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Van Koppen B.,International Water Management Institute | Smits S.,International Water and Sanitation Center
Waterlines | Year: 2010

This article presents findings of the action-research project on the what, why and how of 'multiple-use water services' or MUS, supported by the Challenge Program on Water and Food (active in 30 sites in 8 countries in Latin America, Africa and Asia). The consortium of partners from the domestic and productive water sectors pioneered the implementation of two models of MUS on the ground: homestead-scale MUS and community-scale MUS. Further, through learning alliances of 150 institutions, the project pilot-tested ways to scale-up MUS among intermediate- and national-level water service providers. Key lessons for scaling up by water users' movements, NGOs, the domestic sector, the productive sector and local government are discussed. Also in the light of the growing recognition of MUS across the globe, further innovation and implementation at scale are warranted to tap the many identified opportunities of MUS compared with single-use approaches. © 2010 Practical Action Publishing. Source


Butterworth J.,International Water and Sanitation Center | Sutton S.,SWL Consultants | Mekonta L.,SRS Consultants PLC
Water Alternatives | Year: 2013

Self-supply, where households invest to develop their own easily-accessible water supplies, is identified as an alternative service delivery model that is potentially complementary to more highly subsidised community-level provision. The approach is widespread in Ethiopia with family wells bringing additional benefits that are in line with wider government objectives, such as supporting small-scale irrigation. However, two recent studies show the current performance of traditional or family wells to be far below potential with most sources providing unsafe water in the absence of adequate protection. Wider formal recognition of Self-supply in policy and the development of the government-led Self-supply Acceleration Programme (SSAP) aim to extend access and improve aspects of performance including water quality. However, a key finding of the paper is that successful uptake of this programme requires a transformation in the attitudes of donor agencies and the roles of government regional- and woreda-level staff, amongst others. Necessary shifts in mindsets and revision of planning mechanisms, as well as the day-to-day operational support requirements, represent a challenge for an under-resourced sector. Other household-focused development interventions such as Community-led Total Sanitation (CLTS) and Household Water Treatment and Storage (HWTS) face some similar challenges, so the processes for the development of one approach could help in the scaling up of all. Source


Pezon C.,International Water and Sanitation Center
Water Policy | Year: 2011

The end of the nineteenth century coincided with the end of concession contracts as a desirable option for French municipalities to organise their water services. An increasing number of disagreements between municipalities and their water concessionaires were brought to administrative courts, while the most difficult cases went to the French Supreme Court, the Conseil d'Etat. All cases dealt with the same issue: the conditions to renegotiate and/or terminate concession contracts. The Compagnie Générale des Eaux, the biggest French water company, lost its biggest concession contracts and had to negotiate new contractual arrangements to survive. © IWA Publishing 2011. Source


Bey V.,International Water and Sanitation Center
36th WEDC International Conference: Delivering Water, Sanitation and Hygiene Services in an Uncertain Environment | Year: 2013

Performance Improvement through Learning on Sanitation (PILS) was a district- and sub-county-based learning initiative aiming for increased performance, innovation and change in rural sanitation and hygiene in Northern Uganda. PILS was implemented in 2009-2012, shortly after the end of a more than two decades long civil war. In the midst of this transition phase from conflict to peace, local populations, as well as agencies and organisations involved in the provision of sanitation and hygiene services, were facing drastic changes in context, roles and responsibilities, relationships, resources, etc. PILS' approach included the facilitation of multi-stakeholder learning sessions, action research, capacity building and documentation. These led to improved stakeholders coordination, the prioritisation of sanitation and hygiene, and an increase in latrines coverage. The learning approach adopted for PILS undeniably supported stakeholders in the changed context for improving rural sanitation and hygiene. Source


Smits S.,International Water and Sanitation Center | van Koppen B.,International Water Management Institute IWMI | Moriarty P.,International Water and Sanitation Center | Butterworth J.,International Water and Sanitation Center
Water Alternatives | Year: 2010

Multiple-use services (MUS) have recently gained increased attention as an alternative form of providing rural water services in an integrated manner. This stems from the growing recognition that users anyway tend to use water systems for multiple purposes. This paper aims to characterise this practice on the basis of case evidence collected in eight countries in Africa, Asia and Latin America. The cases show that people almost universally use water for both domestic and productive activities at and around the homestead. Although seldom the main source of people's income or food production, these activities are of considerable importance for people's livelihoods. The extent to which people use water for multiple purposes is closely related to the level of access to water expressed in the form of a water ladder in this paper. The case studies presented demonstrate how access is created by different types and combinations of well-known technologies. Additional financial and management measures are required to ensure sustainability of services. Despite the practical feasibility of the MUS approach, it is not yet widely applied by service providers and sector agencies due to observed barriers in institutional uptake. A better characterisation of MUS, alongside a learning-driven stakeholder process was able to overcome some of these barriers and improve the consideration of multiple uses of water in policy and practice. © 2010 Water Alternatives. Source

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