International WaterCentre


International WaterCentre

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PubMed | Live & Learn Environmental Education, International WaterCentre, Monash University, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill and University of The South Pacific
Type: | Journal: Social science & medicine (1982) | Year: 2016

Diseases related to poor water, sanitation and hygiene (WaSH) are major causes of mortality and morbidity. While pursuing marketing approaches to WaSH to improve health outcomes is often narrowly associated with monetary exchange, marketing theory recognises four broad marketing exchange archetypes: market-based, non-market-based, command-based and culturally determined. This diversity reflects the need for parameters broader than monetary exchange when improving WaSH. This study applied a participatory action research process to investigate how impoverished communities in Melanesian urban and peri-urban informal settlements attempt to meet their WaSH needs through marketing exchange. Exchanges of all four archetypes were present, often in combination. Motivations for participating in the marketing exchanges were based on social relationships alongside WaSH needs, health aspirations and financial circumstances. By leveraging these motivations and pre-existing, self-determined marketing exchanges, WaSH practitioners may be able to foster WaSH marketing exchanges consistent with local context and capabilities, in turn improving community physical, mental and social health.

Spiller M.,Wageningen University | McIntosh B.S.,International WaterCentre | McIntosh B.S.,Griffith University | Seaton R.A.F.,Seaton Associates | Jeffrey P.,Cranfield University
Water Resources Management | Year: 2013

Improving the stimulation and management of innovation by water utilities is a key mechanism through which the challenges of securing sustainable water and wastewater services will be achieved. This paper describes the process of adopting source control interventions (SCIs) by water and sewerage companies (WaSCs) in England and Wales. SCIs can be defined as efforts by water suppliers to control agricultural pollution where it arises. To investigate differences in the extent to which SCIs have and are being adopted across all ten WaSCs in England and Wales, Rogers' five stage innovation model is used to structure and interpret results from a series of semi-structured interviews with raw water quality and catchment management personnel. Results suggest that to promote SCI innovation by WaSCs, regulation should be designed in two interdependent ways. First, regulation must generate awareness of a performance gap so as to set an agenda for change and initiate innovation. This can be achieved either through direct regulation or regulation which raises the awareness of an organisations performance gap, for example through additional monitoring. Simultaneously, regulation needs to create possibilities for implementation of innovation through enabling WaSCs to utilise SCIs where appropriate. Evidence from the research suggests that appropriate intermediary organisations can assist in this process by providing a resource of relevant and local knowledge and data. Future research should seek to characterise the factors affecting each stage in the WaSC innovation process both to confirm the conclusions of this study and to reveal more detail about various influences on innovation outcomes. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

Sieber S.,Leibniz Center for Agricultural Landscape Research | Amjath-Babu T.S.,Leibniz Center for Agricultural Landscape Research | McIntosh B.S.,International WaterCentre | Tscherning K.,German Society for International Cooperation | And 8 more authors.
Environmental Modelling and Software | Year: 2013

The aim of this paper is to provide a critical analysis of the strengths and weaknesses of a non-standardised Model Requirements Analysis (MRA) used for the purpose of developing the Sustainability Impact Assessment Tool (SIAT). By 'non-standardised' we mean not strictly following a published MRA method. The underlying question we are interested in addressing is how non-standardised methods, often employed in research driven projects, compare to defined methods with more standardised structure, with regards their ability to capture model requirements effectively, and with regards their overall usability. Through describing and critically assessing the specific features of the non-standardised MRA employed, the ambition of this paper is to provide insights useful for impact assessment tool (IAT) development. Specifically, the paper will (i) characterise kinds of user requirements relevant to the functionality and design of IATs; (ii) highlight the strengths and weaknesses of non-standardised MRA for user requirements capture, analysis and reflection in the context of IAT; (iii) critically reflect on the process and outcomes of having used a non-standardised MRA in comparison with other more standardised approaches. To accomplish these aims, we first review methods available for IAT development before describing the SIAT development process, including the MRA employed. Major strengths and weaknesses of the MRA method are then discussed in terms of user identification and characterisation, organisational characterisation and embedding, and ability to capture design options for ensuring usability and usefulness. A detailed assessment on the structural differences of MRA with two advanced approaches (Integrated DSS design and goal directed design) and their role in performance of the MRA tool is used to critique the approach employed. The results show that MRA is able to bring thematic integration, establish system performance and technical thresholds as well as detailing quality and transparency guidelines. Nevertheless the discussion points out to a number of deficiencies in application - (i) a need to more effectively characterise potential users, and; (ii) a need to better foster communication among the distinguished roles in the development process. If addressed these deficiencies, SIAT non-standardised MRA could have brought out better outcomes in terms of tool usability and usefulness, and improved embedding of the tool into conditions of targeted end-users. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Aryal S.K.,CSIRO | Ashbolt S.,CSIRO | McIntosh B.S.,International WaterCentre | Petrone K.P.,CSIRO | And 4 more authors.
Water Resources Management | Year: 2016

Urbanisation causes a range of adverse impacts on stream physical and ecological conditions due to increases in catchment runoff caused by increased imperviousness. Developing ways to reduce these impacts on in-stream ecosystems is a major challenge and requires innovative catchment specific, high-time-resolution modelling methods. We employed a combination of high-time-resolution data collection, analysis and modelling methods to understand the underlying hydrological processes and evaluate a potentially significant management option – stormwater harvesting. A set of sensitive parameters of the Storm Water Management Model (SWMM) were optimised using an automatic calibration method and hourly data in eight catchments in South East Queensland, Australia. Systematic investigation of the effects of urbanisation and its mitigation through stormwater harvesting was achieved by modelling the impacts of increasing impervious area for three of the relatively undeveloped catchments. As the extent of impervious areas across the catchments increased we typically found increases in the duration of high flow spells together with increases in mean flow and the frequency of runoff events. However, many hydrologic responses to increasing imperviousness were specific to the physical characteristics of catchments, and to the spatio-temporal pattern of urbanisation. By implementing stormwater harvesting options the hourly flows were reduced by up to 60 % but the maximum flow was unchanged. Thus the option was able to reduce, but not totally ameliorate, the negative hydrological impacts of increasing imperviousness. © 2016 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht

Spiller M.,Wageningen University | McIntosh B.S.,International WaterCentre | McIntosh B.S.,Griffith University | Seaton R.A.F.,Cranfield University | Jeffrey P.J.,Cranfield University
Urban Water Journal | Year: 2012

This paper presents an assessment of how the European Water Framework Directive (WFD) is stimulating change in water and wastewater management. The paper aims to provide an organisational innovation contribution towards understanding the processes by which policy and legislation stimulate change in water and wastewater systems. Results were produced by analysing interviews with environmental managers from all water and sewerage companies in England and Wales. Results show that integrated water supply approaches are emerging in response to the WFD, while wastewater approaches are not changing to the same extent. Reasons for this difference are located in a mix of factors including: economic regulation; conflicting national and EU regulations; uncertainty; lock-in to infrastructure; the way in which different WaSCs frame business problems and opportunities, and a lack of technological knowledge. Results are discussed against an international review of water sector change and against government reviews of the water sector economic regulator. © 2012 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

McIntosh B.S.,International WaterCentre | Taylor A.,International WaterCentre
Water Policy | Year: 2013

In developed and development contexts, change is an increasingly central theme for water professionals. Growing populations, rapid urbanization and increasing demands for water, food and energy, are set against a backdrop of changing rainfall patterns and emerging trade-offs between the water required for water supply, energy provision, food production, livelihoods and ecological support. Building the capacity of water professionals to lead the changes in policy, planning, management and communities required to tackle these issues systemically is an essential component of our collective response to global water challenges. This paper provides a contribution to the fields of water leadership and capacity development by outlining, then critically discussing how a concept, the T-shaped professional, is being used as a framework to guide the design and delivery of postgraduate education programs to build leadership capacity in the water sector. The T-shaped concept integrates insights from leadership, learning theory, collaboration, critical thinking and praxis. In doing so, the concept and the way in which it has been applied in the context of postgraduate education provide an intellectually coherent and practical approach to developing the skills and knowledge required by water professionals to stimulate and lead change. © IWA Publishing 2013.

Phillips S.,International WaterCentre
Journal / American Water Works Association | Year: 2010

Up-and-coming water professionals are experiencing frustration in the workplace because traditional water management applies a single problem-single solution approach to challenges. The new generation of water leaders believes that if water challenges are not viewed in a holistic and integrated way, effective solutions cannot be found. To address this gap between current practice and needed change, these water professionals are returning to the classroom to acquire the tools that will make them truly effective in their work. As they move back into the workplace, they will bring with them a new way of approaching water management, creating teams on which all professionals involved directly or indirectly with water, environmental, and human issues will work together to develop solutions that will be sustainable and effective for the future. In addition, this new approach to water management will address social inequities and injustice as well as the long-term survival of the human race and the planet.

Hearne D.,International WaterCentre | Powell B.,International WaterCentre
International Journal of Water Resources Development | Year: 2014

Meaningful engagement of diverse stakeholders is essential for ensuring support for science-based responses to complex watershed challenges. A collaborative network in the Davao river basins, in the Philippines, provides evidence of an approach that enabled integration of science into local decision making and increased bonding social capital between shared-interest groups. Insufficient attention towards bridging and linking social capital allowed bottlenecks between policy and implementation to persist. This 'dark side' of social capital was evidenced by entrenched sector positions and lower levels of trust between different interest groups. A social-learning approach is recommended to create new spaces for productive 'bridging' relationships. © 2014 Taylor & Francis.

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