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Ryu J.H.,Rochester College | Tomassetti S.,Interventional Pulmonology Unit | Maldonado F.,Rochester College

Although infections, malignancies and heart failure are responsible for the majority of pleural effusions, there are many other causes and several uncommon but distinctive types of pleural fluid. For this update we have chosen several uncommon forms of pleural effusions or disorders in which there have been recent advances in our understanding over the past several years. Chylothorax, pseudochylothorax and urinothorax are associated with characteristic clinical contexts and pleural fluid parameters but are likely underdiagnosed. Yellow nail syndrome is a rare disorder that can be associated with chylothorax and manifests multisystem features. Recognition of these entities is important because each of these disorders is associated with distinctive aetiology and management modalities. Correct diagnosis depends on the clinician's awareness of the clinical contexts and manifestations along with diagnostic pleural fluid findings in these disorders. © 2011 Asian Pacific Society of Respirology. Source

Trisolini R.,Interventional Pulmonology Unit | Trisolini R.,Thoracic Endoscopy and Pulmonology Unit | Cancellieri A.,Thoracic Endoscopy and Pulmonology Unit | Tinelli C.,Clinical Epidemiology and Biometry Service | And 8 more authors.

BACKGROUND: Experts and scientifi c society guidelines recommend that rapid on-site evaluation (ROSE) be used with endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA) to optimize lung cancer genotyping, but no comparative trial has been carried out to confi rm and quantify its usefulness. METHODS: To assess the influence of ROSE on the yield of EBUS-TBNA for a multigene molecular analysis of lung cancer samples, consecutive patients with suspected or known advanced lung cancer were randomized to undergo EBUS-TBNA without ROSE (EBUS arm) or with ROSE (ROSE arm). Th e primary end point was the rate of the successful accomplishment of the institution's clinical protocol for molecular profi ling of nonsquamous non-small cell lung cancer (EGFR and KRAS testing, followed by ALK testing for tumors with EGFR and KRAS wild-type status). RESULTS: Complete genotyping was achieved in 108 of 126 patients (85.7%) (90.8% in the ROSE arm vs 80.3% in the EBUS arm, P <.09). Th e patients in the ROSE arm were less likely to have samples that could be used only for pathologic diagnosis because of minimal tumor burden (0 vs 6, P <.05), and were more likely to have the bronchoscopy terminated aft er a single biopsy site (58.9% vs 44.1%, P <.01). CONCLUSIONS: ROSE prevents the need for a repeat invasive diagnostic procedure aimed at molecular profi ling in at least one out of 10 patients with advanced lung cancer and significantly reduces the risk of retrieving samples that can be used only for pathologic subtyping because of minimal tumor burden. © 2015 AMERICAN COLLEGE OF CHEST PHYSICIANS. Source

Gurioli C.,Interventional Pulmonology Unit
Monaldi archives for chest disease = Archivio Monaldi per le malattie del torace / Fondazione clinica del lavoro, IRCCS [and] Istituto di clinica tisiologica e malattie apparato respiratorio, Università di Napoli, Secondo ateneo

Dieulafoy's disease is a rare vascular malformation represented by an abnormally enlarged submucosal arterial vessel. This malformation is mostly found in gastrointestinal tract causing spontaneous bleeding although a few cases have been described in the bronchial tree. Recognizing Dieulafoy's malformation is crucial for the bronchoscopist in order to avoid biopsy that can lead to a massive hemoptysis, sometimes fatal. In this case report we show the clinical utility of endobronchial ultrasound (EBUS) in the evaluation of bronchial alteration suspicious for Dieulafoy's malformation. Source

Bugalho A.,New University of Lisbon | Bugalho A.,Interventional Pulmonology Unit | Martins C.,New University of Lisbon | Dias S.S.,New University of Lisbon | And 5 more authors.
Clinical Lung Cancer

Introduction Endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA) holds promise for accurate examination of mediastinal lymph nodes in NSCLC patients. However, it is not always possible to achieve a definitive diagnosis or subtype all cases. We aimed to evaluate the role of EBUS-TBNA combined with quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and flow cytometry (FCM) to assess tumor-associated antigens and immune responses to identify metastases and pathological patterns in lymph node aspirates. Patients and Methods EBUS-TBNA samples from patients with NSCLC (n = 33) and nonmalignant diseases (n = 17) were prospectively collected. Cytokeratin 19 (CK-19), carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EPCAM), sialyl-Lewisx, CD44, and the immune compartment were analyzed using qRT-PCR and FCM. Results In the NSCLC patients, the epithelial cell compartment was significantly increased (30.8% vs. 12% CD45 - CK-19+ cells) and showed brighter CK-19 staining than controls (P =.039) using FCM. Carcinoembryonic antigen was exclusively expressed by the NSCLC epithelial compartment (35% of the cases) and absent in controls. The NSCLC immune compartment showed an increased monocyte population (P =.04), and decreased lymphocyte subpopulations, anticipating a disruption in the distribution of myeloid and lymphoid immune cells. Quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction showed that CK-19, CEA, and EPCAM transcripts were significantly higher in NSCLC. A positive correlation between the primary tumor lesion size and EPCAM (ρ = 0.476; P =.005), CK-19 (ρ = 0.594; P =.001), and CEA (ρ = 0.394; P =.023) was also found. Conclusion The identification of CK-19, CEA, and EPCAM in EBUS-TBNA samples using FCM and qRT-PCR is feasible and might further aid in the detection of NSCLC lymph node metastasis. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Source

Marchese R.,Interventional Pulmonology Unit | Poidomani G.,Interventional Pulmonology Unit | Paglino G.,Interventional Pulmonology Unit | Crimi C.,Intensive Respiratory Care Unit | And 2 more authors.

Background: The third-generation fully covered self-expandable metallic stent (SEMS) has been developed to solve the problems of difficult removal and in-stent granuloma formation related to the uncovered or partially covered type. There are few written reports about the performance of this type of stents with early encouraging results. Objectives: To report and analyse our experience with the Silmet® stent in the management of malignant and benign tracheobronchial disorders. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed medical records of patients who underwent fully covered SEMS Silmet placement at the Interventional Pulmonology Unit, La Maddalena Cancer Center, Palermo, Italy, between May 2010 and August 2013. Results: Stents were placed in 52 patients with malignant (n = 49) and benign airway obstruction (n = 2) and broncho-oesophageal fistula (n = 1). SEMSs were inserted into the trachea (n = 19), the main bronchi (n = 21) and the peripheral bronchi (n = 31). Besides 1 procedural dislocation, the deployment was successful in all patients with an immediate significant improvement of symptoms (Barthel Index p < 0.001; Medical Research Council score p < 0.001). A radiographic improvement was detected in 48% of patients. The mean follow-up duration was 119 ± 120 days (range 22-549 days). Complications observed were: migration (7.6%), tumour overgrowth (15%), infections (5.7%), granulation tissue formation (3.8%) and mucus plug (3.8%). Conclusions: The Silmet stent is effective, safe and simple to implant and remove. We suggest its use in cases of tight stenoses, in the treatment of small- to medium-caliber airways or in cases of tortuous airways. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel. Source

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