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Patruno R.,Animal Health Unit | Marech I.,Interventional Radiology Unit with Integrated Section of Translational Medical Oncology | Zizzo N.,University of Bari | Ammendola M.,University of Catanzaro | And 8 more authors.
BioMed Research International | Year: 2014

Canine cutaneous mast cell tumour (CMCT) is a c-Kit driven tumour sharing similar c-Kit aberrations found in human gastrointestinal stromal tumour. CMCT is classified into three forms: well- (G1), intermediately (G2) (more benign diseases), and poorly (G3) differentiated (malignant) forms. We assess a correlation between c-Kit status, grading, and angiogenesis in CMCTs to explore their potential significance in humans. C-Kit receptor (c-KitR) expression, microvascular density (MVD), and mast cell granulated and degranulated status density (MCGD and MCDD, resp.) were analyzed in 97 CMCTs, by means of histochemistry, immunohistochemistry double staining, and image analysis system. Data showed that predominantly diffuse cytoplasmic- and predominantly focal paranuclear- (Golgi-like) c-Kit protein (PDC-c-Kit and PFP-c-Kit, resp.) expression correlate with high MVD, G3 histopathological grade, and MCDD. Moreover, predominant cell membrane-c-KitR (PCM-c-KitR) expression status correlates with low MVD, G1-G2 histopathological grade, and MCGD. These findings underline the key role of c-Kit in the biopathology of canine MCTs, indicating a link between aberrant c-Kit expression, increased angiogenesis, and higher histopathological grade. CMCT seems to be a model to study contributions of c-Kit activated MCs in tumour angiogenesis and to evaluate the inhibition of MCs activation by means of c-Kit tyrosine kinase inhibitors, currently translated in humans. © 2014 Rosa Patruno et al. Source

Ammendola M.,University of Catanzaro | Sacco R.,University of Catanzaro | Donato G.,University of Catanzaro | Zuccala V.,University of Catanzaro | And 7 more authors.
Oncology (Switzerland) | Year: 2013

Background: Angiogenesis has been found to be a reliable prognostic indicator for several types of malignancies. Tryptase is a serine protease stored in mast cell (MC) granules, which plays a role in tumor angiogenesis. MCs can release tryptase following c-Kit receptor activation. Method: In this study, immunohistochemistry, image analysis methods and clinical aspects were employed in a series of 41 gastrointestinal cancer patients with stage T 3-4N2a-bM0 (by the American Joint Committee on Cancer, AJCC, for colorectal cancer, 7th edition) and T3N 2-3M0 (by AJCC for gastric cancer, 7th edition) to evaluate the possible correlation between MCs positive to tryptase (MCPT) in tumor tissue and the number of metastatic lymph nodes harvested. Results: Data demonstrated a positive correlation between MCPT in tumor tissue and the number of metastatic lymph nodes; the validity of these data needs confirmation in larger patient cohorts. Conclusion: This is the first report considering MCPT in tumor tissue as a potential tool for a valid indication of the type of surgical treatment and its radicality, and it might be considered for the prognosis of patients before radical surgical treatment. Our pilot data need confirmation in a larger patient cohort. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel. Source

Ammendola M.,University of Catanzaro | Leporini C.,University of Catanzaro | Luposella M.,University of Catanzaro | Sacco R.,University of Catanzaro | And 5 more authors.
Current Stem Cell Research and Therapy | Year: 2015

Tumoral angiogenesis is mainly an endothelial cell-mediated process, which has been largely demonstrated to take on a crucial role in tumor growth, invasion, and metastasis. Thus, tumor-associated neovasculature represents a pivotal target in cancer therapy. Several mechanisms take part in the genesis of this pathological vasculature, most notably neoangiogenesis and postnatal vasculogenesis. These processes may also play a critical role in the resistance to antiangiogenic agents, leading to tumor progression. In particular, vasculogenesis is mediated by endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs), which include cellular subpopulations with different functional capacities. EPCs are able to proliferate, migrate, and differentiate into mature endothelial cells (ECs) in response to tumor growth, promoting the “angiogenic switch” and, consequently, inducing the invasion and metastases of cancer cells. Therefore, vasculogenesis mediated by EPCs represents an intriguing therapeutic target, both in early and late stages of cancer progression, thereby working as potential landmark for synthesizing novel and more effective anti-angiogenic drugs. Here, we aim to focus and to summarize several biological features of EPCs and EPC-based therapeutic approach with potential translation in human clinical trials. © 2015 Bentham Science Publishers. Source

Marech I.,Interventional Radiology Unit with Integrated Section of Translational Medical Oncology | Patruno R.,ASL BAT | Zizzo N.,University of Bari | Gadaleta C.,University of Bari | And 4 more authors.
Critical Reviews in Oncology/Hematology | Year: 2014

Masitinib mesylate (AB1010) is a novel potent and selective tyrosine kinase inhibitor, targeting mainly wild-type and mutated c-Kit receptor (c-KitR), Platelet Derived Growth Factor Receptor-alfa/beta (PDGFRa/ß), Lymphocyte-specific kinase (Lck), Lck/Yes-related protein (LYn), Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor 3 (FGFR3) and Focal Adhesion Kinase (FAK). It is the first anticancer therapy approved in veterinary medicine for the treatment of unresectable canine mast cell tumors (CMCTs), harboring activating c-KitR mutations, at dose of 12.5. mg/kg once daily. Considering its anti-proliferative action, principally given by inhibiting the MCs c-KitR anti-angiogenic pathway that leads cancer progression, and its role as chemosensitizer, masitinib is under clinical investigation in several human malignancies (Gastro-Intestinal Stromal Tumors, acute myeloid leukemia, systemic mastocytosis, pancreatic cancer, multiple myeloma, non-small cell lung cancer, melanoma, ovarian and prostate cancer), which are characterized by similar canine c-KIT proto-oncogene mutations. Here, we analyze masitinib structure activity, its pharmacokinetics compared to imatinib, the c-KitR pathway referring to the most frequent c-KIT mutations sensitive or resistant to this novel drug compared to imatinib, and masitinib safety profile. We, also, explore preclinical and clinical (completed and ongoing) trials with the aim to emphasize as this recent anti-angiogenic therapy, at first approved in CMCTs and, currently in development for the treatment of several human neoplasms, could be represent a milestone in translational oncology, in which the murine experimental model of cancer research could be integrated by canine spontaneous tumor model. © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. Source

Ranieri G.,Interventional Radiology Unit with Integrated Section of Translational Medical Oncology | Gadaleta-Caldarola G.,Interventional Radiology Unit with Integrated Section of Translational Medical Oncology | Goffredo V.,Interventional Radiology Unit with Integrated Section of Translational Medical Oncology | Patruno R.,University of Bari | And 4 more authors.
Current Medicinal Chemistry | Year: 2012

Angiogenesis and signaling through the RAS/RAF/mitogen-activated protein/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) kinase (MEK)/ERK cascade have been reported to play important roles in the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Sorafenib (Nexavar), a novel bi-aryl urea BAY 43-9006, is an orally administered multikinase inhibitor with activity against RAS/RAF kinases multikinase inhibitor with activity against RAFkinases and several receptor tyrosine kinases, including vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR), platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR), FLT3, Ret, and c-Kit. It is involved in angiogenic pathway and cell proliferation. Sorafenib has demonstrated potent anti-tumor activity in in vitro studies, preclinical xenograft models of different tumor types and human clinical trials. This review summarizes the history of sorafenib from its discovery by the medicinal chemistry approach through to clinical development and ongoing trials on the combination between sorafenib and trans-arterial chemoembolization (TACE) in HCC patients. © 2012 Bentham Science Publishers. Source

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