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News Article | April 28, 2017
Site: www.chromatographytechniques.com

With Cassini making final preparations to penetrate Saturn's rings, and renewed interest in colonizing the Moon and sending people to Mars, space flight and exploration are experiencing a level of interest not seen since the Apollo missions to the Moon in the late 60's and 70's, and the space shuttle program of the 80's. Space travel and exploration have resulted in a variety of technological developments that have benefitted life on Earth - but could the experiences of humans in space also have impact on our understanding of terrestrial human health? Scientists at the University of Plymouth and Northumbria University, Newcastle, are helping to write the medical rulebook that will keep astronauts fit and healthy during long trips through the solar system. While working at the European Astronaut Centre (EAC), in Germany, Northumbria's Andrew Winnard realized there was very little evidence housed under one roof about what changes we expect to occur in astronauts during spaceflight, and what interventions work best to try and prevent these changes. Winnard also noticed that there was no systematic review group for the entire aerospace medicine field, like there are for almost all other areas of medicine. He recommended a systematic review group for aerospace medicine to look at the effectiveness of interventions to prevent health and fitness changes among astronauts and military and civil aviators that will facilitate reviews to inform operational medical guidelines and decision-making processes. He enlisted the support of systematic review expert, co-convener of the Cochrane Priority Settings Method Group and qualified pilot, Mona Nasser from the University of Plymouth, to help formulate the group. As well as benefiting astronauts and those working in space, the learning will also be used to inform medical practice on Earth, such as in the treatment of lower back pain. Northumbria is working with experts from the University of Plymouth, the Aerospace Medical Association (AsMA), the European Space Agency (ESA), the Royal Air Force (RAF) the International Space University and Blue Abyss - the world's largest research, training and development pool for marine and aerospace - to launch this review group at an aerospace medicine conference in the U.S. in May 2017. The group are also launching their website at the Aerospace Medical Association 2017 Annual Scientific Meeting in Denver, between April 29- and May 4 2017. The Aerospace Medicine Systematic Review Group will facilitate pooling of studies done in aerospace medicine under one roof and ensure that results of reviews are used to feed into comprehensive guidelines that will feed into major operational decisions. "The group is developing and publishing methods that can be used by anyone undertaking aerospace systematic reviews. These tools help researchers understand and assess what is good quality aerospace research. For example, one tool already developed and available freely online (at our website) helps researchers determine the quality of bed rest studies often used to similar spaceflight for research," Winnard said. "Already the ESA is hoping the group can help lead reviews to answer questions such as, what exercises will work in small spacecraft on missions that return to the moon, compared to on the International Space Station (ISS) and also asking how the medical challenges will be different on the moon compared to what we are familiar with on ISS." "Systematic reviews are vital to helping clinicians, researchers and the public make sense of published research. Research evidence needs to be considered in the context of evidence which has gone before in the form of a systematic review. Only by looking at the full picture in a systematic manner can we hope to glean a glimmer of understanding. By bringing the discipline of the systematic review to research around aerospace medicine, we believe we can help aerospace clinicians make the most of the research available to improve their practices and benefit their patients. That this can be translated to 'Earth-bound' medicine is also exciting," Nasser added. Northumbria University has already worked with ESA and international collaborators including astronauts to conduct a systematic review of the effectiveness of exercise to protect the lower spine and pelvis from changes that happen in space. The review found no current researched exercises are fully effective at preventing these changes so post flight rehab is needed. Northumbria is now developing the "Functional Re-adaptive Exercise Device," known as FRED, which has been created to combat the back problems astronauts suffer when they return to earth. The device can also be used by those that have developed back pain on Earth. "As more people go into space and as space exploration expands beyond low earth orbit, effective countermeasures to low gravity environments become even more essential for crew health and mission success," Former NASA Astronaut Dan Barry said. "Existing literature on space health topics is widely scattered and of highly variable quality. A dedicated systematic aerospace medicine review group is important to provide a consistent, high quality assessment of findings that will lead to improved medical decisions." "Aerospace medicine like all other areas of medicine is striving to improve the evidence base to its practice. The establishment of an aerospace medicine systematic review group is a great step toward more evidence based practice in this field; it is warmly welcomed and strongly supported by the RAF Centre of Aviation Medicine," added Wing Commander Pete Hodkinson, Consultant in Aviation and Space Medicine for the RAF Centre of Aviation Medicine.


News Article | April 28, 2017
Site: www.eurekalert.org

With Cassini making final preparations to penetrate Saturn's rings, and renewed interest in colonising the Moon and sending people to Mars, space flight and exploration are experiencing a level of interest not seen since the Apollo missions to the Moon in the late 60's and 70's, and the space shuttle programme of the 80's. Space travel and exploration have resulted in a variety of technological developments which have benefitted life on Earth - but could the experiences of humans in space also have impact on our understanding of terrestrial human health? Scientists at the University of Plymouth and Northumbria University, Newcastle, are helping to write the medical rulebook that will keep astronauts fit and healthy during long trips through the solar system. While working at the European Astronaut Centre (EAC), in Germany, Northumbria's Dr Andrew Winnard realised there was very little evidence housed under one roof on what changes we expect to occur in astronauts during spaceflight - and what interventions work best to try and prevent these changes. Andrew also noticed that there was no systematic review group for the entire aerospace medicine field, like there are for almost all other areas of medicine. He recommended a systematic review group for aerospace medicine, to look at the effectiveness of interventions to prevent health and fitness changes among astronauts and military and civil aviators that will facilitate reviews to inform operational medical guidelines and decision-making processes. He enlisted the support of systematic review expert, co-convener of the Cochrane Priority Settings Method Group and qualified pilot, Dr Mona Nasser from the University of Plymouth, to help formulate the group. As well as benefiting astronauts and those working in space, the learning will also be used to inform medical practice on Earth; such as in the treatment of lower back pain. Northumbria is working with experts from the University of Plymouth, the Aerospace Medical Association (AsMA), the European Space Agency (ESA), the Royal Air Force (RAF) the International Space University and Blue Abyss - the world's largest research, training and development pool for marine and aerospace - to launch this review group at an aerospace medicine conference in the US in May 2017. The group are also launching their website at the Aerospace Medical Association 2017 Annual Scientific Meeting in Denver, between April 29- and May 4 2017. The Aerospace Medicine Systematic Review Group will facilitate pooling of studies done in aerospace medicine under one roof and ensure that results of reviews are used to feed into comprehensive guidelines that will feed into major operational decisions. Dr Winnard, Lecturer in Clinical/Musculoskeletal Biomechanics at Northumbria University and Coordinator of the UK Space Environments Association, said: "The group is developing and publishing methods that can be used by anyone undertaking aerospace systematic reviews. These tools help researchers understand and assess what is good quality aerospace research. For example, one tool already developed and available freely online (at our website) helps researchers determine the quality of bed rest studies often used to similar spaceflight for research. "Already the ESA is hoping the group can help lead reviews to answer questions such as, what exercises will work in small spacecraft on missions that return to the moon, compared to on the International Space Station (ISS) and also asking how the medical challenges will be different on the moon compared to what we are familiar with on ISS." Dr Mona Nasser from Plymouth University Peninsula Schools of Medicine and Dentistry added: "Systematic reviews are vital to helping clinicians, researchers and the public make sense of published research. Research evidence needs to be considered in the context of evidence which has gone before in the form of a systematic review. Only by looking at the full picture in a systematic manner can we hope to glean a glimmer of understanding. By bringing the discipline of the systematic review to research around aerospace medicine, we believe we can help aerospace clinicians make the most of the research available to improve their practices and benefit their patients. That this can be translated to 'Earth-bound' medicine is also exciting." Northumbria University has already worked with ESA and international collaborators including astronauts to conduct a systematic review of the effectiveness of exercise to protect the lower spine and pelvis from changes that happen in space. The review found no current researched exercises are fully effective at preventing these changes so post flight rehab is needed. Northumbria is now developing the 'Functional Re-adaptive Exercise Device', known as FRED, which has been created to combat the back problems astronauts suffer when they return to earth. The device can also be used by those that have developed back pain on Earth. Former NASA Astronaut Dan Barry said: "As more people go into space and as space exploration expands beyond low earth orbit, effective countermeasures to low gravity environments become even more essential for crew health and mission success. "Existing literature on space health topics is widely scattered and of highly variable quality. A dedicated systematic aerospace medicine review group is important to provide a consistent, high quality assessment of findings that will lead to improved medical decisions." Wing Commander Pete Hodkinson, Consultant in Aviation and Space Medicine for the RAF Centre of Aviation Medicine added: "Aerospace medicine like all other areas of medicine is striving to improve the evidence base to its practice. The establishment of an aerospace medicine systematic review group is a great step towards more evidence based practice in this field; it is warmly welcomed and strongly supported by the RAF Centre of Aviation Medicine."


News Article | April 28, 2017
Site: phys.org

Space travel and exploration have resulted in a variety of technological developments which have benefitted life on Earth - but could the experiences of humans in space also have impact on our understanding of terrestrial human health? Scientists at the University of Plymouth and Northumbria University, Newcastle, are helping to write the medical rulebook that will keep astronauts fit and healthy during long trips through the solar system. While working at the European Astronaut Centre (EAC), in Germany, Northumbria's Dr Andrew Winnard realised there was very little evidence housed under one roof on what changes we expect to occur in astronauts during spaceflight - and what interventions work best to try and prevent these changes. Andrew also noticed that there was no systematic review group for the entire aerospace medicine field, like there are for almost all other areas of medicine. He recommended a systematic review group for aerospace medicine, to look at the effectiveness of interventions to prevent health and fitness changes among astronauts and military and civil aviators that will facilitate reviews to inform operational medical guidelines and decision-making processes. He enlisted the support of systematic review expert, co-convener of the Cochrane Priority Settings Method Group and qualified pilot, Dr Mona Nasser from the University of Plymouth, to help formulate the group. As well as benefiting astronauts and those working in space, the learning will also be used to inform medical practice on Earth; such as in the treatment of lower back pain. Northumbria is working with experts from the University of Plymouth, the Aerospace Medical Association (AsMA), the European Space Agency (ESA), the Royal Air Force (RAF) the International Space University and Blue Abyss - the world's largest research, training and development pool for marine and aerospace - to launch this review group at an aerospace medicine conference in the US in May 2017. The group are also launching their website at the Aerospace Medical Association 2017 Annual Scientific Meeting in Denver, between April 29- and May 4 2017. The Aerospace Medicine Systematic Review Group will facilitate pooling of studies done in aerospace medicine under one roof and ensure that results of reviews are used to feed into comprehensive guidelines that will feed into major operational decisions. Dr Winnard, Lecturer in Clinical/Musculoskeletal Biomechanics at Northumbria University and Coordinator of the UK Space Environments Association, said: "The group is developing and publishing methods that can be used by anyone undertaking aerospace systematic reviews. These tools help researchers understand and assess what is good quality aerospace research. For example, one tool already developed and available freely online (at our website) helps researchers determine the quality of bed rest studies often used to similar spaceflight for research. "Already the ESA is hoping the group can help lead reviews to answer questions such as, what exercises will work in small spacecraft on missions that return to the moon, compared to on the International Space Station (ISS) and also asking how the medical challenges will be different on the moon compared to what we are familiar with on ISS." Dr Mona Nasser from Plymouth University Peninsula Schools of Medicine and Dentistry added: "Systematic reviews are vital to helping clinicians, researchers and the public make sense of published research. Research evidence needs to be considered in the context of evidence which has gone before in the form of a systematic review. Only by looking at the full picture in a systematic manner can we hope to glean a glimmer of understanding. By bringing the discipline of the systematic review to research around aerospace medicine, we believe we can help aerospace clinicians make the most of the research available to improve their practices and benefit their patients. That this can be translated to 'Earth-bound' medicine is also exciting." Northumbria University has already worked with ESA and international collaborators including astronauts to conduct a systematic review of the effectiveness of exercise to protect the lower spine and pelvis from changes that happen in space. The review found no current researched exercises are fully effective at preventing these changes so post flight rehab is needed. Northumbria is now developing the 'Functional Re-adaptive Exercise Device', known as FRED, which has been created to combat the back problems astronauts suffer when they return to earth. The device can also be used by those that have developed back pain on Earth. Former NASA Astronaut Dan Barry said: "As more people go into space and as space exploration expands beyond low earth orbit, effective countermeasures to low gravity environments become even more essential for crew health and mission success. "Existing literature on space health topics is widely scattered and of highly variable quality. A dedicated systematic aerospace medicine review group is important to provide a consistent, high quality assessment of findings that will lead to improved medical decisions." Wing Commander Pete Hodkinson, Consultant in Aviation and Space Medicine for the RAF Centre of Aviation Medicine added: "Aerospace medicine like all other areas of medicine is striving to improve the evidence base to its practice. The establishment of an aerospace medicine systematic review group is a great step towards more evidence based practice in this field; it is warmly welcomed and strongly supported by the RAF Centre of Aviation Medicine." Explore further: European space agency to help NASA take humans beyond moon


News Article | January 20, 2016
Site: www.fastcompany.com

Natalie Panek has been staring up at the stars with curiosity and wonder ever since she was a child growing up in the Canadian Rockies, when camping and hiking excursions meant plenty of weekends spent in the back country, where she’d gaze at the sky. Watching TV shows like Star Trek and Stargate SG-1 with her mom made things even clearer for her: Space was calling, and she’d answer by making it her life’s work. Today, Panek is a mission systems engineer in robotics and automation at Canada’s MDA Corp. outside Toronto, where her team is building the chassis and locomotion system for the European Space Agency’s 2018 ExoMars Rover. Of course, it's easy for stories like hers to get lost amid the breathless news coverage of the space industry today. The central figure in that narrative is often a certain space-obsessed male billionaire whose private company's rocket has pulled off an extraordinary landing, and who captures our imagination with ambitions to make space travel eventually commonplace. When Panek isn't helping build and test rovers, she says, she's working hard to make sure women see reflections of themselves in her industry. "We live in an age where what we see and hear in the media is hugely influential," Panek says. "Having positive role models in the media can change the game and allow young people to see engineering and technology as fields that are attainable by anyone." She points to prominent women in the field like Dava Newman, the recently appointed deputy administrator of NASA; European Space Agency astronaut Samantha Cristoforetti; and Gwynne Shotwell, the president and COO of SpaceX. Panek also relishes the chance to share her own story, which is one reason she’s set up her website, thepanekroom.com, to talk about her work, her adventures, and philosophy about the field. "We need to inspire girls at a young age to see the potential in science, engineering, technology, and math fields," Panek says. "The second part of the problem is retaining women in STEM fields throughout their careers, which means stopping the leaky pipeline that’s so common. It's not enough to talk about record enrollment in engineering or computer science courses in university. A wider perspective is necessary, which looks at the statistics regarding women advancing in their careers into leadership, director-level, and board-level positions." Dr. Lucianne Walkowicz, an astronomer at the Adler Planetarium in Chicago, likewise sees diversity in her industry as imperative—not just as a good unto itself, but one with plenty of research to back up the benefits. She points to a report on recruiting women into technical positions that was prepared by the Anita Borg Institute. Among its findings: That there are "consistent blind spots in recruiting and hiring practices" that manifest themselves in things like narrow recruitment criteria, hiring processes that are implicitly biased, and a lack of organizational infrastructure to support diversity efforts. The paper recommends steps like setting up blind resume screening processes; showcasing technical women during the interview process; and requiring that every open technical position has a viable female candidate. "I'm always surprised that people from science and engineering will bring their best data and technical chops to tackle scientific and engineering challenges, but then, when it comes to improving the diversity of their workforce, they often act like there's no research to inform what their approach should be," Walkowicz says. "The research exists, both on recruiting and on the myriad benefits of diverse teams. We owe it to scientific progress to do better in this regard, so that we can bring the brightest and most capable minds into unlocking the secrets of our universe." Walkowicz's own interest in the field was piqued early when she fell in love with chemistry and physics in high school. She wanted a career that combined both of them, and in the summer after her junior year of high school, she participated in a research program at the New York Academy of Sciences that would point the way. She worked in a physics lab there during the week. "When the summer was over, I asked the woman who matched students to their host labs whether she knew if anyone would work with me during the school year. She suggested that astronomy might be something that would combine the sciences I liked. I went to work with a professor at New York University who studied the chemistry of planetary atmospheres, and I was hooked." As an astronomer today, there’s both a research and a public education component to her work. The research part includes things like writing computer code to analyze data, and writing papers that convey what she’s learned. On the public side, sometimes she’s speaking with planetarium guests. Last fall, she participated in the first Adler Galaxy Ride, a biking science road show from Chicago to St. Louis that included putting on free pop-up science events in cities and towns along the way. She’s also working on a new project called the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST), which she says is "the flagship observatory for the next decade of astronomy." "The telescope itself is currently being built down in Chile, but there’s a lot to do to prepare for it," Walkowicz says. "I coordinate our science collaborations, the community of hundreds of scientists who will eventually use this amazing telescope to tackle some of the most challenging scientific questions we face. I also recently became the director of the LSST Data Science Fellowship Program; these schools will teach junior astronomers the skills they need to use the deluge of LSST data." Vinita Marwaha Madill, a consultant in space engineering and STEM outreach and the founder of Rocket Women, a website focused on women and space, likewise wants to encourage more women to enter the field. Madill's career included stints as an engineering manager leading the Intelligent Transportation Systems Engineering Team in Canada, and as an International Space Station operations engineer at the German Aerospace Center, among other things. "Being a consultant, my typical day varies, depending on the projects I’m working on," Madill says, "from writing a parabolic flight grant proposal, to explaining the nuances of Apollo era spacesuit design—and even discussing diversity." Her fascination with space goes back to when she was 6 and growing up in London, when she learned about Helen Sharman, a chemist and the first British astronaut, who flew to Mir. Her parents also helped, taking her to places like the National Space Center in Leicester, England, on the weekends. One suggestion she has for how to encourage more young women to think about careers in space, science, and related fields that involve technology is to focus on the impact of that technology on people. She points to the design of a satellite, which "as my brilliant and late International Space University professor put it, is ‘an ugly white box.’" Nevertheless, she goes on, initiatives around the world are being pursued to spread affordable Internet access through constellations of micro satellites, giving rural communities a chance at high-speed Internet access and access to better education and knowledge. "The impact of the project," she says, "is where I believe you can inspire an increasing number of girls to study engineering and space." On Rocket Women, she posts interviews with women around the world in STEM fields, especially space-related, as well as advice to encourage girls to become involved in STEM. "Watching Helen Sharman’s Soyuz launch on BBC News at a young age, and knowing that there had been a British female astronaut, helped me push through any negativity around my chosen career path when I was younger," Madill says. "I knew that I wanted to be an astronaut, or at least work in human space flight. And eventually I did. But I wouldn’t have had that impetus and drive if I hadn’t known that someone had come before me. There had been a female British astronaut, and maybe there could be again. It was possible. Through featuring advice and stories of women in STEM, I want Rocket Women to give other girls and women that same realization."


Clement G.,University of Lyon | Terlevic R.,International Space University
NeuroReport | Year: 2016

We investigated whether the perceived angular velocity following velocity steps of 80°/s in the dark decreased with the repetition of the stimulation in the same direction. The perceptual response to velocity steps in the opposite direction was also compared before and after this unidirectional habituation training. Participants indicated their perceived angular velocity by clicking on a wireless mouse every time they felt that they had rotated by 90°. The prehabituation perceptual response decayed exponentially with a time constant of 23.9 s. After 100 velocity steps in the same direction, this time constant was 12.9 s. The time constant after velocity steps in the opposite direction was 13.4 s, indicating that the habituation of the sensation of rotation is not direction specific. The peak velocity of the perceptual response was not affected by the habituation training. The differences between the habituation characteristics of self-motion perception and eye movements confirm that different velocity storage mechanisms mediate ocular and perceptual responses. © 2016 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.


Clement G.,International Space University | Demel M.,International Space University
Neuroscience Letters | Year: 2012

This experiment investigated whether the perception of depth-reversible figures is altered when the observer is in microgravity or hypergravity. A set of five bi-stable ambiguous figures was presented to ten participants in 1. g, 0. g, and 1.8. g during parabolic flight. The figures included static images such as the Necker cube; kinetic depth displays such as a moving plaid and a sphere cluster of moving dots appearing to rotate in one of two directions; and a silhouette photograph. For each stimulus figure, subjects reported which of the two possible perceptual configurations they saw first and then continuously indicated when perceptual reversals occurred for durations ranging from 20 to 30. s. The same first percept was reported in 1. g, 0. g, and 1.8. g. The time delay for the first reversal between the two possible image interpretations was longer and the number of reversals was fewer in 0. g as compared to 1. g for four of the five figures. The opposite effects were seen when going from 0. g to 1.8. g. These findings confirm that, consistent with a multisensory approach to three-dimensional form perception, gravity has a clear effect on the interpretation of depth-based stimuli and this gravity-based component interferes with visual perception stability. © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: SPA.2012.2.2-02 | Award Amount: 2.63M | Year: 2013

The main objective of the SHEE project is the exploration of an effective integration of architecture and robotics for space applications. The goal is to develop a robotically-deployable habitat design introducing generic principles which would help in defining main themes for further development of the standards for robotics integrated into the architecture regarding safety and for the development and design of larger robotic structures. Self-deployable autonomous habitats are needed in particular in extreme environments without infrastructure and heavy machinery. The SHEE type of habitat will provide significant background for further development and evolution of extra-terrestrial habitable structures and will provide a methodology and results that can be translated into more normal conditions, to achieving a more efficient, high-tech sector on earth. The final product will have a form of an example of a functional habitat for further testing and development. The concept is developed with a vision to correspond with an analogue testing habitat. The results of the SHEE project will be applicable in both space and terrestrial conditions, such as in extreme environments on Earth or during disaster mitigation.


Clement G.,International Space University | Ngo-Anh J.T.,European Space Agency
European Journal of Applied Physiology | Year: 2013

Experiments performed in orbit on the central nervous system have focused on the control of posture, eye movements, spatial orientation, as well as cognitive processes, such as three-dimensional visual perception and mental representation of space. Brain activity has also been recorded during and immediately after space flight for evaluating the changes in brain structure activation during tasks involving perception, attention, memory, decision, and action. Recent ground-based studies brought evidence that the inputs from the neurovestibular system also participate in orthostatic intolerance. It is, therefore, important to revisit the flight data of neuroscience studies in the light of new models of integrative physiology. The outcomes of this exercise will increase our knowledge on the adaptation of body functions to changing gravitational environment, vestibular disorders, aging, and our approach towards more effective countermeasures during human space flight and planetary exploration. © 2012 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.


Pelton J.,International Space University
IEEE Communications Magazine | Year: 2010

The article following is perhaps unique among the many papers published thus far in this column. It covers not only the development of some of the technology required to turn the dream of commercial satellite communications into reality, but describes the policy decisions and politics involved in making this happen in the United States and elsewhere in the world as well. Policy questions raised and discussed include, first, the question of whether satellite communications in the United States should be government-run or a commercial enterprise; followed by the issue of how control should be manifested in international communication satellites. These policy questions in modern times are probably unique to satellite communication systems. Joe Pelton, the author, is well positioned to write an account of the early days of satellite communications in all of its ramifications, in both the policy and technical areas, having been present and working at Comsat Corporation, as well as later at Intelsat, during much of the period under discussion. We plan to follow this article with one focusing more on the communication technologies developed at Comsat during the early days of satellite communications. That article will be written by one of the engineers working at Comsat at the time. In the meantime, I am sure all readers will enjoy this article. Note that a number of readers of previous articles in this column have responded with letters to the editor commenting on, or expanding on, those articles. We urge you to send in your comments and or/questions about this article or any of the earlier articles as well. © 2010 IEEE.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CSA-SA | Phase: SPA.2009.2.4.01 | Award Amount: 741.07K | Year: 2010

The general objective of the current project is to create the necessary conditions for utilizing the existing and emerging potential of the consortium partners in Nordic-Baltic dimension for continuous and sustainable contribution in major on-going and planned European space programmes. There is urgent need in emerging space countries for national space programme. For emerging space countries it could be primarily financed by the ESA PECS Charter but also by key governmental agencies. The NordicBaltSat has mission-oriented approach to build a bridge for successful integration into space industry in Europe. As a result of this project and as an overall impact emerging space countries are expected to raise their space capacities in order to access to ESA and to have contribution to European space programmes in future. There are several specific actions contributing to achieve the objectives of the project. The main actions intend to chart space potential and create joint technology programme; to build capacity and develop cooperation between emerging space countries and ESA; and to shape national space governance systems in emerging space countries. The activities include also dissemination and exploitation. These actions will enhance the potential of FP7 States to make a continuous and sustainable contribution to major on-going and planned European space programs. Capacity building and cooperation promotion between emerging space countries and ESA will strengthen the relationship with ESA and it also gives opportunity for future cooperation and adhesion to ESA. The actions will foster dialogue and debate on space science and research with the public beyond the research community, aiming at embracing a new generation of scientists and engineers.

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