International University of Africa
Khartoum, Sudan

The International University of Africa is a public University in Khartoum, Sudan.It is a member of the Federation of the Universities of the Islamic World.The university has faculties of Education and Humanities, Shariah and Islamic Studies, of Pure and Applied science, Engineering and medicine.The university has its origins in the Islamic African Centre, established in Khartoum in 1977.In 1992 the military government of Colonel Omar al-Bashir upgraded the institute to a university.Although the word "Islamic" was dropped from the title, Islamic studies are an important part of the curriculum.The university has been active in Islamic higher education in sub-Saharan Africa since it was created.Due to its location and cultural history the Sudan has been hosting a steady flow of groups from neighboring countries who were either in pursuit of knowledge or were on their way to perform pilgrimage. Some stayed behind either with a shaykh of fleeing religious persecution which set in as a result of European colonization. Others were forced by incessant wars to seek refuge and education in the Sudan.In 1978 a number of scholars set up the Islamic African Institute with popular effort. The Institute began by accepting African students at the intermediate and secondary levels. But after only two years this project was stopped. Later on the Government of the Sudan revived the idea and decided to establish the Centre on wider basis and with greater facilities. It invited a number of Arab countries to contribute to this project. Six Countries responded positively. These were: Egypt, Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Qatar, The United Arab Emirates and Morocco whose representatives formed the Centre’s board of trustees and drew a statute which was approved by the Government of the Sudan and ratifies by the founding states. The Board of Trustees became the highest authority.The Government of the Sudan granted the centre a big plot of land and the president of the Republic gave it diplomatic immunities and privileges which helped it to develop and progress quickly. The National Salvation Government ratified the previous statute.Between 1977 and 1986 the establishment of the Islamic African Centre was accomplished and its administration and systems were settled and started to bear its fruits in the form of hundreds of graduates. The Centre could accommodate 800 students and the standard of studies was promoted to second level by setting up two university colleges. The Centre’s social and cultural activities which manifested themselves in the form of teacher training courses, youth cultural mission and graduates associations won good reputation. The Centre became the object of hope and the number of applicants increased to the extent that in an African country more than 500 applicants competed for ten scholarship awards.The interest in the Centre’s scholarships increased and more pressure was put on it because the scholarships awards- which used to be provided by some Arab universities-stopped.It is to be regretted that as from 1405AH the Centre suffered a financial crisis because some member states failed to pay their contributions, and the Centre’s activity was curtailed because the annual budget was reduced at the same time in which two colleges were established.In 1411AH, and due to the great demand of African students for higher education, the Government of the Sudan issued the following decree:1)Elevating the Islamic African Centre to University statute with the name: International University of Africa.2)Inviting interested countries and charitable institutions to become members of the Board of Trustees.3)Ratifying the official seat agreement between the Government of the Sudan and the University and allowing it to retain the immunities and privileges granted to the Islamic African Centre.4) The University was established with almost the full support of the Government of the Sudan, new faculties, institutes and centers were set up and study programmes became diversified including studies at applied science faculties. Programmes of post-graduate studies were introduced. The number of students multiplied greatly; and the University’s internal and external relations were extended resulting a unique international African university.The University runs the College of Education, Zanzibar, with a 2006 enrolment of 466 students.In 2011, according to Centro de Ciencias Humanas y Sociales, Madrid, the university ranked 10,924 in the world, fifth in Sudan. In Sudan, it ranked behind the University of Khartoum, Sudan University of Science & Technology, National Ribat University and Karary University.Officially the Chancellor of the university is the President of the Country. In effect, the head of the university is the Vice-Chancellor.The university is legally independent from the Sudanese state, but the government is the largest financial backer.Classes are mostly held in Arabic, but most of the students come from non-Arabic-speaking African nations and from other countries such as Malaysia and Indonesia.The university, working with other organizations, established the Disaster Management and Refugees Studies Institute in 1993.The Institute was inaugurated in 1994 at a ceremony attended by Salim Ahmed Salim, Secretary General of the Organization of African Unity. It undertakes training and development of approaches to disaster management in the Horn of Africa.In April 2011 the Vice-Chancellor of the University, Professor Hassan Mekki, met the Islamic Relief Agency Secretary General, Adnan Bin Khalil Al-Basha in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. The two signed a memorandum of understanding on cooperation in charity and relief work. Wikipedia.

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Khaleel M.S.A.,International University of Africa
Proceedings - 2017 International Conference on Communication, Control, Computing and Electronics Engineering, ICCCCEE 2017 | Year: 2017

Web cache replacement plays important role in increasing the performance and speed of browsing web sites using internet. This paper highlights a new proposed Average Least Frequency Used Removal (ALFUR) and compares it with web cache replacement techniques like (LFU, LRU, SIZE, and PCCIA). Hit Ratio (HR) and Byte Hit Ratio (BHR) were used to measure the performance of these algorithms, and it was found that ALFUR technique has the best Hit Ratio and Byte Hit Ratio since it has the highest values for HR and BHR when cache size was 500Mb. © 2017 IEEE.

Khaleel M.S.A.,International University of Africa
Proceedings - 2017 International Conference on Communication, Control, Computing and Electronics Engineering, ICCCCEE 2017 | Year: 2017

Web caching is an important technique to scale the internet. To increase the speed of browsing, Replacement strategies are used. Least Frequency Used (LFU) replacement strategy is one of these web cache replacement strategies. The lack of LFU strategy is that it ignores download latency and size of object and may store obsolete web object indefinitely. A new proposed replacement strategy based on LFU replacement which named Average Least Frequency Used Removal (ALFUR) has been highlighted in this paper. ALFUR can be considered as enhancement of LFU since it overcome the lacks of LFU. © 2017 IEEE.

Mousnad M.A.,International University of Africa | Ibrahim M.I.M.,Qatar University | Palaian S.,Gulf Medical University | Shafie A.A.,Universiti Sains Malaysia
Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research | Year: 2017

Purpose: This article aims to assess the Sudan National Health Insurance Fund (NHIF) medicines utilization trends and pattern between 2006 and 2010. Methods: A quantitative descriptive study was conducted to analyse the aggregate spending and utilization data. The aggregate medicine data used in the times series were collected from a large NHIFSudan bulk purchasing system from 2006 to 2010. The Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical (ATC)Classification System and Defined Daily Dose (DDD) methodologies were applied in the study for the period 2006 - 2010, 1st to 4th quarter of each year, ATC classes (14 in all),WHO ABC and VEN (vital, essential, non-essential) categories. Both descriptive and inferential statistics were used to analyse the data. Results: The total medicine utilization from 2006 to 2010 was 402.62 million DDD with an overall increase of 176.43 % over the period. The medicine classes that accounted for the highest utilization were medicines related to blood and blood-forming organs, followed by the cardiovascular system, general anti-infectives for systemic use, and those pertaining to the alimentary tract and metabolism. Among the most highly used medicines were folic acid, mefenamic acid and amlodipine tablets. Further analysis indicate that there was a statistically significant difference between groups {F (4, 5270) = 54.412, p < 0.001} and weak positive significant correlation between medicine utilization and both population coverage and number of patients (p < 0.001). Conclusion: The results show that medicine utilization in NHIF-Sudan significantly increased from 2006 to 2010. Medicines for blood and blood-forming organs were the highest utilized class of medicines, while folic acid tablet was the most highly used medicine. © Pharmacotherapy Group, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Benin, Benin City, 300001 Nigeria. All rights reserved.

Williams M.A.J.,University of Adelaide | Duller G.A.T.,Aberystwyth University | Williams F.M.,University of Adelaide | Woodward J.C.,University of Manchester | And 5 more authors.
Quaternary Science Reviews | Year: 2015

It has long been hypothesised that beds of highly organic mud or sapropels seen in marine sediment cores retrieved from the floor of the eastern Mediterranean accumulated during times of high Nile fluvial discharge. Our recent fieldwork in the valleys of the Blue Nile, the White Nile and the main Nile has for the first time revealed a sequence of extreme flood episodes synchronous with sapropel units S5 (124 kyr), S4 (102 kyr), S3 (81 kyr), S2 (55 kyr) and S1 (13.5-6.5 kyr). There are more weakly defined links with Nile floods and sapropel units S9 (240 kyr), S8 (217 kyr), S7 (195 kyr), S6 (172 kyr), but the dating error terms are too large to allow us to be too definite. During times of extreme floods over the past 125 kyr, wide distributary channels of the Blue Nile flowed across the Gezira alluvial fan in central Sudan and transported a bed load of sand and gravel into the lower White Nile valley. The sands were reworked by wind to form source-bordering dunes, all of which contain heavy minerals of Ethiopian provenance. These source-bordering dunes were active at 115-105 kyr, 60 kyr and 12-7 kyr, all times of extreme Blue Nile floods. The flood and dune sediments were dated using a combination of optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) and radiocarbon analyses. The Quaternary record of Nile floods discussed here shows a precessional signal and reflects episodes of stronger summer monsoon and more northerly seasonal movement of the ITCZ, linked to times of higher insolation in northern tropical latitudes. Progressive aggradation of Holocene Nile channels in northern Sudan has had a profound influence upon human settlement in the last 8 kyr. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.

Ali Ahmed M.A.,TU Dortmund | Ali Ahmed M.A.,International University of Africa | Alvarez G.A.,TU Dortmund | Alvarez G.A.,Weizmann Institute of Science | Suter D.,TU Dortmund
Physical Review A - Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics | Year: 2013

Active protection of quantum states is an essential prerequisite for the implementation of quantum computing. Dynamical decoupling (DD) is a promising approach that applies sequences of control pulses to the system in order to reduce the adverse effect of system-environment interactions. Since every hardware device has finite precision, the errors of the DD control pulses can themselves destroy the stored information rather than protect it. We experimentally compare the performance of different DD sequences in the presence of an environment that was chosen such that all relevant DD sequences can equally suppress its effect on the system. Under these conditions, the remaining decay of the qubits under DD allows us to compare very precisely the robustness of the different DD sequences with respect to imperfections of the control pulses. © 2013 American Physical Society.

Osman A.H.,University of Technology Malaysia | Osman A.H.,International University of Africa | Salim N.,University of Technology Malaysia | Binwahlan M.S.,Yemen University of Science and Technology | And 3 more authors.
Applied Soft Computing Journal | Year: 2012

Plagiarism occurs when the content is copied without permission or citation. One of the contributing factors is that many text documents on the internet are easily copied and accessed. This paper introduces a plagiarism detection technique based on the Semantic Role Labeling (SRL). The technique analyses and compares text based on the semantic allocation for each term inside the sentence. SRL is superior in generating arguments for each sentence semantically. Weighting for each argument generated by SRL to study its behaviour is also introduced in this paper. It was found that not all arguments affect the plagiarism detection process. In addition, experimental results on PAN-PC-09 data sets showed that our method significantly outperforms the modern methods for plagiarism detection in terms of Recall, Precision and F-measure. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Mustafa M.H.,International University of Africa | Mukhtar A.M.,King Abdulaziz University | Mukhtar A.M.,Public Health Institute
BMC Health Services Research | Year: 2015

Background: Every day, globally approximately a thousand women and girls needlessly die as a result of complications during pregnancy, childbirth or the 6 weeks following delivery. The majority of maternal deaths are avoidable and could be prevented with proven interventions to prevent or manage complications during pregnancy and child birth. The aim of this study was to examine factors associated with underutilization of maternal health services in Sudan. Methods: Data was obtained from the Sudan Household Health Survey 2010(SHHS). The SHHS collected data from 5730 women, aged 15-49 years and who were pregnant in the last 2 years preceding the survey. The selection of the respondents was through a multi-stage cluster sampling technique. Interviews were conducted with respondents to collect data about their demographic characteristics, reproductive history, pregnancy and child delivery. Univariate analysis and logistic regression were used to analyze the data. Results: The factors associated with receiving antenatal care were, higher educational level (odds ratio (OR) = 3.428, 95 % CI 2.473-4.751 - p value 0.001), higher household wealth (OR 1.656, 95 % CI: 1.484-1.855 - p value 0.001) and low parity (OR =1.214, 95 % CI: 1.035-1.423 - p value 0.017). The factors associated with institutional delivery were higher educational level (OR = 1.929, 95 % CI: 1.380-2.697 - p value 0.001), high household wealth (OR = 2.293, 95 % CI: 1.988-2.644 p value 0.001), urban residence (OR = 1.364, 95 % CI: 1.081-1.721 p value 0.009), low parity (OR = 2.222, 95 % CI: 1/786-2.765 p value 0.001), receiving ANC (OR = 3.342, 95 % CI: 2.306-4.844 p value 0.001) and complications during pregnancy (OR = 1.606, 95 % CI: 1.319-1.957 p value 0.001). Conclusions: The factors associated with both antenatal care use and institutional delivery are similar and interventions to target these include expanding female education and improving coverage and affordability of health services. © 2015 Mustafa and Mukhtar.

Tagelsir A.,University of Khartoum | Khogli A.E.,International University of Africa | Nurelhuda N.M.,University of Khartoum
BMC Oral Health | Year: 2013

Background: Although oral health care is a vital component of overall health, it remains one of the greatest unattended needs among the disabled. The aim of this study was to assess the oral health status and oral health-related quality of life (Child-OIDP in 11-13-year-old) of the visually challenged school attendants in Khartoum State, the Sudan.Methods: A school-based survey was conducted in Al-Nour institute [boys (66.3%), boarders (35.9%), and children with partial visual impairment (PVI) (44.6%)]. Two calibrated dentists examined the participants (n=79) using DMFT/dmft, Simplified Oral Hygiene Index (OHI-S), dental care index, and traumatic dental injuries (TDI) index. Oral health related quality of life (C-OIDP) was administered to 82 schoolchildren.Results: Caries experience was 46.8%. Mean DMFT (age≥12, n=33) was 0.4 ± 0.7 (SiC 1.6), mean dmft (age<12, n=46) was 1.9 ±2.8 (SiC 3.4), mean OHIS 1.3 ± 0.9. Care Index was zero. One fifth of the children suffered TDI (19%). Almost one third (29%) of the 11-13 year old children reported an oral impact on their daily performances. A quarter of the schoolchildren (25.3%) required an urgent treatment need. Analysis showed that children with partial visual impairment (PVI) were 6.3 times (adjusted) more likely to be diagnosed with caries compared to children with complete visual impairment (CVI), and children with caries experience were 1.3 times (unadjusted) more likely to report an oral health related impact on quality of life.Conclusions: Visually impaired schoolchildren are burdened with oral health problems, especially caries. Furthermore, the 11-13 year olds' burden with caries showed a significant impact on their quality of life. © 2013 Tagelsir et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Reafee W.,University of Technology Malaysia | Reafee W.,International University of Africa | Salim N.,University of Technology Malaysia | Khan A.,University of Technology Malaysia
PLoS ONE | Year: 2016

The explosive growth of social networks in recent times has presented a powerful source of information to be utilized as an extra source for assisting in the social recommendation problems. The social recommendation methods that are based on probabilistic matrix factorization improved the recommendation accuracy and partly solved the cold-start and data sparsity problems. However, these methods only exploited the explicit social relations and almost completely ignored the implicit social relations. In this article, we firstly propose an algorithm to extract the implicit relation in the undirected graphs of social networks by exploiting the link prediction techniques. Furthermore, we propose a new probabilistic matrix factorization method to alleviate the data sparsity problem through incorporating explicit friendship and implicit friendship. We evaluate our proposed approach on two real datasets, Last.Fm and Douban. The experimental results show that our method performs much better than the state-of-the-art approaches, which indicates the importance of incorporating implicit social relations in the recommendation process to address the poor prediction accuracy. © 2016 Reafee et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Shinger M.I.,International University of Africa | Elbashir A.A.,University of Khartoum | Ahmed H.E.-O.,University of Khartoum | Aboul-Enein H.Y.,National Research Center of Egypt
Biomedical Chromatography | Year: 2012

In this study simultaneous determination of cypermethrin and fenvalerate residues in tomato fruit (Lycopesicon esculentum) grown in Khartoum, Sudan, was carried out using gas chromatography with electron capture detector (GC-ECD). The method was linear in the ranges of 0.075-0.009 and 0.75-0.037mg/mL for cypermethrin and fenvalerate, respectively. The limits of detection and quantification were found to be 0.003 and 0.01mg/mL and 0.014, 0. 047mg/mL for cypermethrin and fenvalerate, respectively. The recoveries of cypermethrin and fenvalerate spiked in tomato were 97±7.5 and 99.5±1.8%, respectively. The kinetic study of the degradation of both pesticides was performed and the ultimate evaluation of the kinetic data revealed a first-order kinetics with respect to the tomato fruit; an explanation was put forward to account for the results. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

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