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Gunther F.-H.,International Steering Committee | Nagy D.,International Steering Committee
2011 IEEE International Conference on Mechatronics and Automation, ICMA 2011 | Year: 2011

The Intelligent Manufacturing Systems (IMS) Scheme is an industry-led, research and development (R&D) program that facilitates research in advanced manufacturing through international cooperation. IMS is the world's only government-supported multi-lateral program for manufacturing research and development. It was established in order to provide a framework for cooperative R&D to share costs, risks, and expertise leading to improved manufacturing operations, enhanced international competitiveness, and technology breakthroughs via industrially driven R&D and innovation. © 2011 IEEE. Source

Chen Z.,University of Oxford | Smith M.,University of Oxford | Du H.,University of Oxford | Guo Y.,Chinese Academy of Sciences | And 146 more authors.
International Journal of Epidemiology | Year: 2015

Background: Greater adiposity is associated with higher blood pressure. Substantial uncertainty remains, however, about which measures of adiposity most strongly predict blood pressure and whether these associations differ materially between populations. Methods: We examined cross-sectional data on 500 000 adults recruited from 10 diverse localities across China during 2004-08. Multiple linear regression was used to estimate the effects on systolic blood pressure (SBP) of general adiposity [e.g. body mass index (BMI), body fat percentage, height-adjusted weight] vs central adiposity [e.g. waist circumference (WC), hip circumference (HC), waist-hip ratio (WHR)], before and after adjustment for each other. The main analyses excluded those reported taking any antihypertensive medication, and were adjusted for age, region and education. Results: The overall mean [standard deviation (SD)] BMI was 23.6 (3.3) kg/m2 and mean WC was 80.0 (9.5) cm. The differences in SBP (men/women, mmHg) per 1SD higher general adiposity (height-adjusted weight: 6.6/5.6; BMI: 5.5/4.9; body fat percentage: 5.5/5.0) were greater than for central adiposity (WC: 5.0/4.3; HC: 4.8/4.1; WHR: 3.7/3.2), with a 10 kg/m2 greater BMI being associated on average with 16 (men/women: 17/14) mmHg higher SBP. The associations of blood pressure with measures of general adiposity were not materially altered by adjusting for WC and HC, but those for central adiposity were significantly attenuated after adjusting for BMI (WC: 1.1/0.7; HC: 0.3/-0.2; WHR: 0.6/0.6). Conclusion: In adult Chinese, blood pressure is more strongly associated with general adiposity than with central adiposity, and the associations with BMI were about 50% stronger than those observed in Western populations. © The Author 2015. Source

Bragg F.,University of Oxford | Li L.,Beihang University | Smith M.,University of Oxford | Guo Y.,Chinese Academy of Sciences | And 96 more authors.
Diabetic Medicine | Year: 2014

Aims: To examine the relationship of self-reported diabetes, and of random blood glucose levels among individuals without known diabetes, with the prevalence of cardiovascular disease in Chinese adults. Methods: We examined cross-sectional data from the China Kadoorie Biobank of 0.5 million people aged 30-79 years recruited from 10 diverse regions of China in the period 2004-2008. Logistic regression was used to estimate the odds ratios of prevalent cardiovascular disease associated with self-reported diabetes, and with measured random blood glucose levels among participants with no history of diabetes, adjusting simultaneously for age, sex, area, education, smoking, alcohol, blood pressure and physical activity. Results: A total of 3.2% of participants had self-reported diabetes (men 2.9%; women 3.3%) and 2.8% had screen-detected diabetes (men 2.6%; women 2.8%), i.e. they had no self-reported history of diabetes but a blood glucose level suggestive of a diagnosis of diabetes. Compared with individuals without a history of diabetes, the odds ratios associated with self-reported diabetes were 2.18 (95% CI 2.06-2.30) and 1.88 (95% CI 1.75-2.01) for prevalent ischaemic heart disease and stroke/transient ischaemic attack, respectively. Among participants without self-reported diabetes there was a positive association between random blood glucose and ischaemic heart disease and stroke/transient ischaemic attack prevalence (P for trend <0.0001). Below the diabetic threshold (<11.1 mmol/l) each additional 1 mmol/l of random blood glucose was associated with 4% (95% CI 2-5%) and 5% (95% CI 3-7%) higher odds of prevalent ischaemic heart disease and stroke/transient ischaemic attack, respectively. Conclusions: In this adult Chinese population, self-reported diabetes was associated with a doubling of the odds of prevalent cardiovascular disease. Below the threshold for diabetes there was still a modest, positive association between random blood glucose and prevalent cardiovascular disease. © 2013 The Authors. Diabetic Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Diabetes UK. Source

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