International Vaccine Initiative Neutralizing Antibody Center

La Jolla, CA, United States

International Vaccine Initiative Neutralizing Antibody Center

La Jolla, CA, United States
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Bouvin-Pley M.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Morgand M.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Meyer L.,University Paris - Sud | Goujard C.,University Paris - Sud | And 16 more authors.
Journal of Virology | Year: 2014

Extending our previous analyses to the most recently described monoclonal broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs), we confirmed a drift of HIV-1 clade B variants over 2 decades toward higher resistance to bNAbs targeting almost all the identified gp120-neutralizing epitopes. In contrast, the sensitivity to bNAbs targeting the gp41 membrane-proximal external region remained stable, suggesting a selective pressure on gp120 preferentially. Despite this evolution, selected combinations of bNAbs remain capable of neutralizing efficiently most of the circulating variants. © 2014, American Society for Microbiology.

Nandin I.S.,Lymphocyte Interaction Laboratory | Fong C.,Lymphocyte Interaction Laboratory | Deantonio C.,Lymphocyte Interaction Laboratory | Torreno-Pina J.A.,Massachusetts General Hospital | And 28 more authors.
Journal of Experimental Medicine | Year: 2017

Vaccines remain the most effective tool to prevent infectious diseases. Here, we introduce an in vitro booster vaccination approach that relies on antigen-dependent activation of human memory B cells in culture. This stimulation induces antigen- specific B cell proliferation, differentiation of B cells into plasma cells, and robust antibody secretion after a few days of culture. We validated this strategy using cells from healthy donors to retrieve human antibodies against tetanus toxoid and influenza hemagglutinin (HA) from H1N1 and newly emergent subtypes such as H5N1 and H7N9. Anti-HA antibodies were cross-reactive against multiple subtypes, and some showed neutralizing activity. Although these antibodies may have arisen as a result of previous influenza infection, we also obtained gp120-reactive antibodies from non-HIV-infected donors, indicating that we can generate antibodies without prior antigenic exposure. Overall, our novel approach can be used to rapidly produce therapeutic antibodies and has the potential to assess the immunogenicity of candidate antigens, which could be exploited in future vaccine development. © 2017 Sanjuan Nandin et al.

Guttman M.,University of Washington | Cupo A.,New York Medical College | Julien J.-P.,International Vaccine Initiative Neutralizing Antibody Center | Sanders R.W.,New York Medical College | And 3 more authors.
Nature Communications | Year: 2015

HIV's envelope glycoprotein (Env) is the sole target for neutralizing antibodies. The structures of many broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) in complex with truncated Env subunits or components have been reported. However, their interaction with the intact Env trimer, and the structural determinants that underlie neutralization resistance in this more native context are less well understood. Here we use hydrogen/deuterium exchange to examine the interactions between a panel of bNAbs and native-like Env trimers (SOSIP.664 trimers). Highly potent bNAbs cause only localized effects at their binding interface, while the binding of less potent antibodies is associated with elaborate changes throughout the trimer. In conjunction with binding kinetics, our results suggest that poorly neutralizing antibodies can only bind when the trimer transiently samples an open state. We propose that the kinetics of such opening motions varies among isolates, with Env from neutralization-sensitive viruses opening more frequently than Env from resistant viruses. © 2015 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

Landais E.,International Vaccine Initiative Neutralizing Antibody Center | Huang X.,Sanford Burnham Institute for Medical Research | Havenar-Daughton C.,La Jolla Institute for Allergy and Immunology | Havenar-Daughton C.,University of California at San Diego | And 32 more authors.
PLoS Pathogens | Year: 2016

Broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs) are thought to be a critical component of a protective HIV vaccine. However, designing vaccines immunogens able to elicit bnAbs has proven unsuccessful to date. Understanding the correlates and immunological mechanisms leading to the development of bnAb responses during natural HIV infection is thus critical to the design of a protective vaccine. The IAVI Protocol C program investigates a large longitudinal cohort of primary HIV-1 infection in Eastern and South Africa. Development of neutralization was evaluated in 439 donors using a 6 cross-clade pseudo-virus panel predictive of neutralization breadth on larger panels. About 15% of individuals developed bnAb responses, essentially between year 2 and year 4 of infection. Statistical analyses revealed no influence of gender, age or geographical origin on the development of neutralization breadth. However, cross-clade neutralization strongly correlated with high viral load as well as with low CD4 T cell counts, subtype-C infection and HLA-A*03(-) genotype. A correlation with high overall plasma IgG levels and anti-Env IgG binding titers was also found. The latter appeared not associated with higher affinity, suggesting a greater diversity of the anti-Env responses in broad neutralizers. Broadly neutralizing activity targeting glycan-dependent epitopes, largely the N332-glycan epitope region, was detected in nearly half of the broad neutralizers while CD4bs and gp41-MPER bnAb responses were only detected in very few individuals. Together the findings suggest that both viral and host factors are critical for the development of bnAbs and that the HIV Env N332-glycan supersite may be a favorable target for vaccine design. © 2016 Landais et al.

Irimia A.,International Vaccine Initiative Neutralizing Antibody Center | Irimia A.,ImmunoGen | Sarkar A.,International Vaccine Initiative Neutralizing Antibody Center | Sarkar A.,ImmunoGen | And 4 more authors.
Immunity | Year: 2016

Numerous studies of the anti-HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein 41 (gp41) broadly neutralizing antibody 4E10 suggest that 4E10 also interacts with membrane lipids, but the antibody regions contacting lipids and its orientation with respect to the viral membrane are unknown. Vaccine immunogens capable of re-eliciting these membrane proximal external region (MPER)-like antibodies may require a lipid component to be successful. We performed a systematic crystallographic study of lipid binding to 4E10 to identify lipids bound by the antibody and the lipid-interacting regions. We identified phosphatidic acid, phosphatidylglycerol, and glycerol phosphate as specific ligands for 4E10 in the crystal structures. 4E10 used its CDRH1 loop to bind the lipid head groups, while its CDRH3 interacted with the hydrophobic lipid tails. Identification of the lipid binding sites on 4E10 may aid design of immunogens for vaccines that include a lipid component in addition to the MPER on gp41 for generation of broadly neutralizing antibodies. © 2016 Elsevier Inc.

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