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Motiwala A.S.,Rutgers University | Dai Y.,Rutgers University | Jones-Lopez E.C.,Rutgers University | Hwang S.-H.,National Masan Tuberculosis Hospital | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Infectious Diseases | Year: 2010

Background. Highly lethal outbreaks of multidrug-resistant (MDR) and extensively drug-resistant (XDR) tuberculosis are increasing. Whole-genome sequencing of KwaZulu-Natal MDR and XDR outbreak strains prevalent in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients by the Broad Institute identified 22 novel mutations which were unique to the XDR genome or shared only by the MDR and XDR genomes and not already known to be associated with drug resistance. Methods. We studied the 12 novel mutations which were not located in highly-repetitive genes to identify mutations that were truly associated with drug resistance or were likely to confer a specific fitness advantage. Results. None of these mutations could be found in a phylogenetically and geographically diverse set of drug-resistant and drug-susceptible Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates, suggesting that these mutations are unique to the KZN clone. Examination of the 600-basepair region flanking each mutation revealed 26 new mutations. We searched for a convergent evolutionary signal in the new mutations for evidence that they emerged under selective pressure, consistent with increased fitness. However, all but 1 rare mutation were monophyletic, indicating that the mutations were markers of strain phylogeny rather than fitness or drug resistance. Conclusions. Our results suggest that virulent XDR tuberculosis in immunocompromised HIV-infected patients can evolve without generalizable fitness changes or other XDR-specific mutations. © 2010 by the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved.

Jeon B.-Y.,Yonsei University | Kim S.-C.,Yonsei University | Eum S.-Y.,International Tuberculosis Research Center | Cho S.-N.,Yonsei University
Microbes and Infection | Year: 2011

The anti-tuberculosis vaccine, Mycobacterium bovis BCG, has been used worldwide, but its protective efficacy is variable against adult pulmonary tuberculosis. In this study, immune responses of antigen 85A (Ag85A) and heat-shock protein X (HspX) antigen of Mycobacterium tuberculosis were investigated during acute and stationary stage of infection in the murine aerosol TB challenge model and their protective effects were evaluated against progressive tuberculosis. A high level of Ag85A-specific IFN-γ production was induced from the early stage of the infection, whereas HspX-specific IFN-γ production was increased in the later stationary stage. As a subunit vaccine, Ag85A and HspX antigen vaccine induced high levels of IFN-γ, and a vaccine comprising both antigens induced the highest level of IFN-γ. At 30 days post-challenge, the Ag85A subunit vaccine was protective against M. tuberculosis challenge, but the HspX subunit vaccine was not. Interestingly, the HspX antigen vaccine induced significant protective efficacy at 90 days post-challenge. Moreover, the combined antigen vaccine induced the highest protective efficacy against M. tuberculosis challenge both at 30 days and 90 days post-challenge. These results suggest that the vaccine comprising Ag85A and HspX antigen which react in different stages of infection is highly protective against progressive tuberculosis. © 2010 Institut Pasteur.

Lienhardt C.,International Union Against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease | Cook S.V.,International Union Against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease | Burgos M.,University of New Mexico | Yorke-Edwards V.,Medical Research Council Clinical Trials Unit | And 6 more authors.
JAMA - Journal of the American Medical Association | Year: 2011

Context Fixed-dose combinations (FDCs) of drugs for treatment of tuberculosis have been advocated to prevent the emergence of drug resistance. Objective To assess the efficacy and safety of a 4-drug FDC for the treatment of tuberculosis. Design, Setting, and Patients The Study C trial, a parallel-group, open-label, noninferiority, randomized controlled trial conducted in 11 sites in Africa, Asia, and Latin America between 2003 and 2008. Patients were 1585 adults with newly diagnosed smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis. Interventions Patients were randomized to receive daily treatment with 4 drugs (rifampicin, isoniazid, pyrazinamide, ethambutol) given as an FDC (n=798 patients) or separately (n=787) in the 8-week intensive phase of treatment. Main OutcomeMeasure Favorable treatment outcome, defined as negative culture result at 18 months post randomization and not having already been classified as unfavorable. Noninferiority was dependent on consistent results from a per-protocol and modified intention-to-treat analysis, using 2 different models for the latter, classifying all changes of treatment or refusal to continue treatment (eg, bacteriological failure/relapse, adverse event, default, drug resistance) as unfavorable (model 1) and classifying changes of treatment for reasons other than therapeutic outcomes according to their 18-month bacteriological outcome if available (post hoc model 2). The prespecified noninferiority margin was 4%. Results In the per-protocol analysis, 555 of 591 patients (93.9%) had a favorable outcome in the FDC group vs 548 of 579 (94.6%) in the separate-drugs group (risk difference, -0.7% [90% confidence interval {CI}, -3.0% to 1.5%]). In the model 1 analysis, 570 of 684 patients (83.3%) had a favorable outcome in the FDC group vs 563 of 664 (84.8%) in the separate-drugs group (risk difference, -1.5% [90% CI, -4.7% to 1.8%]). In the post hoc model 2 analysis, 591 of 658 patients (89.8%) in the FDC group and 589 of 647 (91.0%) in the separate-drugs group had a favorable outcome (risk difference, -1.2% [90% CI, -3.9% to 1.5%]). Adverse events related to trial drugs were similarly distributed among treatment groups. Conclusions Compared with a regimen of separately administered drugs, a 4-drug FDC regimen for treatment of tuberculosis satisfied prespecified noninferiority criteria in 2 of 3 analyses. Although the results do not demonstrate full noninferiority of the FDCs compared with single drugs given separately using the strict definition applied in this trial, use of FDCs is preferred because of potential advantages associated with the administration of FDCs compared with separate-drug formulations. © 2011 American Medical Association. All rights reserved.

Chakravorty S.,Rutgers University | Lee J.S.,International Tuberculosis Research Center | Cho E.J.,International Tuberculosis Research Center | Roh S.S.,Rutgers University | And 8 more authors.
Journal of Clinical Microbiology | Year: 2015

Resistance to amikacin (AMK) and kanamycin (KAN) in clinical Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains is largely determined by specific mutations in the rrs gene and eis gene promoter. We developed a rapid, multiplexed sloppy molecular beacon (SMB) assay to identify these mutations and then evaluated assay performance on 603 clinical M. tuberculosis DNA samples collected in South Korea. Assay performance was compared to gold-standard phenotypic drug susceptibility tests, including Lowenstein- Jensen (LJ) absolute concentration, mycobacterial growth indicator tubes (MGIT), and TREK Sensititre MycoTB MIC plate (MycoTB) methods. Target amplicons were also tested for mutations by Sanger sequencing. The SMB assay correctly detected 115/116 mutant and mixed sequences and 487/487 wild-type sequences (sensitivity and specificity of 99.1 and 100%, respectively). Using the LJ method as the reference, sensitivity and specificity for AMK resistance were 92.2% and 100%, respectively, and sensitivity and specificity for KAN resistance were 87.7% and 95.6%, respectively. Mutations in the rrs gene were unequivocally associated with high-level cross-resistance to AMK and KAN in all three conventional drug susceptibility testing methods. However, eis promoter mutations were associated with KAN resistance using the MGIT or MycoTB methods but not the LJ method. No testing method associated eis promoter mutations with AMK resistance. Among the discordant samples with AMK and/or KAN resistance but wild-type sequence at the target genes, we discovered four new mutations in the whiB7 5= untranslated region (UTR) in 6/22 samples. All six samples were resistant only to KAN, suggesting the possible role of these whiB7 5= UTR mutations in KAN resistance. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

Coleman M.T.,University of Pittsburgh | Chen R.Y.,National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases | Lee M.,International Tuberculosis Research Center | Lin P.L.,University of Pittsburgh | And 15 more authors.
Science Translational Medicine | Year: 2014

Oxazolidinone antibiotics such as linezolid have shown significant therapeutic effects in patients with extensively drug-resistant (XDR) tuberculosis (TB) despite modest effects in rodents and no demonstrable early bactericidal activity in human phase 2 trials. We show that monotherapy with either linezolid or AZD5847, a second-generation oxazolidinone, reduced bacterial load at necropsy in Mycobacterium tuberculosis-infected cynomolgus macaques with active TB. This effect coincided with a decline in 2-deoxy-2-[18F]-fluoro-D-glucose positron emission tomography (FDG PET) imaging avidity in the lungs of these animals and with reductions in pulmonary pathology measured by serial computed tomography (CT) scans over 2 months of monotherapy. In a parallel phase 2 clinical study of linezolid in patients infected with XDR-TB, we also collected PET/CT imaging data from subjects receiving linezolid that had been added to their failing treatment regimens. Quantitative comparisons of PET/CT imaging changes in these human subjectswere similar inmagnitude to those observed inmacaques, demonstrating that the therapeutic effect of these oxazolidinones can be reproduced in this model of experimental chemotherapy. PET/CT imaging may be useful as an early quantitative measure of drug efficacy against TB in human patients. © 2014; American Association for the Advancement of Science. All rights reserved.

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