International Union Against Tuberculosis and Lung Diseases The Union

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International Union Against Tuberculosis and Lung Diseases The Union

Paris, France
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Chadha S.S.,International Union against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease The Union | BN S.,World Health Organization | Reddy K.,State Training and Demonstration Center | Jaju J.,World Health Organization | And 7 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2011

Background: Revised National TB Control Programme (RNTCP), Andhra Pradesh, India. There is limited information on whether MDR-TB suspects are identified, undergo diagnostic assessment and are initiated on treatment according to the programme guidelines. Objectives: To assess i) using the programme definition, the number and proportion of MDR-TB suspects in a large cohort of TB patients on first-line treatment under RNTCP ii) the proportion of these MDR-TB suspects who underwent diagnosis for MDR-TB and iii) the number and proportion of those diagnosed as MDR-TB who were successfully initiated on treatment. Methods: A retrospective cohort analysis, by reviewing RNTCP records and reports, was conducted in four districts of Andhra Pradesh, India, among patients registered for first line treatment during October 2008 to December 2009. Results: Among 23,999 TB patients registered for treatment there were 559 (2%) MDR-TB suspects (according to programme definition) of which 307 (55%) underwent diagnosis and amongst these 169 (55%) were found to be MDR-TB. Of the MDR-TB patients, 112 (66%) were successfully initiated on treatment. Amongst those eligible for MDR-TB services, significant proportions are lost during the diagnostic and treatment initiation pathway due to a variety of operational challenges. The programme needs to urgently address these challenges for effective delivery and utilisation of the MDR-TB services. © 2011 Chadha et al.

Achanta S.,World Health Organization | Kumar A.M.V.,World Health Organization | Kumar A.M.V.,Directorate General of Health Services | Nagaraja S.B.,World Health Organization | And 9 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2012

Background: Though internationally recommended, provider initiated HIV testing and counseling (PITC) of persons suspected of tuberculosis (TB) is not a policy in India; HIV seroprevalence among TB suspects has never been reported. The current policy of PITC for diagnosed TB cases may limit opportunities of early HIV diagnosis and treatment. We determined HIV seroprevalence among persons suspected of TB and assessed feasibility and effectiveness of PITC implementation at this earlier stage in the TB diagnostic pathway. Methods: All adults examined for diagnostic sputum microscopy (TB suspects) in Vizianagaram district (population 2.5 million), in November-December 2010, were offered voluntary HIV counseling and testing (VCT) and assessed for TB diagnosis. Results: Of 2918 eligible TB suspects, 2465(85%) consented to VCT. Among these, 246(10%) were HIV-positive. Of the 246, 84(34%) were newly diagnosed as HIV (HIV status not known previously). To detect a new case of HIV infection, the number needed to screen (NNS) was 26 among 'TB suspects', comparable to that among 'TB patients'. Among suspects aged 25-54 years, not diagnosed as TB, the NNS was 17. Conclusion: The seroprevalence of HIV among 'TB suspects' was as high as that among 'TB patients'. Implementation of PITC among TB suspects was feasible and effective, detecting a large number of new HIV cases with minimal additional workload on staff of HIV testing centre. HIV testing of TB suspects aged 25-54 years demonstrated higher yield for a given effort, and should be considered by policy makers at least in settings with high HIV prevalence. © 2012 Achanta et al.

Bishnu B.,WHO Country Office | Bhaduri S.,District Tuberculosis Center | Kumar A.M.V.,International Union against Tuberculosis and Lung Diseases The Union | Click E.S.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | And 8 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

Background: National policy in India recommends HIV testing of all patients with TB. In West Bengal state, only 28% of patients with TB were tested for HIV between April-June, 2010. We conducted a cross-sectional survey to understand patient, provider and health system related factors associated with low uptake of HIV testing among patients with TB. Methods: We reviewed TB and HIV program records to assess the HIV testing status of patients registered for anti-TB treatment from July-September 2010 in South-24-Parganas district, West Bengal, assessed availability of HIV testing kits and interviewed a random sample of patients with TB and providers. Results: Among 1633 patients with TB with unknown HIV status at the time of diagnosis, 435 (26%) were tested for HIV within the intensive phase of TB treatment. Patients diagnosed with and treated for TB at facilities with co-located HIV testing services were more likely to get tested for HIV than at facilities without [RR = 1.27, (95% CI 1.20-3.35)]. Among 169 patients interviewed, 67 reported they were referred for HIV testing, among whom 47 were tested. During interviews, providers attributed the low proportion of patients with TB being referred and tested for HIV to inadequate knowledge among providers about the national policy, belief that patients will not test for HIV even if they are referred, shortage of HIV testing kits, and inadequate supervision by both programs. Discussion: In West Bengal, poor uptake of HIV testing among patients with TB was associated with absence of HIV testing services at sites providing TB care services and to poor referral practices among providers. Comprehensive strategies to change providers' beliefs and practices, decentralization of HIV testing to all TB care centers, and improved HIV test kit supply chain management may increase the proportion of patients with TB who are tested for HIV. © 2013 Bishnu et al.

Achanta S.,World Health Organization | Jaju J.,World Health Organization | Kumar A.M.V.,Directorate General of Health Services | Nagaraja S.B.,World Health Organization | And 8 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

Setting:Private medical practitioners in Visakhapatnam district, Andhra Pradesh, India.Objectives:To evaluate self-reported TB diagnostic and treatment practices amongst private medical practitioners against benchmark practices articulated in the International Standards of Tuberculosis Care (ISTC), and factors associated with compliance with ISTC.Design:Cross- sectional survey using semi-structured interviews.Results:Of 296 randomly selected private practitioners, 201 (68%) were assessed for compliance to ISTC diagnostic and treatment standards in TB management. Only 11 (6%) followed a combination of 6 diagnostic standards together and only 1 followed a combination of all seven treatment standards together. There were 28 (14%) private practitioners who complied with a combination of three core ISTC (cough for tuberculosis suspects, sputum smear examination and use of standardized treatment). Higher ISTC compliance was associated with caring for more than 20 TB patients annually, prior sensitization to TB control guidelines, and practice of alternate systems of medicine.Conclusion:Few private practitioners in Visakhapatnam, India reported TB diagnostic and treatment practices that met ISTC. Better engagement of the private sector is urgently required to improve TB management practices and to prevent diagnostic delay and drug resistance. © 2013 Achanta et al.

Satyanarayana S.,Center for Operational Research | Shivashankar R.,All India Institute of Medical Sciences | Vashist R.P.,State Tuberculosis Office | Chauhan L.S.,Directorate General of Health Services | And 7 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2010

Background: Childhood tuberculosis (TB) patients under India's Revised National TB Control Programme (RNTCP) are managed using diagnostic algorithms and directly observed treatment with intermittent thrice-weekly short-course treatment regimens for 6-8 months. The assignment into pre-treatment weight bands leads to drug doses (milligram per kilogram) that are lower than current World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines for some patients. Objectives: The main aim of our study was to describe the baseline characteristics and treatment outcomes reported under RNTCP for registered childhood (age <15 years) TB patients in Delhi. Additionally, we compared the reported programmatic treatment completion rates between children treated as per WHO recommended anti-TB drug doses with those children treated with anti-TB drug doses below that recommended in WHO guidelines. Methods: For this cross-sectional retrospective study, we reviewed programme records of all 1089 TB patients aged <15 years registered for TB treatment from January to June, 2008 in 6 randomly selected districts of Delhi. WHO disease classification and treatment outcome definitions are used by RNTCP, and these were extracted as reported in programme records. Results and Conclusions: Among 1074 patients with records available, 651 (61%) were females, 122 (11%) were <5 years of age, 1000 (93%) were new cases, and 680 (63%) had extra-pulmonary TB (EP-TB)-most commonly peripheral lymph node disease [310 (46%)]. Among 394 pulmonary TB (PTB) cases, 165 (42%) were sputum smear-positive. The overall reported treatment completion rate was 95%. Similar reported treatment completion rates were found in all subgroups assessed, including those patients whose drug dosages were lower than that currently recommended by WHO. Further studies are needed to assess the reasons for the low proportion of under-5 years of age TB case notifications, address challenges in reaching all childhood TB patients by RNTCP, the accuracy of diagnosis, and the clinical validity of reported programme defined treatment completion. © 2010 Satyanarayana et al.

Patra S.,University of Delhi | Lukhmana S.,University of Delhi | Tayler Smith K.,Médecins Sans Frontières | Kannan A.T.,University of Delhi | And 5 more authors.
Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene | Year: 2013

Background: Given India's high rate of TB, rising burden of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) and growing elderly population, elderly TB patients may be at higher risk of adverse outcomes including death, loss-to-follow-up (LTFU) and treatment failure. This may call for modifications in their management. This study thus aimed to compare the profile and treatment outcomes between elderly (≥60 years) and non-elderly (15-59 years) TB patients. Methods: This was a retrospective cohort study using routinely-collected programme data from a chest clinic in Delhi, India. It included all elderly and selected non-elderly TB patients registered for treatment between 2005 and 2010. Data on patients' clinical and demographic characteristics and treatment outcomes were analysed. Results: There were 812 elderly and 1624 non-elderly TB patients. Elderly patients were more likely to be male (63.2% vs 51.1%) and have smear-positive TB (56.0% vs 47.4%). Adverse outcomes were more frequent among elderly patients (adjusted OR 1.9, 95% CI: 1.5-2.4), specifically deaths (adjusted OR 5.0, 95% CI: 3.1-8.1) and lost-to-follow-up (adjusted OR 1.4, 95% CI: 1.0-1.9). Conclusions: The profile and worse outcomes of elderly Indian TB patients may be indicative of co-existing NCDs. This needs further investigation and likely calls for a more comprehensive and intensive approach to their management. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved.

Afutu F.K.,Ghana Health Services | Zachariah R.,Médecins Sans Frontières | Hinderaker S.G.,University of Bergen | Ntoah-Boadi H.,Ridge Regional Hospital | And 3 more authors.
Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene | Year: 2012

Sputum smear-positive TB patients, diagnosed in the laboratory, who never start anti-TB treatment are classified as 'initial defaulters'. In Ridge Hospital, Accra, Ghana, there were 84 laboratory confirmed TB cases in 2009, of whom 32 (38%) were initial defaulters. Cure and default rates based on this cohort were 54% and 43% respectively, compared with rates of 87% and 8% when using the cohort based on 52 patients registered for treatment. This study highlights the problem of initial defaulters, and shows that programme performance may be poor when patients in laboratory registers are used as the cohort to evaluate treatment outcomes. © 2012 Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

PubMed | International Union Against Tuberculosis and Lung Diseases The Union, Addis Ababa Institute of Technology and Médecins Sans Frontières
Type: | Journal: The Pan African medical journal | Year: 2015

Infective endocarditis is an infection of the endocardial lining of the heart mainly associated with congenital and rheumatic heart disease. Although it is a rare disease in children, it is associated with high morbidity and mortality; death due to infective endocarditis has been reported to be as high as 26% in sub-Saharan Africa.This was a retrospective review of routinely collected data from patient records.A total of 40 children (71% female) with 41 episodes of infective endocarditis admitted to a general paediatric ward in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia between 2008 and 2013. Age ranged from 7 months to 14 years, with a median of 9 years (Inter quartile Range: 7-12 years). Rheumatic and congenital heart diseases were underlying risk factors in 49% and 51% of cases respectively. Congestive heart failure, systemic embolization and death occurred in 66%, 12% and 7.3% respectively. Death was associated with the occurrence of systemic embolization (P-value=0.03).Rheumatic heart disease was an important predisposing factor for infective endocarditis in Ethiopian children. Late presentations of cases were evidenced by high proportion of complications such as congestive heart failure. A low rate of clinically evident systemic embolization in this study may be a reflection of the diagnostic challenges. High proportion of prior antibiotic intake might explain the cause of significant BCNE. Preventive measures like primary and secondary prophylaxis of rheumatic fever may decrease the associated morbidity and mortality. Early detection and referral of cases, awareness creation about indiscriminate use of antimicrobials, and proper history taking and documentation of information recommended.

Nayak P.,World Health Organization | Kumar A.M.V.,International Union against Tuberculosis and Lung Diseases The Union | Claassens M.,University of Cape Town | Enarson D.A.,International Union against Tuberculosis and Lung Diseases The Union | And 7 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

Background:The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends same day sputum microscopy (spot-spot) in preference to conventional strategy (spot-morning) for the diagnosis of smear positive tuberculosis with the view that completing diagnosis on a single day may be more convenient to the patients and reduce pre-treatment losses to follow-up.Methods:We conducted a cross-sectional study in seven selected district level hospitals of Chhattisgarh State, India. During October 2012 - March 2013, two sputum specimens (spot-early morning) were collected from consecutively enrolled adult (≥18 years) presumptive TB patients as per current national guidelines. In addition, a second sample was collected (one hour after the collection of first spot sample) from the same patients. All the samples were examined by ziehl-Neelsen (ZN) microscopy. McNemar's test was used to compare statistical differences in the proportion smear positive between the two approaches (spot-spot versus spot-morning).Results:Of 2551 presumptive TB patients, 69% were male. All patients provided the first spot specimen, 2361 (93%) provided the second spot specimen, and 2435 (96%) provided an early morning specimen. 72% of specimens were mucopurulent in conventional strategy as compared to 60% in same day strategy. The proportion of smear-positive patients diagnosed by same day microscopy was 14%, as compared to 17% by the conventional method (p<0.001). A total of 73 (16.9%) potential cases were missed by the same day method compared to only 2 (0.5%) by the conventional method.Conclusion:Same-day microscopy method missed 17% of smear-positive cases and contrary to prior perception, did not increase the proportion of suspects providing the second sample. These findings call for an urgent need to revisit the WHO recommendation of switching to same-day diagnosis over the current policy. © 2013 NAYAK et al.

PubMed | International Union against Tuberculosis and Lung Diseases The Union, World Health Organization, GMERS Medical College, Commissionerate of Health and 2 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: PloS one | Year: 2015

Revised National TB Control Programme (RNTCP) in India recommends that all previously-treated TB (PT) patients are offered drug susceptibility testing (DST) at diagnosis, using rapid diagnostics and screened out for rifampicin resistance before being treated with standardized, eight-month, retreatment regimen. This is intended to improve the early diagnosis of rifampicin resistance and its appropriate management and improve the treatment outcomes among the rest of the patients. In this state-wide study from Gujarat, India, we assess proportion of PT patients underwent rapid DST at diagnosis and the impact of this intervention on their treatment outcomes.This is a retrospective cohort study involving review of electronic patient-records maintained routinely under RNTCP. All PT patients registered for treatment in Gujarat during January-June 2013 were included. Information on DST and treatment outcomes were extracted from presumptive DR-TB patient register and TB treatment register respectively. We performed a multivariate analysis to assess if getting tested is independently associated with unfavourable outcomes (death, loss-to-follow-up, failure, transfer out).Of 5,829 PT patients, 5306(91%) were tested for drug susceptibility with rapid diagnostics. Overall, 71% (4,113) TB patients were successfully treated - 72% among tested versus 60% among non-tested. Patients who did not get tested at diagnosis had a 34% higher risk of unsuccessful outcomes as compared to those who got tested (aRR - 1.34; 95% CI 1.20-1.50) after adjusting for age, sex, HIV status and type of TB. Unfavourable outcomes (particularly failure and switched to category IV) were higher among INH-resistant patients (39%) as compared to INH-sensitive (29%).Offering DST at diagnosis improved the treatment outcomes among PT patients. However, even among tested, treatment outcomes remained suboptimal and were related to INH resistance and high loss-to-follow-up. These need to be addressed urgently for further progress.

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