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Boogers M.J.,Leiden University | Boogers M.J.,The Interuniversity Cardiology Institute of the Netherlands | Veltman C.E.,Leiden University | Veltman C.E.,The Interuniversity Cardiology Institute of the Netherlands | Bax J.J.,Leiden University
Current Cardiology Reviews | Year: 2011

The autonomic nervous system interacts in the pathophysiology of heart failure. Dysfunction of the sympathetic nervous system has been identified as an important prognostic marker in patients with chronic heart failure. At present, cardiac sympathetic nerve imaging with 123-iodine metaiodobenzylguanidine [123-I MIBG] has been employed most frequently for the assessment of cardiac sympathetic innervation and activation pattern. The majority of studies have shown that cardiac sympathetic dysfunction as assessed with 123-I MIBG imaging is a powerful predictor for heart failure mortality and morbidity. Additionally, 123-I MIBG imaging can be used for prediction of potentially lethal ventricular tachyarrhythmias in heart failure patients. At present however, the lack of standardization of 123-I MIBG imaging procedures represents an evident issue. Standardized criteria on the use of 123-I MIBG imaging will further strengthen the clinical use of 123-I MIBG imaging in heart failure patients. © 2011 Bentham Science Publishers Ltd. Source


van der Giessen A.G.,Erasmus University Rotterdam | van der Giessen A.G.,TU Eindhoven | Groen H.C.,Erasmus University Rotterdam | Doriot P.-A.,University of Geneva | And 6 more authors.
Journal of Biomechanics | Year: 2011

Patient specific geometrical data on human coronary arteries can be reliably obtained multislice computer tomography (MSCT) imaging. MSCT cannot provide hemodynamic variables, and the outflow through the side branches must be estimated. The impact of two different models to determine flow through the side branches on the wall shear stress (WSS) distribution in patient specific geometries is evaluated. Murray's law predicts that the flow ratio through the side branches scales with the ratio of the diameter of the side branches to the third power. The empirical model is based on flow measurements performed by Doriot et al. (2000) in angiographically normal coronary arteries. The fit based on these measurements showed that the flow ratio through the side branches can best be described with a power of 2.27. The experimental data imply that Murray's law underestimates the flow through the side branches. We applied the two models to study the WSS distribution in 6 coronary artery trees. Under steady flow conditions, the average WSS between the side branches differed significantly for the two models: the average WSS was 8% higher for Murray's law and the relative difference ranged from -5% to +27%. These differences scale with the difference in flow rate. Near the bifurcations, the differences in WSS were more pronounced: the size of the low WSS regions was significantly larger when applying the empirical model (13%), ranging from -12% to +68%. Predicting outflow based on Murray's law underestimates the flow through the side branches. Especially near side branches, the regions where atherosclerotic plaques preferentially develop, the differences are significant and application of Murray's law underestimates the size of the low WSS region. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Boogers M.J.,Leiden University | Boogers M.J.,The Interuniversity Cardiology Institute of the Netherlands | Borleffs C.J.W.,Leiden University | Henneman M.M.,Leiden University | And 8 more authors.
Journal of the American College of Cardiology | Year: 2010

Objectives: The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether 123-iodine metaiodobenzylguanidine (123-I MIBG) imaging predicts ventricular arrhythmias causing appropriate implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) therapy (primary end point) and the composite of appropriate ICD therapy or cardiac death (secondary end point). Background: Although cardiac sympathetic denervation is associated with ventricular arrhythmias, limited data are available on the predictive value of sympathetic nerve imaging with 123-I MIBG on the occurrence of arrhythmias. Methods: Before ICD implantation, patients underwent 123-I MIBG and myocardial perfusion imaging. Early and late 123-I MIBG (planar and single-photon emission computed tomography [SPECT]) imaging was performed to assess cardiac innervation (heart-to-mediastinum ratio, cardiac washout rate, and 123-I MIBG SPECT defect score). Stress-rest myocardial perfusion imaging was performed to assess myocardial infarction and perfusion abnormalities (perfusion defect scores). During follow-up, appropriate ICD therapy and cardiac death were documented. Results: One-hundred sixteen heart failure patients referred for ICD therapy were enrolled. During a mean follow-up of 23 ± 15 months, appropriate ICD therapy (primary end point) was documented in 24 (21%) patients and appropriate ICD therapy or cardiac death (secondary end point) in 32 (28%) patients. Late 123-I MIBG SPECT defect score was an independent predictor for both end points. Patients with a large late 123-I MIBG SPECT defect (summed score >26) showed significantly more appropriate ICD therapy (52% vs. 5%, p < 0.01) and appropriate ICD therapy or cardiac death (57% vs. 10%, p < 0.01) than patients with a small defect (summed score ≤26) at 3-year follow-up. Conclusions: Cardiac sympathetic denervation predicts ventricular arrhythmias causing appropriate ICD therapy as well as the composite of appropriate ICD therapy or cardiac death. © 2010 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Source


van Rosendael A.R.,Leiden University | van Rosendael A.R.,The Interuniversity Cardiology Institute of the Netherlands | Kroft L.J.,Leiden University | Broersen A.,Leiden University | And 6 more authors.
Journal of Nuclear Cardiology | Year: 2016

Background: Coronary-computed tomography angiography (CTA) has limited accuracy to predict myocardial ischemia. Besides luminal area stenosis, other coronary plaque morphology and composition parameters may help to assess ischemia. With the integration of coronary CTA and adenosine stress CT myocardial perfusion (CTP), reliable information regarding coronary anatomy and function can be derived in one procedure. This analysis aimed to investigate the association between coronary stenosis severity, plaque composition and morphology and the presence of ischemia measured with adenosine stress myocardial CTP. Methods and Results: 84 patients (age, 62 ± 10 years; 48% men) who underwent sequential coronary CTA and adenosine stress myocardial CT perfusion were analyzed. Automated quantification was performed in all coronary lesions (quantitative CTA). Downstream myocardial ischemia was assessed by visual analysis of the rest and stress CTP images and defined as a summed difference score of ≥1. One or more coronary plaques were present in 146 coronary arteries of which 31 (21%) were ischemia-related. Of the lesions with a stenosis percentage <50%, 50%-70%, and >70%, respectively, 9% (6/67), 18% (9/51), and 57% (16/28) demonstrated downstream ischemia. Furthermore, mean plaque burden, plaque volume, lesion length, maximal plaque thickness, and dense calcium volume were significantly higher in ischemia-related lesions, but only stenosis severity (%) (OR 1.06; 95% CI 1.02-1.10; P = .006) and lesion length (mm) (OR 1.26; 95% CI 1.02-1.55; P = .029) were independent correlates. Conclusions: Increasing stenosis percentage by quantitative CTA is positively correlated to myocardial ischemia measured with adenosine stress myocardial CTP. However, stenosis percentage remains a moderate determinant. Lumen area stenosis and lesion length were independently associated with ischemia, adjusted for coronary plaque volume, mean plaque burden, maximal lesion thickness, and dense calcium volume. © 2016 The Author(s) Source


Kroner E.S.J.,Leiden University | Kroner E.S.J.,The Interuniversity Cardiology Institute of the Netherlands | Westenberg J.J.M.,Leiden University | Kroft L.J.M.,Leiden University | And 3 more authors.
Netherlands Heart Journal | Year: 2015

Aims Thoracic aortic aneurysm (TAA) is potentially lifethreatening and requires close follow-up to prevent aortic dissection. Aortic stiffness and size are considered to be coupled. Regional aortic stiffness in patients with TAA is unknown. We aimed to evaluate coupling between regional pulse wave velocity (PWV), a marker of vascular stiffness, and aortic diameter in TAA patients. Methods In 40 TAA patients (59 ± 13 years, 28 male), regional aortic diameters and regional PWV were assessed by 1.5 T MRI. The incidence of increased diameter and PWV were determined for five aortic segments (S1, ascending aorta; S2, aortic arch; S3, thoracic descending aorta; S4, suprarenal and S5, infrarenal abdominal aorta). In addition, coupling between regional PWV testing and aortic dilatation was evaluated and specificity and sensitivity were assessed. Results Aortic diameter was 44 ± 5 mm for the aortic root and 39 ± 5 mm for the ascending aorta. PWV was increased in 36 (19%) aortic segments. Aortic diameter was increased in 28 (14%) segments. Specificity of regional PWV testing for the prediction of increased regional diameter was ≥ 84% in the descending thoracic to abdominal aorta and ≥ 68% in the ascending aorta and aortic arch. Conclusion Normal regional PWV is related to absence of increased diameter, with high specificity in the descending thoracic to abdominal aorta and moderate results in the ascending aorta and aortic arch. © The Author(s) 2015. Source

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