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Zackova D.,Interni hematologicka a onkologicka klinika
Onkologie (Czech Republic) | Year: 2015

Natural course and particularly prognosis of the patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) improved fundamentally during last fourteen years thanks to tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) targeted therapy introduction. Currently, three TKI (imatinib, nilotinib, and dasatinib) are available for the first line treatment, and two other efficient drugs (bosutinib and ponatinib) can be used in the case of failure or intolerance of previously administered TKI. Regular and standardized treatment efficacy monitoring is crucial for appropriate and timely change of therapy when required responses are not met in given time points. Prognostic significance of early treatment switch in case of failure to achieve an early molecular response has not been established yet. Similarly, even if the data suggest possibility and feasibility of stopping TKI therapy in patients with durable deep molecular response, at present, stopping TKI should only be done in the context of clinical trials and cannot be routinely recommended into clinical practice. Allogeneic stem cells transplantation is still the only curative treatment option even in the TKI era, and should be used in the following situations: patients who fail at least 2 TKI, patients with presence of T315I mutation and patients who progress into advanced stages of the disease.

Cervinek L.,Interni hematologicka a onkologicka klinika
Onkologie (Czech Republic) | Year: 2015

Myelodysplastic syndrome is a clonal haemopoietic disorder that is manifested with a peak at the age of 65 to 72 years. The pathophysiology of the disease is associated with genetic changes in the stem cell's nucleus. In terms of diagnosis, it is essential to examine the bone marrow and provide cytogenetic and, optionally, molecular genetic testing, on the basis of which the disease is classified accurately and the patient's prognosis and optimal treatment are determined. The treatment strategy can be divided into two groups. The treatment recommended for patients with low risk consists of supportive, stimulation, or immunomodulatory therapy. The treatment of high-risk patients involves the administration of hypomethylating agents or chemotherapy with subsequent haemopoietic stem cell transplantation.

Smolej L.,Oddeleni Klinicke Hematologie | Prochazka V.,Hemato onkologicka klinika | Spacek M.,Oddeleni Klinicke Hematologie | Obrtlikova P.,I. Interni Klinika 1 | And 3 more authors.
Vnitrni Lekarstvi | Year: 2012

Alemtuzumab, the humanized monoclonal anti-CD52 antibody, is an effective agent in the treatment of fludarabine-refractory chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). Due to many specific issues associated with alemtuzumab treatment, the Working Committee of Czech CLL Study Group developed these guidelines. Summary of recommendations: (1) The main indication of alemtuzumab is fludarabine-refractory CLL (2) Further possible indications include first-line treatment (in patients who cannot be treated by fludarabine-containing regimens), therapy of patients with del 17p, treatment of refractory autoimmune cytopenias and management of patients with severe cytopenias due to bone marrow infiltration. (3) The treatment should last 12 weeks and should not be terminated prematurely if there are no signs of CLL progression; bone marrow aspirate/biopsy can be performed after 12 weeks of treatment. (4) Subcutaneous administration of alemtuzumab seems to be equally effective with advantageous reduction of infusion-related adverse events. (5) Patients treated with alemtuzumab must receive combined antimicrobial prophylaxis against Pneumocystis jiroveci and herpetic viruses. Cytomegalovirus viremia should be monitored using weekly PCR from peripheral blood. (6) Use of alemtuzumab in combinations and consolidation/maintenance protocols must be considered experimental and needs optimization within prospective clinical trials. (7) Alemtuzumab treatment should be conducted by an experienced hematologist within a center of intensive hematology care.

Hadrabova M.,Interni hematologicka a onkologicka klinika
Onkologie (Czech Republic) | Year: 2015

Chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) is a low-malignant lymphoproliferative disease affecting the elderly population. It is the most frequent leukaemia in the Western world where it accounts for nearly 30 % of all leukaemias. The pathogenesis of CLL is still precisely unknown, even though much progress has recently been made in this field. Novel prognostic factors are being studied that could determine risk groups of patients requiring early and intensive therapy initiation. Up to now, however, treatment has been indicated according to the stage of the disease. In recent years, CLL treatment has been evolving rapidly. Although chemoimmunotherapy, which is capable of inducing up to several years of complete disease remission, remains the gold standard of treatment, novel drugs have emerged that are effective both in first-line treatment and in patients with disease relapse or with refractory disease. These include novel monoclonal antibodies, BCR signalling inhibitors, or Bcl-2 inhibitors.

High-dose chemotherapy can be defined as utilization of cytotoxic drug doses that produce bone marrow ablation. Transfusion of autologous graft serves as rescue from otherwise fatal myelotoxicity. Immune reaction of graft versus tumor that lowers relaps rates of malignant disease becomes an important contribution of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. New reduced intensity conditioning regimens with lower initial cytotoxicity rely on this immune effect with the potencial of additional elimination of remaining cancer cells. Decreased toxicity of these regimens enables treatment of patients with comorbidity and/or in higher age.

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