014 The Author(s).


Soema P.C.,Intravacc Institute for Translational Vaccinology | Soema P.C.,Leiden University | Kompier R.,Intravacc Institute for Translational Vaccinology | Amorij J.-P.,Intravacc Institute for Translational Vaccinology | And 2 more authors.
European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics | Year: 2015

Abstract Vaccination is the most effective method to prevent influenza infection. However, current influenza vaccines have several limitations. Relatively long production times, limited vaccine capacity, moderate efficacy in certain populations and lack of cross-reactivity are important issues that need to be addressed. We give an overview of the current status and novel developments in the landscape of influenza vaccines from an interdisciplinary point of view. The feasibility of novel vaccine concepts not only depends on immunological or clinical outcomes, but also depends on biotechnological aspects, such as formulation and production methods, which are frequently overlooked. Furthermore, the next generation of influenza vaccines is addressed, which hopefully will bring cross-reactive influenza vaccines. These developments indicate that an exciting future lies ahead in the influenza vaccine field. © 2015 The Authors.


Kraan H.,Intravacc Institute for Translational Vaccinology | Vrieling H.,Leiden University | Czerkinsky C.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Jiskoot W.,Leiden University | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Controlled Release | Year: 2014

Because of their large surface area and immunological competence, mucosal tissues are attractive administration and target sites for vaccination. An important characteristic of mucosal vaccination is its ability to elicit local immune responses, which act against infection at the site of pathogen entry. However, mucosal surfaces are endowed with potent and sophisticated tolerance mechanisms to prevent the immune system from overreacting to the many environmental antigens. Hence, mucosal vaccination may suppress the immune system instead of induce a protective immune response. Therefore, mucosal adjuvants and/or special antigen delivery systems as well as appropriate dosage forms are required in order to develop potent mucosal vaccines. Whereas oral, nasal and pulmonary vaccine delivery strategies have been described extensively, the sublingual and buccal routes have received considerably less attention. In this review, the characteristics of and approaches for sublingual and buccal vaccine delivery are described and compared with other mucosal vaccine delivery sites. We discuss recent progress and highlight promising developments in the search for vaccine formulations, including adjuvants and suitable dosage forms, which are likely critical for designing a successful sublingual or buccal vaccine. Finally, we outline the challenges, hurdles to overcome and formulation issues relevant for sublingual or buccal vaccine delivery. © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V.


Kraan H.,Intravacc Institute for Translational Vaccinology | van der Stel W.,Leiden University | Kersten G.,Leiden University | Amorij J.-P.,Intravacc Institute for Translational Vaccinology
Expert Review of Vaccines | Year: 2016

Global polio eradication is closer than ever. Replacement of the live attenuated oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) by inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) is recommended to achieve complete eradication. Limited global production capacity and relatively high IPV costs compared to OPV spur the need for improved polio vaccines. The target product profile of these vaccines includes not only dose sparing but also high stability, which is important for stockpiling, and easy application important for (emergency) vaccination campaigns. In this review, the current status of alternative polio vaccine delivery strategies is given. Furthermore, we discuss the feasibility of these strategies by highlighting challenges, hurdles to overcome, and formulation issues relevant for optimal vaccine delivery. © 2016 Taylor & Francis


Kraan H.,Intravacc Institute for Translational Vaccinology | ten Have R.,Intravacc Institute for Translational Vaccinology | van der Maas L.,Intravacc Institute for Translational Vaccinology | Kersten G.,Leiden University | Amorij J.-P.,Virtuvax BV
Vaccine | Year: 2016

A hexavalent vaccine containing diphtheria toxoid, tetanus toxoid, whole cell pertussis, . Haemophilius influenza type B, hepatitis B and inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) may: (i) increase the efficiency of vaccination campaigns, (ii) reduce the number of injections thereby reducing needlestick injuries, and (iii) ensure better protection against pertussis as compared to vaccines containing acellular pertussis antigens. An approach to obtain a hexavalent vaccine might be reconstituting lyophilized polio vaccine (IPV-LYO) with liquid pentavalent vaccine just before intramuscular delivery. The potential limitations of this approach were investigated including thermostability of IPV as measured by D-antigen ELISA and rat potency, the compatibility of fluid and lyophilized IPV in combination with thimerosal and thimerosal containing hexavalent vaccine.The rat potency of polio type 3 in IPV-LYO was 2 to 3-fold lower than standardized on the D-antigen content, suggesting an alteration of the polio type 3 D-antigen particle by lyophilization. Type 1 and 2 had unaffected antigenicity/immunogenicity ratios. Alteration of type 3 D-antigen could be detected by showing reduced thermostability at 45. °C compared to type 3 in non-lyophilized liquid controls.Reconstituting IPV-LYO in the presence of thimerosal (TM) resulted in a fast temperature dependent loss of polio type 1-3 D-antigen. The presence of 0.005% TM reduced the D-antigen content by ∼20% (polio type 2/3) and ∼60% (polio type 1) in 6. h at 25. °C, which are WHO open vial policy conditions. At 37. °C, D-antigen was diminished even faster, suggesting that very fast, i.e., immediately after preparation, intramuscular delivery of the conceived hexavalent vaccine would not be a feasible option. Use of the TM-scavenger, . l-cysteine, to bind TM (or mercury containing TM degradation products), resulted in a hexavalent vaccine mixture in which polio D-antigen was more stable. © 2016 The Authors.


PubMed | Leiden University and Intravacc Institute for Translational Vaccinology
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Expert review of vaccines | Year: 2016

Global polio eradication is closer than ever. Replacement of the live attenuated oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) by inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) is recommended to achieve complete eradication. Limited global production capacity and relatively high IPV costs compared to OPV spur the need for improved polio vaccines. The target product profile of these vaccines includes not only dose sparing but also high stability, which is important for stockpiling, and easy application important for (emergency) vaccination campaigns. In this review, the current status of alternative polio vaccine delivery strategies is given. Furthermore, we discuss the feasibility of these strategies by highlighting challenges, hurdles to overcome, and formulation issues relevant for optimal vaccine delivery.


PubMed | Intravacc Institute for Translational Vaccinology
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Pharmaceutical research | Year: 2015

Influenza CD8(+) T-cell epitopes are conserved amongst influenza strains and can be recognized by influenza-specific cytotoxic T-cells (CTLs), which can rapidly clear infected cells. An influenza peptide vaccine that elicits these CTLs would therefore be an alternative to current influenza vaccines, which are not cross-reactive. However, peptide antigens are poorly immunogenic due to lack of delivery to antigen presenting cells, and therefore need additional formulation with a suitable delivery system. In this study, the potential of virosomes as a delivery system for an influenza T-cell peptide was investigated.The conserved human HLA-A2.1 influenza T-cell epitope M158-66 was formulated with virosomes. The immunogenicity and protective effect of the peptide-loaded virosomes was assessed in HLA-A2 transgenic mice. Delivery properties of the virosomes were studied in mice and in in vitro dendritic cell cultures.Immunization of HLA-A2.1 transgenicC57BL/6 mice with peptide-loaded virosomes in the presence of the adjuvant CpG-ODN 1826 increased the number ofpeptide-specific CTLs. Vaccination with adjuvanted peptide-loaded virosomes reduced weight loss in mice after heterologous influenza infection. Association with fusion-active virosomes was found to be crucial for antigen uptake by dendritic cells, and subsequent induction of CTLs in mice.These results show that influenza virosomes loaded with conserved influenza epitopes could be the basis of a novel cross-protective influenza vaccine.

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