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Auburn, AL, United States

Yang H.,Auburn University | Yang H.,IntraMicron, Inc. | Tatarchuk B.,Auburn University
AIChE Journal | Year: 2010

Eight metal oxide sorbents including transition metal doped ZnO/SiO 2 sorbents and ZnO/SiO 2 were prepared by incipient wetness impregnation for regenerable desulfurization applications at low temperatures (i.e. room temperature). Among them, copper-doped sorbent (Cu-ZnO/SiO 2) demonstrated the highest saturation sulfur capacity of 0.213 g sulfur/g ZnO (54% of the theoretical capacity), which is twice that of ZnO/SiO 2 sorbent. Compared with ZnO/SiO 2, Cu-ZnO/SiO 2 demonstrated superior desulfurization performance in a wide temperature range of 20-400°C. Due to the use of porous SiO 2 support, Cu-ZnO/SiO 2 is highly regenerable. It can be easily regenerated in air at low temperatures, ca. 300-550°C, which are much lower than the typical regeneration temperatures of commercial ZnO sorbents. Cu-ZnO/SiO 2 maintained its sulfur capacity during 10 cycles of regeneration/sulfidation. © 2010 American Institute of Chemical Engineers (AIChE). Source

Sheng M.,Auburn University | Yang H.,IntraMicron, Inc. | Cahela D.R.,Auburn University | Tatarchuk B.J.,Auburn University
Journal of Catalysis | Year: 2011

Highly exothermic and highly endothermic reactions require catalyst beds with good heat transfer characteristics. A novel catalyst structure, microfibrous entrapped catalyst (MFEC) structure, made of high thermal conductive metals can significantly improve heat transfer efficiency, compared with traditional packed beds (PB). First, the thermal parameters of metal MFEC were determined experimentally. In a stagnant gas, the radial effective thermal conductivity of Cu MFEC was 56-fold of that of alumina PB, while the inside wall heat transfer coefficient was 10 times of that of alumina PB. Compared to PB, even those made of pure copper particles, conductive metal MFEC also provides much more effective thermal conductivity and higher inside wall heat transfer coefficient in a flowing gas testing. In addition, an application of Cu MFEC in Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FTS) demonstrated an improvement in temperature distribution inside the catalyst bed and an increase in product selectivity. Furthermore, unlike monolith catalyst structures and metallic foams, the MFEC structure is compatible with pre-manufactured catalyst particles, very flexible and ease to be corrugated. Contrast to corrugated packing with a poor conductive contribution to heat transport, MFEC with a good self-dependent thermal conductivity does not require the recycle of gas or liquid to increase the convective term of heat transfer. Therefore, the conductive metal MFEC structures serve as a great catalyst structure to enhance the intra-bed heat transfer for highly exothermic or highly endothermic reactions, reducing temperature excursions in the reactors. © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Source

Thermal management systems for high energy density batteries, particularly arrays of such batteries, and methods of making and using thereof are described herein. The system includes one or more thermal conductive microfibrous media with one or more phase change materials dispersed within the microfibrous media and one or more active cooling structures. Energy storage packs or arrays which contain a plurality of energy storage cells and the thermal management system are also described. Further described are thermal or infrared shielding blankets or barriers comprising one or more thermal conductive microfibrous media comprising one or more phase change materials dispersed within the microfibrous media.

Agency: NSF | Branch: Standard Grant | Program: | Phase: SMALL BUSINESS PHASE II | Award Amount: 898.76K | Year: 2013

This Small Business Innovation Research Phase II project proposes a fundamentally new means for biogas/landfill gas desulfurization that produces negligible waste, allows for sulfur recovery/recycling, and provides annualized operating costs that are fraction of current practice. The proposed process consists of two synergistic components: a novel oxidative sulfur removal (OSR) catalytic reactor that produces elemental sulfur and a polishing adsorbent bed equipped with a unique in-situ bed-life sensor (BLS) that permits optimal adsorbent bed operation and cycling. The OSR catalyst has high contaminant tolerance, high selectivity to elemental sulfur, high activity, and low cost. After the OSR reaction and sulfur condensation, the outlet hydrogen sulfide concentration can be reduced to below 5 ppm at a conversion above 90%. If a polishing adsorbent bed is needed to achieve lower sulfur levels, it will be outfitted with an in-situ BLS that provides real-time adsorbent capacity monitoring to maximize adsorbent utilization. This approach is particularly effective for biogas/landfill gas streams with severe sulfur concentration variations; it reduces annualized operating costs by 50% to 65%, while reducing both solid waste generation (adsorbent consumption) and footprint by a factor of 10 - 30.

The Broader impact/commercial potential of this project, if successful, will drastically change the landscape of biogas/landfill gas utilization by improving desulfurization economics and reducing desulfurization solid waste generation. The low-cost, environmentally benign nature of this process will not only improve the desulfurization efficiency of typical biogas sources, but it will facilitate the development of small-scale and/or high-sulfur-content biogas/landfill gas sources for renewable fuel and energy applications. Moreover, the proposed approach can eliminate large sulfur adsorbent beds for almost all current biogas/landfill gas applications with high outlet sulfur thresholds (i.e. direct heating, power generation and combined heat and power), and shrink the size of desulfurization units for advanced applications with low outlet sulfur thresholds (i.e. fuel cells and GTL). Its small footprint and scalability make this technology favorable for mobile, small-scale applications. Besides biogas/landfill gas, other gas streams including natural gas, associated gas, petroleum gas, and syngas from a variety of sources can be desulfurized using this process. BTL, CTL, GTL, and renewable electric power generation will benefit from the success of this innovation. The proposed innovation directly addresses the energy independence and security of our nation (EISA 2007).

Agency: Department of Defense | Branch: Navy | Program: SBIR | Phase: Phase II | Award Amount: 999.97K | Year: 2014

Building on success in Phase I, this proposal focuses on the theoretical analysis, system level optimization, manufacturability, TRL progression and prototypic demonstration of IntraMicron's Enhanced Battery Pack (IEBP). IEBP facilitates rapid cooling of

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