Puerto Bolivar, Ecuador

International University of Ecuador

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Puerto Bolivar, Ecuador
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OBJECTIVE:: Latin America bears an important burden of critical care disease, yet the information about it is scarce. Our objective was to describe structure, organization, processes of care, and research activities in Latin-American ICUs. DESIGN:: Web-based survey submitted to ICU directors. SETTINGS:: ICUs located in nine Latin-American countries. SUBJECTS:: Individual ICUs. INTERVENTIONS:: None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS:: Two hundred fifty-seven of 498 (52%) of submitted surveys responded: 51% from Brazil, 17% Chile, 13% Argentina, 6% Ecuador, 5% Uruguay, 3% Colombia, and 5% between Mexico, Peru, and Paraguay. Seventy-nine percent of participating hospitals had less than 500 beds; most were public (59%) and academic (66%). ICUs were mainly medical-surgical (75%); number of beds was evenly distributed in the entire cohort; 77% had 24/7 intensivists; 46% had a physician-to-patient ratio between 1:4 and 7; and 69% had a nurse-to-patient ratio of 1 ≥ 2.1. The 24/7 presence of other specialists was deficient. Protocols in use averaged 9 ± 3. Brazil (vs the rest) had larger hospitals and ICUs and more quality, surveillance, and prevention committees, but fewer 24/7 intensivists and poorer nurse-to-patient ratio. Although standard monitoring, laboratory, and imaging practices were almost universal, more complex measurements and treatments and portable equipment were scarce after standard working hours, and in public hospitals. Mortality was 17.8%, without differences between countries. CONCLUSIONS:: This multinational study shows major concerns in the delivery of critical care across Latin America, particularly in human resources. Technology was suboptimal, especially in public hospitals. A 24/7 availability of supporting specialists and of key procedures was inadequate. Mortality was high in comparison to high-income countries. Copyright © by 2017 by the Society of Critical Care Medicine and Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All Rights Reserved.


Quezada-Sarmiento P.A.,Technical University of Loja | Quezada-Sarmiento P.A.,International University of Ecuador | Alvarado-Camacho P.-E.,Grupo Gestion Contable y Control | Chango-Canaveral P.M.,Sec. Dep. Hoteleria y Turismo Grupo de Investigacion en Observacion Turistica
Iberian Conference on Information Systems and Technologies, CISTI | Year: 2017

The information system audit developed in a data center it was based on the study of the domains of COBIT; for this reason the survey for each component it was developed with the goal of obtain the necessary information for audit. The analysis of this information, permited to establish the degree of compliance with international standards, and determine the maturity, risk levels of each of the components analyzed, in order to recommend action to minimize the impact that these may cause in the information. For the automation of the process, a web application it was developed considering the characterist of the standard, and type of audit. © 2017 AISTI.


Quezada-Sarmiento P.A.,Technical University of Loja | Quezada-Sarmiento P.A.,International University of Ecuador | Ramirez-Coronel R.L.,Technical University of Loja
Iberian Conference on Information Systems and Technologies, CISTI | Year: 2017

The Web has become a necessary resource of daily use, the benefits it offers, being a source of knowledge, and collaboration giving rise to new initiatives such as linked data, whose purpose is link the data scattered through the Web through of semantic relationships between them. The propose of this article is show the improving, consumption, and visualization of linked data in the Web, in such a way that any user with or without any knowledge on the subject, can explore semantic databases, through the construction of software capable of providing a search engine for information related to a natural language search term that is converted to SPARQL query, in the same context the visualization of results by means of a graph, for which a research, and analysis of existing applications is carried out. In addition, semantic repositories contributed to the proposal, and for the develop of software. © 2017 AISTI.


Moncayo J.,International University of Ecuador | Moncayo J.,Eugenio Espejo Hospital
Frontiers of Neurology and Neuroscience | Year: 2012

The vascular supply of this small brainstem structure is complex. Although midbrain infarcts and particularly hemorrhages are uncommon, their clinical manifestations are diverse mainly because the vertical gaze centers and two of three nuclei of the extraocular muscles lie primarily in the midbrain. Consequently, eye movement disturbances are often the hallmark clinical findings in midbrain stroke. The main clinical patterns, etiology and outcome of infarcts limited to the midbrain are summarized according to defined vascular territories along with the clinical findings of midbrain hemorrhage. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.


Coral-Almeida M.,Institute of Tropical Medicine | Coral-Almeida M.,Ghent University | Coral-Almeida M.,International University of Ecuador | Coral-Almeida M.,University of the Americas in Ecuador | And 7 more authors.
PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases | Year: 2015

Background Taenia solium cysticercosis is a zoonotic neglected disease responsible for severe health disorders such as seizures and death. Understanding the epidemiology of human cysticercosis (HCC) in endemic regions will help to expose critical information about the transmission of the disease, which could be used to design efficient control programs. This review gathered serological data on apparent prevalence of T. solium circulating antigens and/or seroprevalence of T. solium antibodies, apparent prevalence of human taeniasis and risk factors for HCC from endemic communities in order to understand the differences in exposure to the parasite and active infections with T. solium metacestodes in endemic areas around the world. Methods Three databases were used to search sero-epidemiological data from community-based studies conducted between 1989 and 2014 in cysticercosis endemic communities worldwide. The search focused on data obtained from T. solium circulating antigen detection by monoclonal antibody-based sandwich ELISA and/or T. solium antibody seroprevalence determined by Enzyme-linked Immunoelectrotransfer Blot (EITB). A meta-analysis was performed per continent. Principal Findings A total of 39,271 participants from 19 countries, described in 37 articles were studied. The estimates for the prevalence of circulating T. solium antigens for Africa, Latin America and Asia were: 7.30%(95% CI [4.23–12.31]), 4.08% (95% CI [2.77–5.95]) and 3.98% (95% CI [2.81–5.61]), respectively. Seroprevalence estimates of T. solium antibodies were 17.37% (95% CI [3.33–56.20]), 13.03% (95% CI [9.95–16.88]) and 15.68% (95% CI [10.25–23.24]) respectively. Taeniasis reported prevalences ranged from 0 (95% CI [0.00–1.62]) to 17.25% (95% CI [14.55–20.23]). Significance A significant variation in the sero-epidemiological data was observed within each continent, with African countries reporting the highest apparent prevalences of active infections. Intrinsic factors in the human host such as age and immunity were main determinants for the occurrence of infections, while exposure was mostly related to environmental factors which varied from community to community. © 2015 Coral-Almeida et al.


Moncayo J.,International University of Ecuador | Bogousslavsky J.,Center for Brain and Nervous System Disorders
Frontiers of Neurology and Neuroscience | Year: 2012

Generation and control of eye movements requires the participation of the cortex, basal ganglia, cerebellum and brainstem. The signals of this complex neural network finally converge on the ocular motoneurons of the brainstem. Infarct or hemorrhage at any level of the oculomotor system (though more frequent in the brain-stem) may give rise to a broad spectrum of eye movement abnormalities (EMAs). Consequently, neurologists and particularly stroke neurologists are routinely confronted with EMAs, some of which may be overlooked in the acute stroke setting and others that, when recognized, may have a high localizing value. The most complex EMAs are due to midbrain stroke. Horizontal gaze disorders, some of them manifesting unusual patterns, may occur in pontine stroke. Distinct varieties of nystagmus occur in cerebellar and medullary stroke. This review summarizes the most representative EMAs from the supratentorial level to the brainstem. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.


PubMed | Oswaldo Cruz Foundation, University of Talca, University of Campinas and International University of Ecuador
Type: | Journal: Toxicon : official journal of the International Society on Toxinology | Year: 2017

Phospholipases A


Introduction: metabolic syndrome is a group of metabolic abnormalities that increase the risk of developing type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. There are several criteria for diagnosis; the most used are the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) and the Adult Treatment Panel III (ATP III). An early treatment may prevent its associated complications and improve the quality and life expectancy of the person; it must be focused on changes in lifestyle such as healthy eating and regular physical activity. Objective: to determine the prevalence of metabolic syndrome according to the diagnostic criteria of the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) and the Adult Treatment Panel III (ATP III) Methodology: it was a cross-sectional study in which participate 128 people (55 women and 73 men) aged between 18 and 75 years, who were given a nutritional history, anthropometric measures and biochemical tests. Results: the prevalence of overweight was 63% (48% overweight and 15% obese). The prevalence of metabolic syndrome according to IDF was 15.6% and 14.8% according ATPIII. Conclusions: among the employees is clear the high prevalence of overweight and metabolic syndrome. So it is a priority to work on the implementation of preventive measures to stop this trend and cardiometabolic disorders. © 2015, Grupo Aula Medica S.A. All rights reserved.


Moncayo J.,International University of Ecuador
Frontiers of Neurology and Neuroscience | Year: 2012

The vascular supply of this small brainstem structure is complex. Although midbrain infarcts and particularly hemorrhages are uncommon, their clinical manifestations are diverse mainly because the vertical gaze centers and two of three nuclei of the extraocular muscles lie primarily in the midbrain. Consequently, eye movement disturbances are often the hallmark clinical findings in midbrain stroke. The main clinical patterns, etiology and outcome of infarcts limited to the midbrain are summarized according to defined vascular territories along with the clinical findings of midbrain hemorrhage. © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.


Moncayo J.,International University of Ecuador
Frontiers of Neurology and Neuroscience | Year: 2012

Pontine infarcts are often part of a large ischemia involving the brainstem, although infarcts may be restricted to the pons. In both cases, infarcts in the pons are characterized by interesting clinical patterns resulting from a variety of cranial nerve dysfunctions, eye movement disorders and motor, sensory and cerebellar manifestations, either isolated or in combination. The anteromedial and anterolateral territories are the most commonly involved. Penetrating branch artery disease is the most common etiology. Ten percent of all intracerebral hemorrhages are located in the pons, and small hemorrhages in this brainstem structure may, in some instances, give rise to unusual clinical manifestations. © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

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