International Virtual Institute of Global Change IVIG

Sala, Brazil

International Virtual Institute of Global Change IVIG

Sala, Brazil
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Sena J.A.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro | Sena J.A.,International Virtual Institute of Global Change IVIG | Freitas M.A.V.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro | Freitas M.A.V.,International Virtual Institute of Global Change IVIG | And 3 more authors.
Water Resources Management | Year: 2012

The southern border of the Brazilian Amazon is one of the most sensitive areas to deforestation in Brazil. In addition to problems related to changes in land use, new issues are emerging, including climate change and its negative effects on the regional hydrological cycle. In recent years considerable research has been undertaken focusing on climate change and its effects on Amazon Biodiversity, carbon cycle, fire incidence and even on regional water resources, but there is very little research linking territorial planning and public policies to prospective planning scenarios and climate change and the necessary adaptation or mitigation actions to address climate vulnerability. This study examines issues pertaining to social, economic and environmental vulnerability, including new challenges posed by climate change. Examples of environmental problems related to climate dynamics of the Rio Acre Basin are floods and dry periods such as the major drought of 2005 and the 2009 flood. The use of methodology for integrated assessment of vulnerability to river basins in Amazon Region constitutes a valuable instrument for territorial planning, since it takes into account both the challenges of poverty and the environmental fragility, as well the possible aggravations of extreme climatic events in the future. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.


Sena J.A.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro | Sena J.A.,International Virtual Institute of Global Change IVIG | de Deus L.A.B.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro | de Deus L.A.B.,International Virtual Institute of Global Change IVIG | And 3 more authors.
Water Resources Management | Year: 2012

The southern border of the Brazilian Amazon is one of the most sensitive areas to deforestation in Brazil. Pondering problems related to changes in land use, new issues are emerging, such as, climate change and its negative effects on the regional hydrological cycle. The higher frequency of El Niño and La Niña seems to have strong influence on rainfall in Amazonia. They are becoming more lasting and intense in the course of the last 20 to 30 years compared to the past 100 years. This paper may confront the scientific knowledge of the relations of climate and water resources in Amazon with the points of vulnerability that anthropic societies present in the region. The impact of climate change is not uniformly borne by different regions and populations. Actually, individuals, sectors and systems are affected to varying degrees and, besides, they may be prejudiced to a greater or lesser extent. These impacts vary in magnitude and intensity in accordance with certain aspects, for instance, geographical location, time, the prevalent social, economic and environmental conditions and the infra-structure of a given location. A comprehensive description of these extreme climate events is one of the first steps to a regional vulnerability approach. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.


Giannini Pereira M.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro | Vasconcelos Freitas M.A.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro | Vasconcelos Freitas M.A.,International Virtual Institute of Global Change IVIG | da Silva N.F.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro | da Silva N.F.,International Virtual Institute of Global Change IVIG
Energy Policy | Year: 2011

In recent years successive Brazilian governments have actively pursued economic and social policies aimed at reducing poverty and promoting social equality and inclusion. In the field of energy, this has meant introducing and implementing programs aimed at expanding the supply of safe and reliable energy to the poorest sectors of Brazilian society, including those living in remote rural areas. This paper draws attention on the findings of extensive field research to evaluate the impact of rural electrification on energy poverty in the context of government policies aimed at promoting energy equity. The authors re-examine the concept of an energy poverty line, seeking to fine tune its application to Brazilian social and economic realities, and then apply an analytical framework (Lorenz Curve, Gap Poverty, Gap Quadratic, Gini Coefficient and Sen Index) to evaluate the effectiveness of recent efforts in Brazil to expand access to electricity. One of the main conclusions of this study is that is that rural electrification leads to a significant reduction of the energy poverty level and a consequent improvement in energy equity. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.


Pereira M.G.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro | Freitas M.A.V.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro | Freitas M.A.V.,International Virtual Institute of Global Change IVIG | da Silva N.F.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro | da Silva N.F.,International Virtual Institute of Global Change IVIG
Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews | Year: 2010

The aim of this article is to evaluate the impact of rural electrification on the reduction of energy poverty in Brazil through the analysis of 23,000 rural domiciles or rural properties between the years 2000 and 2004. The results indicate a fast change in the profile of energy consumption and a reduction of energy poverty. This new approach works as a complement, among other variables, to analyze and quantify the real economic, social and energy impacts in rural electrification programs, generally applied in developing countries. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Pereira M.G.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro | Camacho C.F.,Pontifical Catholic University of Rio de Janeiro | Freitas M.A.V.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro | Freitas M.A.V.,International Virtual Institute of Global Change IVIG | And 2 more authors.
Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews | Year: 2012

Renewable energy offers a range of options with which to meet the growing demand for energy, particularly in the context of the pursuit (especially in developing countries) of economic development which takes into account social and environmental issues. Brazil has abundant natural sources of renewable energy, such as wind and solar power, hydraulic energy, small hydroelectric plants, ethanol and bio-diesel. These sources form part of the Brazilian strategy aimed at satisfying the demand for 6300 MW of fresh capacity per year arising out of projected economic growth of 5.1% per year over the next 10 years. Renewable energy sources currently provide 47.2% of the internal supply of primary energy in Brazil. Brazil has been pursuing a strategy of maintaining its renewable energy matrix and developing and providing incentives for further low carbon initiatives. In this study we set out an overview of the renewable energy options available in Brazil, their current status, the main positive results obtained to date and future potential. We describe the market for renewable energy in Brazil and examine specific public policies aimed at overcoming barriers to this market, thereby promoting its consolidation and expansion. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All right reserved.


Silva N.F.D.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro | Silva N.F.D.,International Virtual Institute of Global Change IVIG | Silva N.F.D.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte | Rosa L.P.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro | And 4 more authors.
Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews | Year: 2013

Since the 1970s, demands arising from the impacts of the power sector on the natural environment were added to studies regarding the strategic power sector and its impact on the economic and financial crises. Thus, the development of alternative technologies reflected the new institutional guidelines and overcame the technological paradigms that were based on increasing installed capacities. Consequently, multiple debates that consider the energy use potential of each region and its contributions to sustainable development occurred. This paper presents the information that is necessary for understanding the relationships of the development model that was founded based on waste and the expanding technologies that exploit natural resources. Actions that are aimed at developing renewable energy resources are structured based on the instability of the technological maintenance paradigm and are guaranteed by expanding technologies that were used prior to 1970. In addition, we evaluated the current institutional arrangements that are used to promote wind energy. In this case, greater attention was given to the European experience because Europe provides multiple examples of successful legal frameworks that promote wind energy. In addition, Europe is a benchmark for emerging market countries, such as Brazil. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Soito J.L.D.S.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro | Freitas M.A.V.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro | Freitas M.A.V.,International Virtual Institute of Global Change IVIG
Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews | Year: 2011

This article aims to evaluate the use of hydroelectric potential in Brazil and the expansion of the hydroelectric power stations in Amazon, in the northern region of the country, highlighting the vulnerabilities, the impacts and the adaption possibilities of the hydroelectric energy in face to increasing socio-environmental demands and to global climate change in progress. The analysis indicates the nearly exhausted hydroelectric potential in other regions of the country, transforming the Amazon into a new "hydroelectric barn" or "new hydroelectric frontier". The integrated management of reservoirs and multiple uses of water, the new institutional and regulatory arrangements, the technological and economic opportunities of the sector, and finally, integration with neighboring countries are treated to subsidize a sustainable use of hydroelectric potential in the Amazon. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Pereira M.G.,Energy Planning Program PPE | Sena J.A.,Energy Planning Program PPE | Sena J.A.,International Virtual Institute of Global Change IVIG | Freitas M.A.V.,Energy Planning Program PPE | And 3 more authors.
Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews | Year: 2011

Most developing countries include rural electrification programs in their efforts to improve social conditions. There are, however, several obstacles to the evaluation of such programs and therefore of their social, economic, environmental and energy impacts on the target population, particularly on impoverished communities located in remote areas. Evaluation of the efficacy of public policies aimed at rural electrification in South Africa, China, India and Brazil enables such actions to be quantified and re-considered so as to bolster the sustainability of their planning and implementation and also so as to enable comprehension of the significance of access to electricity in relation to other aspects of the drive to improve living standards. The provision of electric energy amounts to more than access to a public service and should be considered an essential right, in a context of social equity and justice, which permits social integration and the access to other equally essential services. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

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