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Bonamin L.V.,Paulista University | Bonamin L.V.,University of Santo Amaro | Endler P.C.,Interuniversity College for Health and Development Graz
Homeopathy | Year: 2010

Introduction: This is a systematic review of the animal models used in studies of high dilutions. The objectives are to analyze methodological quality of papers and reported results, and to highlight key conceptual aspects of high dilution to suggest clues concerning putative mechanisms of action. Methods: Papers for inclusion were identified systematically, from the Pubmed-Medline database, using 'Homeopathy' and 'Animal' as keywords. Only original full papers in English published between January 1999 and June 2009 were included, reviews, scientific reports, thesis, older papers, papers extracted from Medline using similar keywords, papers about mixed commercial formulas and books were also considered for discussion only. 31 papers describing 33 experiments were identified for the main analysis and a total of 89 items cited. Results: Systematic analysis of the selected papers yielded evidence of some important intrinsic features of high dilution studies performed in animal models: a) methodological quality was generally adequate, some aspects could be improved; b) convergence between results and materia medica is seen in some studies, pointing toward to the possibility of systematic study of the Similia principle c) both isopathic and Similia models seem useful to understand some complex biological phenomena, such as parasite-host interactions; d) the effects of high dilutions seem to stimulate restoration of a 'stable state', as seen in several experimental models from both descriptive and mathematical points of view. © 2009 The Faculty of Homeopathy. Source


Hochstrasser R.J.,Interuniversity College for Health and Development Graz | Endler P.C.,Interuniversity College for Health and Development Graz | Klein S.D.,University of Bern | Klein S.D.,Research Working Group
Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine | Year: 2013

OBJECTIVE: Acupuncture is a complex intervention consisting of specific and non-specific components. Acupuncture studies more frequently focus on collecting data from the patients' perspective and response, but the acupuncturist's role remains relatively unclear. In order to investigate potential non-mechanical active factors originating from the acupuncturist and transmitted to the patient during treatment, two novel devices for basic research in acupuncture were designed. The Acuplicator allows the researcher to insert needles without touching the needles themselves, while the Veliusator locks the needle in its place so that no mechanical movement can be transferred. METHODS: The Acuplicator was used to insert needles at Neiguan (PC6) on the right forearm of 23 volunteers. The insertion depth was measured using a depth gauge. The transfer of mechanical movements from the handle to the tip was detected with a precision length gauge with a motoric-tactile sensor. RESULTS: The mean insertion depth was (12.3 ± 1.5) mm (range 9.5 to 15.0 mm). Even with intense manipulation of the needle handle, no movements within ± 1 μm could be detected at the tip when the needle was locked. CONCLUSION: With these two devices it will be possible to investigate the influence of nonmechanical components such as therapeutic qi in acupuncture. © 2013 Raphael J. Hochstrasser et al. Source


Hochstrasser R.J.,Interuniversity College for Health and Development Graz | Hochstrasser R.J.,Center for Chinese Medicine | Christian Endler P.,Interuniversity College for Health and Development Graz | Klein S.D.,University of Bern | Klein S.D.,Research Working Group
JAMS Journal of Acupuncture and Meridian Studies | Year: 2015

So far, most research attempts to explain the mechanism of the action of acupuncture have focused mostly on mechanically-triggered active factors and have produced inconclusive findings. In this study, we investigate whether acupuncture might also involve nonmechanical, nonpsychological active factors originating in the therapist. In 30 individuals, an acupuncture needle was inserted in the acupoint PC6 using a special device without touching the needle. A second device was used to fix the needle rigidly in place, excluding any mechanical transmission of movement from the handle to the needle's tip. Each participant was exposed in random order to a control and a stimulation phase. During the stimulation phase, the free needle's end was held by the therapist to allow the transmission of Qi; during the control phase, it was left untouched. Participants' subjective sensations during the stimulation phase and the control phase were recorded using a questionnaire. Twenty-two of 28 (79%; p = 0.003) test participants believed that they had received stimulation when it had actually been performed, and 26 (93%; p < 0.001) sensed differences between the two experimental phases. Thus, participants were able to sense the transmission of therapeutic Qi in the absence of mechanical or psychological factors. © 2015. Source


Kiefer P.,Interuniversity College for Health and Development Graz | Lingg G.,Interuniversity College for Health and Development Graz | Endler P.C.,Interuniversity College for Health and Development Graz
International Journal of High Dilution Research | Year: 2012

Our previous paper described methodological problems and a generally acceptable pooling method for metamorphosis experiments and application of that method to the results of multicentre experiments performed over the course of two decades (1990 - 2010) on highland amphibians (Rana temporaria) treated with a homeopathically prepared high dilution of thyroxine ("30x"). Differences between treatment groups thus calculated were in line with those obtained with other pooling methods: Thyroxine 30x does slow down metamorphosis in highland amphibians. This follow up paper provides a broader background on metamorphosis physiology and describes application of the pooling method to experiments with Rana temporaria from lowland biotopes both with a moderate dilution of thyroxine ("8x") and with 30x. Analogously prepared water was used for control (water 8x or 30x). Development was, again as above, monitored by documenting the number of animals that had entered the 4-legged stage. Experiments were carried out between 1990 and 2000 by different researchers independently and in blind. As it is well known, metamorphosis can be speeded up by thyroxine 10-8 mol/l; interestingly, thyroxine 8x may produce a reverse, i.e. inhibiting effect (p < 0.01). In contrast to the inhibiting effect of thyroxine 30x on highland larvae (see above), 2-legged lowland larvae did not react to thyroxine 30x (p > 0.05). However, an inhibiting effect on lowland larvae was found when animals were treated from the spawn stage on (p < 0.01). Source


Hribar-Marko S.,Interuniversity College for Health and Development Graz | Graunke H.,Interuniversity College for Health and Development Graz | Scherer-Pongratz W.,Interuniversity College for Health and Development Graz | Lothaller H.,Interuniversity College for Health and Development Graz | Endler P.C.,Interuniversity College for Health and Development Graz
International Journal of High Dilution Research | Year: 2013

In previous multicentre studies, the influence of a homeopathic ultra-high dilution of gibberellic acid on wheat growth was scrutinized. Data showed that this test dilution slowed down stalk growth when experiments were performed in the autumn season. The aim of this work was to test the hypothesis that pretreatment of grains with high concentrations of gibberellic acid would enhance the growth-inhibiting effect of the ultra-high dilution of the plant hormone. Grains of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum, 500 or 1000 per group) were pretreated with (non-agitated) gibberellic acid 10-5, 10-4 and 10-3 parts by weight (Ge-5, Ge-4, Ge-3) or with water ("W0") for control prior to further treatment. Grains were then observed under the influence of extremely diluted gibberellic acid (10-30 parts by weigth) prepared by stepwise dilution and agitation according to a protocol derived from homeopathy ("G30x"). Analogously prepared water was used for control ("W30x"). Seedlings were allowed to develop under standardized conditions for 7 days; plants were harvested and stalk lengths were measured. Of the four pretreatment variants under study, Ge-3 yielded most growth, followed by Ge-4 , Ge-5 and finally W. This outcome was modulated by the application of G30x in that the inhibition obtained with G30x as compared to W30x was the greater the lower the pretreatment concentration of G had been. The hypothesis that pretreatment of grains with high concentrations of gibberellic acid would enhance the growth inhibiting effect of G30x had to be rejected. Rather, G30x slowed down stalk growth most in the W0 group with p < 0.001, only moderately in the Ge-5 and Ge-4 group and not at all in the Ge-3 group. Source

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