International Water and Sanitation Center

The Hague, Netherlands

International Water and Sanitation Center

The Hague, Netherlands
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Butterworth J.,International Water and Sanitation Center | Warner J.,The Clean Tech Center | Warner J.,Wageningen University | Moriarty P.,International Water and Sanitation Center | And 2 more authors.
Water Alternatives | Year: 2010

Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) has often been interpreted and implemented in a way that is only really suited to countries with the most developed water infrastructures and management capacities. While sympathetic to many of the criticisms levelled at the IWRM concept and recognising the often disappointing levels of adoption, this paper and the series of papers it introduces identify some alternative ways forward in a developmental context that place more emphasis on the practical in-finding solutions to water scarcity. A range of lighter, more pragmatic and context-adapted approaches, strategies and entry points are illustrated with examples from projects and initiatives in mainly 'developing' countries. The authors argue that a more service-orientated (WASH, irrigation and ecosystem services), locally rooted and balanced approach to IWRM that better matches contexts and capacities should build on such strategies, in addition to the necessary but long-term policy reforms and river basin institution-building at higher levels. Examples in this set of papers not only show that the 'lighter', more opportunistic and incremental approach has potential as well as limitations but also await wider piloting and adoption. © 2010 Water Alternatives.

Moriarty P.,International Water and Sanitation Center | Batchelor C.,International Water and Sanitation Center | Laban P.,International Union for Conservation of Nature | Fahmy H.,CARE
Water Alternatives | Year: 2010

This paper outlines the development of an approach (and a set of tools) for 'light' integrated water resources management (IWRM): that is, IWRM that is opportunistic, adaptive and incremental in nature and clearly focused on sustainable service delivery. The approach was developed as part of the EC funded EMPOWERS project in three middle-eastern countries: Egypt, Jordan and Palestine. Developed specifically for use at the intermediate and local levels (that is, sub-national and sub-basin) it is based on a facilitated process of stakeholder dialogue for concerted action supported by a strategic planning framework. The paper describes and discusses the justification for the approach, and sets out its main elements as well as experiences gained during its application. The main lesson of the EMPOWERS project is the seemingly simple - in fact, rather complex and time-consuming - work on facilitating dialogue, taking a structured approach to examining problems, collecting and sharing context-specific information, and helping to formulate a shared vision and strategies to achieve it all of which contribute to improved decision making. However, a major limitation to effective action is lack of appropriately decentralised finance, with local authorities reliant on financing from the national level that is often earmarked and over which they had very little control. © 2010 Water Alternatives.

Smits S.,International Water and Sanitation Center | van Koppen B.,International Water Management Institute IWMI | Moriarty P.,International Water and Sanitation Center | Butterworth J.,International Water and Sanitation Center
Water Alternatives | Year: 2010

Multiple-use services (MUS) have recently gained increased attention as an alternative form of providing rural water services in an integrated manner. This stems from the growing recognition that users anyway tend to use water systems for multiple purposes. This paper aims to characterise this practice on the basis of case evidence collected in eight countries in Africa, Asia and Latin America. The cases show that people almost universally use water for both domestic and productive activities at and around the homestead. Although seldom the main source of people's income or food production, these activities are of considerable importance for people's livelihoods. The extent to which people use water for multiple purposes is closely related to the level of access to water expressed in the form of a water ladder in this paper. The case studies presented demonstrate how access is created by different types and combinations of well-known technologies. Additional financial and management measures are required to ensure sustainability of services. Despite the practical feasibility of the MUS approach, it is not yet widely applied by service providers and sector agencies due to observed barriers in institutional uptake. A better characterisation of MUS, alongside a learning-driven stakeholder process was able to overcome some of these barriers and improve the consideration of multiple uses of water in policy and practice. © 2010 Water Alternatives.

Butterworth J.,International Water and Sanitation Center | Sutton S.,SWL Consultants | Mekonta L.,SRS Consultants PLC
Water Alternatives | Year: 2013

Self-supply, where households invest to develop their own easily-accessible water supplies, is identified as an alternative service delivery model that is potentially complementary to more highly subsidised community-level provision. The approach is widespread in Ethiopia with family wells bringing additional benefits that are in line with wider government objectives, such as supporting small-scale irrigation. However, two recent studies show the current performance of traditional or family wells to be far below potential with most sources providing unsafe water in the absence of adequate protection. Wider formal recognition of Self-supply in policy and the development of the government-led Self-supply Acceleration Programme (SSAP) aim to extend access and improve aspects of performance including water quality. However, a key finding of the paper is that successful uptake of this programme requires a transformation in the attitudes of donor agencies and the roles of government regional- and woreda-level staff, amongst others. Necessary shifts in mindsets and revision of planning mechanisms, as well as the day-to-day operational support requirements, represent a challenge for an under-resourced sector. Other household-focused development interventions such as Community-led Total Sanitation (CLTS) and Household Water Treatment and Storage (HWTS) face some similar challenges, so the processes for the development of one approach could help in the scaling up of all.

Baby V.K.,International Water and Sanitation Center | Reddy V.R.,Livelihoods and Natural Resources Management Institute
Water Policy | Year: 2013

India has been making policies relating to the water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) sector since independence. The 2010 policy guidelines for the water and sanitation sectors have embarked on a new path of water security by identifying and emphasizing the importance of hitherto nagging bottlenecks in sustainable service delivery. This paper attempts to assess these policy guidelines critically and suggest ways to make them effective from the point of view of putting them into operation. This paper argues the following. (i) WASH sector financing needs to be addressed directly with realistic assessment of unit costs and their composition. (ii) Within the WASH sector sanitation needs special focus in terms of planning and allocations. Treating sanitation as an add-on to water would not be enough to improve the sanitation and hygiene conditions. The approach to sanitation needs to be focused on creating demand at the household level, segregating private and public responsibilities in this regard. (iii) Although the new guidelines try to bring a much needed balance between the cost components of new capital investment, they are not clear about post-construction support, especially capital maintenance and ring fencing the allocations towards O&M (operations and maintenance), as well as emphasizing that capital maintenance is critical for sustainable service delivery. ©IWA Publishing 2013.

Da Silva Wells C.,International Water and Sanitation Center | Van Lieshout R.,International Water and Sanitation Center | Uytewaal E.,International Water and Sanitation Center
Water Policy | Year: 2013

The water sector faces immense challenges, which are characterized by complex interactions between the social and ecological systems. Improving the linkages between sector-wide monitoring, learning and capacity development is of pivotal importance for coping with this complexity. For deciding where to invest, how to sustain and improve water and sanitation services and for understanding which policies and strategies work, both reliable data and critical joint reflection are crucial. In the water sanitation and hygiene (WASH) sector, two developments have the potential to contribute to increased sector capacities to reflect, analyse and act upon lessons learnt. First, the interest of national governments and donors in monitoring and evaluation, which is gradually shifting from counting infrastructure built, towards sustainable development and sector performance reviews. Second, participatory monitoring methods and multi-stakeholder processes are being used to increase transparency and accountability and to facilitate dialogue, learning and joint action. The demand for continuous learning and adaptive management based on sound monitoring data can be stimulated by incentives and supportive institutional settings. The supply - the mechanisms, tools and capacities for monitoring - must also be strengthened, especially the capacity to use monitoring data to take action. Learning-oriented monitoring processes can help identify capacity gaps, while the process of joint analysis, reflection and sharing lessons has the potential to build capacities. Commitment of stakeholders throughout the sector to do things better and differently is a critical element towards building a learning and adaptive sector. © IWA Publishing 2013.

Van Koppen B.,International Water Management Institute | Smits S.,International Water and Sanitation Center
Waterlines | Year: 2010

This article presents findings of the action-research project on the what, why and how of 'multiple-use water services' or MUS, supported by the Challenge Program on Water and Food (active in 30 sites in 8 countries in Latin America, Africa and Asia). The consortium of partners from the domestic and productive water sectors pioneered the implementation of two models of MUS on the ground: homestead-scale MUS and community-scale MUS. Further, through learning alliances of 150 institutions, the project pilot-tested ways to scale-up MUS among intermediate- and national-level water service providers. Key lessons for scaling up by water users' movements, NGOs, the domestic sector, the productive sector and local government are discussed. Also in the light of the growing recognition of MUS across the globe, further innovation and implementation at scale are warranted to tap the many identified opportunities of MUS compared with single-use approaches. © 2010 Practical Action Publishing.

Kayser G.L.,University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill | Moriarty P.,International Water and Sanitation Center | Fonseca C.,International Water and Sanitation Center | Bartram J.,University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health | Year: 2013

Monitoring of water services informs policy and planning for national governments and the international community. Currently, the international monitoring system measures the type of drinking water source that households use. There have been calls for improved monitoring systems over several decades, some advocating use of multiple indicators. We review the literature on water service indicators and frameworks with a view to informing debate on their relevance to national and international monitoring. We describe the evidence concerning the relevance of each identified indicator to public health, economic development and human rights. We analyze the benefits and challenges of using these indicators separately and combined in an index as tools for planning, monitoring, and evaluating water services. We find substantial evidence on the importance of each commonly recommended indicator-service type, safety, quantity, accessibility, reliability or continuity of service, equity, and affordability. Several frameworks have been proposed that give structure to the relationships among individual indicators and some combine multiple indicator scores into a single index but few have been rigorously tested. More research is needed to understand if employing a composite metric of indicators is advantageous and how each indicator might be scored and scaled. © 2013 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

Pezon C.,International Water and Sanitation Center
Water Policy | Year: 2011

The end of the nineteenth century coincided with the end of concession contracts as a desirable option for French municipalities to organise their water services. An increasing number of disagreements between municipalities and their water concessionaires were brought to administrative courts, while the most difficult cases went to the French Supreme Court, the Conseil d'Etat. All cases dealt with the same issue: the conditions to renegotiate and/or terminate concession contracts. The Compagnie Générale des Eaux, the biggest French water company, lost its biggest concession contracts and had to negotiate new contractual arrangements to survive. © IWA Publishing 2011.

Bey V.,International Water and Sanitation Center
36th WEDC International Conference: Delivering Water, Sanitation and Hygiene Services in an Uncertain Environment | Year: 2013

Performance Improvement through Learning on Sanitation (PILS) was a district- and sub-county-based learning initiative aiming for increased performance, innovation and change in rural sanitation and hygiene in Northern Uganda. PILS was implemented in 2009-2012, shortly after the end of a more than two decades long civil war. In the midst of this transition phase from conflict to peace, local populations, as well as agencies and organisations involved in the provision of sanitation and hygiene services, were facing drastic changes in context, roles and responsibilities, relationships, resources, etc. PILS' approach included the facilitation of multi-stakeholder learning sessions, action research, capacity building and documentation. These led to improved stakeholders coordination, the prioritisation of sanitation and hygiene, and an increase in latrines coverage. The learning approach adopted for PILS undeniably supported stakeholders in the changed context for improving rural sanitation and hygiene.

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